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Detty Iryani Bagian Pendidikan Kedokteran Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Detty Iryani Bagian Pendidikan Kedokteran Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Detty Iryani Bagian Pendidikan Kedokteran Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

2 STANDAR PENDIDIKAN PROFESI DOKTER  KKI, tahun 2006  Bab II, 2.3. Struktur, komposisi dan durasi kurikulum  Kurikulum dilaksanakan dengan pendekatan/ strategi SPICES (Student- centred, Problem-based, Integrated, Communitybased, Elective/ Early clinical Exposure, Systematic

3 tudent-centered roblem-based ntegrated ommunity-based lective ystematic eacher-centered nformation gathering iscipline-based ospital-based ore pprenticenship

4 Perbedaan Pembelajaran Teacher Centered Learning (TCL) dengan Student Centered Learning (SCL) TEACHER CENTERED LEARNING STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING Berpusat pada guru/dosen. Dosen yang aktif memberikan pengetahuan Berpusat pada mahasiswa. Mahasiswa yang aktif mendapatkan Pengetahuan, keterampilan Sesuai untuk mengembangkan ilmu dalam satu disiplin saja Sesuai untuk pengembangan ilmu dengan pendekatan secara interdisipliner Iklim pembelajaran lebih individualis dan kompetitif Iklim pembelajaran lebih kolaboratif, supportif dan kooperatif Hanya mahasiswa yang dianggap melakukan proses pembelajaran Mahasiswa dan dosen belajar bersama dalam mengembangkan pengetahuan, konsep dan keterampilan Dosen bertindak sebagai instruktur dan pembuat keputusan dalam pembelajaran Dosen bertindak sebagai fasilitator dalam pembelajaran, mahasiswa yang membuat keputusan

5 Perbedaan Pembelajaran Teacher Centered Learning (TCL) dengan Student Centered Learning (SCL) TEACHER CENTERED LEARNING STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING Penekanan pada tuntasnya materiPenekanan pada pencapaian Kompetensi anak didik Penekanan pada bagaimana cara dosen mengajarkan Penekanan pada bagaimana cara Mahasiswa belajar dengan Menggunakan berbagai sumber untuk mencapai kompetensi Menekankan pada jawaban yang benar saja Penekanan pada proses Pengembangan pengetahuan Perkuliahan adalah kegiatan belajar yang utama Perkuliahan hanya salah satu kegiatan belajar, mahasiswa dapat belajar dari berbagai sumber lain

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7 Reasons for Changes General Reasons Cognitive Psychology Educational Background

8 Curriculum: learning objectives (competencies), L&T approach, assessment & learning environment should be evaluated & revised Science & technology Information & Communication Changes in community perception & knowledge to health issues Globalization High competitiveness High quality graduates: scientist- professional, lifelong learner, sensitive, creative, independent, innovative, critical thinking, ethics Reasons for Changes General Reasons

9 Reasons for Changes  Constructivism theory  Adult Learning  Shifting paradigm from teaching to learning  Research on learning formats Educational Background

10 Reasons for Changes  Constructivism theory Educational Background

11 Reasons for Changes Constructivism of learning:  Knowledge is constructed from experience  Learning is a personal interpretation of the world  Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience  Conceptual growths comes from the negotiation of meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning  Learning should be situated in realistic settings; testing should be integrated with the task and not a separate activity Educational Background

12 Reasons for Changes  Adult Learning Educational Background

13 >16 th ? Age ? Psikologis Tidak terikat orang lain Mandiri Bertanggungjawab Dapat mengambil keputusan sendiri ? Biologis Tanda kelamin sekunder Definition Adult

14 Adult learning Characteristics (Malcolm Knowles) 1. Adults are autonomous and self-directed 2. Adults have accumulated a foundation of life experiences and knowledge 4. Adults are relevancy-oriented 3. Adults are practical

15 Andragogy Characteristics (Malcolm Knowles) 5. Adults are goal-oriented 6. Adults need to be shown respect

16 Adult learning theory Tasks should be relevant for the learner, motivation Learner is involved in setting educational goals Practice of all the skills Laidley & Braddock, 2000

17 Adult learning theory Learning is within capacity of the learner Regular feedback is provided The learner can reflect on experiences

18 AsumsiPedagogiAndragogi Konsep pembelajar Bergantung pada guru (pasif) Independen/self- directed (aktif) Peran guru/dosenFigur otoritasPembimbing & fasilitator Peran prior know- ledge pembelajar Lebih banyak ditambah daripada digunakan sebagai sumber belajar Sebagai sumber yang kaya untuk pembelajaran Kesiapan untuk belajar Uniform dalam tingkat dan kurikulum Berkembang dari tugas dan masalah Orientasi pembelajaran Berpusat pada subyekBerpusat pada masalah/ tugas kontekstual MotivasiEksternal, reward & punishment Insentif internal dan sikap ingin tahu

19 Reasons for Changes  Shifting paradigm from teaching to learning Educational Background

20  Teacher centered  Knowledge transfer  Reinforces passiveness  Teachers provide answers  Teachers direct students  Student centered  Knowledge acquisition  Reinforces activeness  Teachers ask questions  Teachers guide students Teaching vs learning

21 Reasons for Changes  Research on learning formats Educational Background

22 The Learning Pyramid Teach others Lecture Discussion group Demonstration Audiovisual Reading Practice by doing 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 80% Average Retention Rate National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine, USA

23 Reasons for Changes  Expertise research  Problem solving Cognitive Psychology

24 Reasons for Changes  Expertise research  Problem solving Cognitive Psychology

25 Novice Expert Cognitive Psychology

26 Problem solving Content specific General skill

27 Working environment The Learner The learner Professional Tasks Competencies Learning needs Working environment Educational objectives Learner evaluation Learning activities Systematic Educational Planning Program evaluation Fasilitator

28 Tugas, peran dan fungsi seorang dokter dalam UKM dan UKP Strata pertama Komponen kompetensi yang dibutuhkan untuk melaksanakan tugas, fungsi dan peran seorang dokter dalam UKM dan UKP Strata pertama Kemampuan yang harus dikuasai agar kompeten dalam melaksanakan tugas, fungsi dan peran seorang dokter dalam UKM dan UKP strata pertama PENDIDIKAN DOKTER PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM

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30 Definition of PBL an active learning stimulated by, and focused round a clinical, community or scientific problem (Davis and Harden, 1999) Students work on the problem which is explicitly used to get students themselves to identify and search for the knowledge, that they need to obtain in order to approach the problem (Ross, 1991)

31 Definition of PBL instructional method characterized by the use of patient problems as a context for students to learn problem-solving skills and acquire knowledge about the basic and clinical sciences (Albanese&Mitchell, 1993) Faculty objectives are translated into a problem, usually consisting of a set of phenomena in need of some kind of explanation. Students analyse these problems, attempting to understand the underlying principles or processes through small- group discussion. During discussion, questions which remain unanswered are identified. These questions or learning issues serve as a guide for independent and self-directed learning (Dolman, 1994)

32 Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Suatu strategi pembelajaran: menggunakan masalah sebagai stimulus untuk menemukan atau mendapatkan informasi yang diperlukan untuk memahami dan mencari solusinya

33 Characteristics of PBL  small group discussions on  interdisciplinary problems with  enough time for self study and  parallel training in skills

34 PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING CONCEPT MAP Problem Based Learning Authentic Learning Self Directed Learner Responsibilities Outcomes Research Format Collaborative Problem Characteristics Is Has Is RequiresHas Follows A

35 Tutorial as intervention media for learning facilitation

36 Tutorial dalam konteks PBL adalah suatu active learning process dalam diskusi kelompok kecil  distimulasi oleh suatu problem (skenario)  mengaktifkan prior knowledge mahasiswa  difasilitasi oleh seorang tutor  dipimpin oleh seorang mahasiswa yang terpilih  dibantu oleh seorang sekretaris yang terpilih Untuk mencapai tujuan belajar melalui aktivitas terstruktur yang disebut seven-jump Peran tutorial

37 SEVEN JUMPS  STEP 1. Clarify Unfamiliar Terms  STEP 2. Define the PROBLEM (s)  STEP 3. Brainstorm Possible Hypothesis or Explanation  STEP 4. Arrange Explanation into a Tentative Solution  STEP 5. Define Learning Objective  STEP 6. Information Gathering and Private Study  STEP 7. Share the Results of Information Gathering and Private Study

38 TUTOR PROBLEMSTUDENT Tutorial group process

39 Implementasi pendidikan di FK-Unand  Tahapan pendidikan : Pendidikan tahap akademik (7 semester) ○ Di kampus FK Pendidikan tahap profesi (3 semester) ○ Di RS Pendidikan dan jejaring (rotasi I dan II) Internship ○ Di wahana internship

40 Kegiatan pembelajaran di tahap akademik 1. Tutorial 2. Belajar mandiri 3. Skills lab 4. Diskusi pleno 5. Praktikum ilmu dasar 6. Konsultasi pakar 7. Diskusi kelompok kecil tanpa tutor

41 Metode Student Assessment di tahap akademik 1. Kognitif : MCQ, PAQ, oral, SOCA, Progres test 2. Proses : Check list 3. Skills : Check list, OSCE 4. Afektif : Observasi, Check list 5. Logbook, Portofolio 6. Feedback (evaluasi formatif)

42 Kegiatan pembelajaran di tahap profesi 1. Bedside teaching 2. Case report session 3. Meet the expert 4. Bertugas di poliklinik dan ruang rawat inap 5. Tutorial tahap klinik

43 Metode Student Assessment di tahap profesi 1. Logbook, portofolio 2. Shortcase, longcase 3. MiniCex, OSCE 4. Feed back (evaluasi formatif)

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