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INTERAKSI SELULER DAN ORGANOGENESIS Ita DJUWITA. I.Pengertian organogenesis II.Proses & mekanisme pembentukan organ III.Interaksi dan diferensiasi seluler.

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Presentasi berjudul: "INTERAKSI SELULER DAN ORGANOGENESIS Ita DJUWITA. I.Pengertian organogenesis II.Proses & mekanisme pembentukan organ III.Interaksi dan diferensiasi seluler."— Transcript presentasi:

1 INTERAKSI SELULER DAN ORGANOGENESIS Ita DJUWITA

2 I.Pengertian organogenesis II.Proses & mekanisme pembentukan organ III.Interaksi dan diferensiasi seluler IV.Ekspresi gen & pengaruh lingkungan V.Fenotipe, fenokopi, pleiotropism dan letal VI.Malformasi kongenital dan faktor-faktor penyebabnya Sub Pokok Bahasan: IDW

3 PERKEMBANGAN MAHLUK HIDUP (DEVELOPMENT) Proses secara keseluruhan meng perubahan embrio menjadi fetus – lahir, yg melibatkan a. Pertumbuhan/ Growth (Pembelahan sel) b. Pergerakan & Migrasi Sel (Cell Movement) c. Diferensiasi sel (Cell Differentiation) Ketiga proses berjalan secara overlapping pada saat bersamaan IDW

4 Proses Perkembangan mahluk hidup IDW

5

6 a. Pertumbuhan, Terjadi penambahan jumlah sel (bahan inti dan sitoplasma) b. Pergerakan sel, Didalam tubuh, jaringan & organ menempati lokasi yg spesifik. Utk mencapai lokasi tsb sel-sel embrio harus bergerak; migrasi dgn cara yg terprogram. c. Diferensiasi sel, Setelah menempati posisi baru, sel akan berdiferensiasi menjadi sel, jaringan atau organ utk menjalankan fungsi ttt berdasark lokasi didalam tubuh IDW

7 Morfogenesis  Perubahan bentuk eksternal Organogenesis  Perkembangan organ-organ (the making of organs) I. PENGERTIAN ORGANOGENESIS – MORFOGENESIS The formation of the products of the neural tube, neural crest cells, the somites, and all of the rest of the cells which develop from the three germinal layers IDW

8 Organogenesis is the especially initial formation of organs starting with less differentiated tissues found in the early embryo. IDW Websters: "The origin and development of bodily organs."

9 Websters: "The origin and development of bodily organs." Pattern & Calson, 1974

10 II. PROSES & MEKANISME ORGANOGENESIS / MORFOGENESIS 1. Apa yang menginisiasi terjadinya proses organogenesis/ morfogenesis ? 2. Bagaimana proses dan mekanisme organogenesis/ morfogenesis ? IDW

11 1. INISIASI proses organogenesis Pd Gastrulasi terjadi  perubahan bentuk & pergerakan sel-sel 3 lapis daun kecambah (primary germinal layers) (ektoderm, endoderm, mesoderm, archenteron/ gastrosul) menurunkan jaringan & organ-organ Gastrulasi  inisiasi morfogenesis & organogenesis. IDW

12 Ke-3 daun kecambah akan menurunkan Empat (4) jaringan utama : jaringan saraf jaringan otot jaringan penghubung jaringan epitelial IDW There is no one-to-one correspondence between germinal layer origin and primary tissue type.

13 Endoderm  utamanya, jaringan epitelial. The endoderm secara spesifik menurunkan: saluran digesti paru-paru liver vesika urinaria germ cells IDW

14 Endoderm IDW

15 Mesoderm  jar otot dan penghubung, jaringan epitelial The mesoderm secara spesifik menurunkan, skeleton otot-otot skeletal tulang kepala dan rahang mesoderm  somit-somit  segmentasi tubuh which divide bodies into cross sections which may be stacked, for example, from head to toe. In vertebrates the somites are originally found adjacent to the notochord and then give rise to such things as ribs and skeletal muscles. IDW

16 Ectoderm  utamanya jaringan saraf beberapa jaringan epitelial Secara spesifik  membentuk: otak sumsum punggung sistem saraf tepi kulit rambut mata Earlier in development the mesoderm also gives rise to the epidermis, neural tube, and neural crest, from which these later structures develop IDW

17 Bagaimana embrio 1 sel (Zigot) dapat berkembang menjadi ORGANISME MULTISELULER? 2. MEKANISME proses perkembangan termasuk organogenesis a. Pertumbuhan/ Growth (Pembelahan sel) b. Pergerakan & Migrasi Sel (Cell Movement) c. Diferensiasi sel (Cell Differentiation) IDW

18 b. Migrasi sel: menuju tempat yg spesifik PETA TAKDIR  right place right time POSISI SEL Cell migration The movement of cells which were born in one place to a different place in the embryo or fetus. The addition of new cells of the same type to existing sites. IDW

19 PETA TAKDIR  Masing sel memiliki takdir sendiri di tempat akhir TOTIPOTENSI Migrasi / gerakan CELL POSITION  Di lokasi akhir akan terjadi induksi dan diferensiasi  Jaringan dan organ-organ tertentu Utk mengemban fungsi tertentu IDW UNIPOTENSI

20 Pada hewan, pergerakan sel / sekelompok sel sangat penting utk mentransformasi embrio kedalam bentuk 3 dimensi  Basic body plan Sumbu tubuh: Kepala - ekor; kiri - kanan; depan - belakang (Body pattern formation) Perkembangan jaringan & organ  tersusun pada tempat yg spesifik. Posisi sel IDW

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22 Posisi sel mempengaruhi peta takdir & derivatnya Induksi: mempengaruhi terjadinya diferensiasi e.g., posisi notokorda  induksi ektoderm disebelahnya  membentuk lempeng saraf IDW

23 Notokorda Ektoderm Buluh saraf Contoh: IDW

24 Programmed cell death / apoptosis : The removal of cells from existing sites. Note that very often structures are produced within larger cellular structures, and completion of the structure requires some means of removal of the excess cells. For example, the development of fingers involves the removal of the tissue (webs) initially found between the forming digits. A variation on right place-right time. Chemical concentration gradients help determine relative position. IDW

25 1.Molekul (mRNA) dr maternal dalam sitoplasma sel embrio akan memicu proses transkripsi dr genom embrio c. Inisiasi Diferensiasi, diatur oleh 2.Signal yg dikode oleh genom dari sel embrio lainnya akan menginduksi target sel Sitoplasma sel telur mengandung mRNA, protein & bahan-bahan lainnya yg berasal dr maternal  berpengaruh thdp awal perkembangan embrio IDW

26 Differentiation: The changing of the protein expression pattern of cells in the course of their individual development and division. Differentiation very often is irreversible. That is, embryonic cells typically may become more specialized, but similarly typically more specialized (differentiated) cells are not well equipped to become less specialized. Diferensiasi terjadi pd tingkat molekuler krn adanya ekspresi gen utk menghasilkan protein tertentu; misalnya: sel otot  aktin & miosin IDW

27 Lingkungan di sekitar sel mengandung informasi (signal) berupa molekul kimiawi yg dikode oleh gen embrio  molekul dikirim ke sel target sehingga mengakibatkan perubahan pd sel target  proses induksi Induksi terjadi : - difusi molekul signal dan - interaksi permukaan sel IDW

28 III. INTERAKSI dan DIFERENSIASI SEL 1.Difusi substansi: bekerja intraseluler Hormon, growth factor, morfogen 2. Interaksi permukaan sel Interaksi dan induki diferensiasi sel terjadi, melalui: IDW

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30 Struktur membran sel, mengandung : 1. mol adesi sel 2. mol adesi substrat 3. mol junctional sel 4. mol reseptor Permukaan membran sel berubah sejalan waktu dan tempat IDW

31 Contoh model diferensiasi IDW

32

33 Setiap sel memiliki komplemen penuh, DNA  Dalam organisme, sel-sel yg berbeda memiliki DNA yg sama. Gen tertentu dalam beberapa sel harus ON dan pada sel lain OFF. IV. EKSPRESI GEN DAN PENGARUH LINGKUNGAN Diferensiasi dikontrol oleh program genetik & dapat dimodifikasi oleh faktor lingkungan IDW

34 Dua faktor utama sel yang mengatur aktivasi gen pada proses perkembangan Bagaimana Gen tertentu dalam beberapa sel harus ON dan pada sel lain OFF 1. Bahan Inti / NUCLEUS 2. Bahan SITOPLASMA

35 CELL NUCLEUS CHROMOSOME GENOME/ GENES/ DNA

36 Pengaturan Ekspresi Gen

37 Sel somatis pd mamalia memiliki 2 copy genome (diploid) Kontribusi nyata yg diberikan induk jantan & betina pada anak-anaknya  berbeda-beda Bagaimana gen yang diwariskan dr maternal & paternal berbeda ekspresi ? Terjadi switch off (silencing) pd salah satu copy gen induk Genomic Imprinting

38 IDW

39 Pd setiap generasi harus mampu di HAPUS (Off) dan BENTUK (On) Genomic Imprinting, suatu proses EPIGENETIK yg dinamis, yg terlibat dalam pengaturan ekspresi sebagian kecil gen dari genome mamalia melalui proses modifikasi STRUKTUR DNA Memberikan efek terhadap fenotip

40 Epigenetic reprogramming in germ cells is critical for imprinting, and reprogramming in early embryos also affects imprinting. In germline cells the imprint is erased, and then re- established according to the sex of the individual; i.e. in the developing sperm, a paternal imprint is established, whereas in developing oocytes, a maternal imprint is established. The process of erase and reprogramming is necessary such that the current imprinting status is relevant to the sex of the individual.reprogramming

41 1. Modifikasi Asetilasi Histoneistone 2. Modifikasi Metilasi DNA Ada 2 mekanisme utama yg terlibat dalam terjadinya imprinting, yakni:

42 (Aktif transkripsi) 1. Asetilasi HISTONE

43 Asetilasi residu lisine pd posisi terminus dr protein histone menghilangkan muatan positif  mengurangi afinitas protein histon ke DNAhistone Enzim polimerase RNA polymerase dan faktor transkripsi lebih mudah berikatan pada promoter Umumnya, asetilasi histon memicu transkripsi; deasetilasi histon menekan transkripsi

44 Acetylation (or ethanoylation): reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into an organic compound.acetylfunctional group organic compound Deacetylation is the removal of the acetyl group. Introducing an acetyl group into a compound, the substitution of an acetyl group for an active hydrogen atom. hydrogen A reaction involving the replacement of the hydrogen atom of a hydroxyl group with an acetyl group (CH3 CO) yields a specific ester, the acetate. Acetic anhydride is commonly used as an acetylating agent reacting with free hydroxyl groups.hydroxylesteracetate Acetic anhydride

45 Acetylation of proteins In biology, i.e. in living cells, acetylation occurs as a post-translational modification of proteins, for example, histones and tubulins.cellspost-translational modificationproteinshistonestubulins Histone Acetylation and Deacetylation In histone acetylation and deacetylation, the histones are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail as part of gene regulation.histone acetylation and deacetylation lysine gene regulation Typically, these reactions are catalyzed by enzymes with "histone acetyltransferase" (HAt) or "histone deacetylase" (HDAc OR HDs) activity. enzymeshistone deacetylase

46 Several different forms of HATs and HDs have been identified. Among them, CBP/p300 is probably the most important, since it can interact with numerous transcription regulators.CBP/p300

47 Pd embrio preimplantasi terjadi perubahan mayor melalui mekanisme imprinting yakni metilasi DNA Perubahan metilasi DNA diwariskan secara stabil melalui pembelahan sel shg akan tetap sampai tahap fetus. 2. Modifikasi Metilasi DNA

48 METILASI DNA Penambahan CH3 pada cytosine  Silencing Gene Expression Metilasi residu cytosine  5-methylcytosine Deaminasi 5-methylcytosine  thymine. deaminasi metilasi

49 Jika terjadi kerusakan/ gangguan dalam proses atau pemeliharaan imprinting pd masa perkembangan embrio preimplantasi (kultur atau manipulasi embrio), dapat mengakibatkan: - Fetal Loss atau - Large Offspring Syndrome. Pola Metilasi DNA di-program kembali (reprogramming) pada 2 periode perkembangan, yakni: - pada germ cells - pad embrio preimplantation

50 Methylation is a process that is used to control gene expression, and it is what determines the timing of gene expression (as in embryologic development, in which genes are turned on and off in a sequential fashion), inactivation of an X-chromosome in a female ("Lyonization"), and, in mammals, differential expression of certain genes depending upon whether they are maternally- or paternally-derived ("genomic imprinting").

51 DNA METHYLATION After replication, daughter strands of fully methylated DNA are hemimethylated (reaction 3) and the original pattern of DNA methylation is maintained by the DNA methyltransferase (reaction 2), which preferentially methylates the cytosine residues at hemimethylated CpG sites. Further replication without methylation of the hemimethylated DNA results in fully unmethylated DNA (reaction 4). De novo methylation (reaction 1) is also considered to be mediated by the DNA methyltransferase, although the efficiency of de novo methylation is low. (Goto and Monk, 1998)

52 Regulation The grouping of imprinted genes within clusters allows them to share common regulatory elements, such as non- coding RNAs and differentially methylated regions (DMRs). When these regulatory elements control the imprinting of several genes in a given region, they are known as imprinting control regions (ICR). The expression of non-coding RNAs, such as Air on mouse chromosome 17 and KCNQ1OT1 on human chromosome 11p15.5, have been shown to be essential for the imprinting of genes in their corresponding regions.

53 GEN: Fragmen DNA yg mengkode suatu polipeptida LOKUS : Lokasi gen pada kromosom Kepentingan Lokus: Terapi gen & Rekayasa gen Perbedaan antara linked & Unlinked Gene: Linked gen: terletak pada kromosom yg sama; Unllinked gen: terletak pada kromosom yang berbeda. V. FENOTIPE, FENOKOPI, PLEIOTROPISM IDW

54 GEN, Individu diploid memiliki maks 2 Alel Jk kedua alel sama  organisme disebut HOMOZYGOUS Jk kedua alel beda  HEROZYGOUS. Hubungan antara GEN, ALLEL, & TRAITS (karakter) GEN mempresentasikan traits ALLELES = GENOTYPE  PHENOTYPE T,t Tinggi tanaman T=tinggi / t=pendek Interaksi ALEL akan menentukan karakter IDW

55 FENOKOPI  keadaan fenotipe yg dipengaruhi oleh faktor eksternal PLEIOTROPISM  gen tunggal yg memiliki multi efek IDW

56 VI. MALFORMASI KONGENITAL dan FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENYEBAB MALFORMASI KONGENITAL PENGERTIAN MALFORMASI KONGENITAL PERIODE KRITIS DARI PERKEMBANGAN TERATOLOGI FAKTOR PENYEBAB MALFORMASI IDW

57 PENGERTIAN MALFORMASI KONGENITAL Katogori luas  "Congenital disorders"  meliputi berbagai kondisi: Minor physical anomalies (e.g., a birthmark),birthmark Severe malformations of single systems (e.g.,malformations congenital heart disease or dysmelia),heart diseasedysmelia Kombinations of abnormalities affecting several parts of the body. Congenital defects of metabolism Ada 3 tipe utama congenital disorders: 1.Congenital physical anomalies 2.inborn errors of metabolismnborn errors of metabolism 3.Other genetic disorders IDW

58 PENGERTIAN MALFORMASI KONGENITAL Congenital physical anomaly  abnormalitas struktur dari suatu bagian tubuh. Anomali  menjdi atau tidak menjadi masalah Umumnya orang memiliki 1 atau lebih anomali fisik IDW

59 Contoh anomali fisik: - Anomali minor  kurvatura pd jari kelima (clinodactyly)clinodactyly - preauricular pits),preauricular pits - Pemendekan tulang metacarpal / metatarsal ke-4metacarpalmetatarsal - dimples over the lower spine (sac dimples).sac dimples Bbrp anomali minor  indikasi adanya internal anomali yg signifikan IDW

60 Malformasi kongenital  jk anomali fisik bersifat hebat  cacat struktur  masalah malformation syndrome.syndrome  Kombinasi malformasi  mempengarhi > 1 bagian tubuh Birth defect (Cacat lahir)  istilah umum utk congenital malformation, i.e. anomali fisik yg dikenali sehak lahir & secara nyata merupakan masalah IDW

61 Genetic disorder / diseases Semua mrpk kongenital, walaupun tidak tampak / terekspresi Genetic diseases, dibagi dalam : Single-gene defects, multiple-gene disorders, atau chromosomal defects. Single-gene defects: akibat abnormalitas gen autosomal (2 kopi/ recessive disorder) atau (1 kopi/ dominant disorder). autosomalrecessive dominant Bbrp akibat delesi atau abnormalitas beberapa gen pada 1 kromosom IDW

62 Chromosomal disorders: hilangnya atau duplikasi sebagian besar kromosom (ratusan gen) atau kromosom intak (utuh) Mempengaruhi bbrp bagian tubuh yg berbeda atau sistem organ Congenital metabolic disease: disebut inborn error of metabolism.inborn error of metabolism Umumnya defek gen tunggal (diturunkan)  mempengaruhi struktur atau fungsi bagian tubuh IDW

63 Congenital disorder  kondisi medis yg tampak saat lahir. Namun sebenarnya dapat dikenali sejak prenatal, saat lahir atau saat dewasa atau tidak sama sekali Congenital disorders  Dapat diakibatkan oleh: Abnormalitas genetik Kondisi lingkungan intrauterineintrauterine Errors pd morphogenesis, ataumorphogenesis Unknown factors. Congenital conditions  Dapat merupakan suatu: Penyakit, defek, disorders, anomalies, atau perbedaan/variasi genetik IDW

64 Teratology (from the Greek τέρ ᾰ ς (genitive τέρ ᾰ τος),Greekgenitive  monster, atau marvel and λόγος, Abad ke17  sesuatu yg tampak aneh/ abnormal Abad ke19  berkaitan dgn biological deformities medical study  teratogenesis, congenital malformationscongenital malformations atau individu dgn kelainan bentuk makroskopis. Dysmorphology  the study of abnormal form. IDW

65 PERIODE KRITIS PERKEMBANGAN IDW

66 1.Endogenous 2.Exogenous 3.Multifactorial Inheritance FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENYEBAB MALFORMASI KONGENITAL IDW

67 Defek CNS Berdasarkan Waktu Terjadinya A.Neurulation Defects 1.Primary a.anencephaly b.meningoencephalocele c.mylomeningocele 2.Secondary a.diastematomyelia b.tethered cord 3.Spina Bifida a.spina bifida occulta b.spina bifida cystica IDW

68 B.Migration Defects 1.Lissencephaly (agyria) 2.Pachygyria 3.Polymicrogyria 4.Cortical heterotropia 5.Schizencephaly IDW

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75 PARASITIC TWIN

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77 TERIMA KASIH


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