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ETIKA DALAM PENELITIAN

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Presentasi berjudul: "ETIKA DALAM PENELITIAN"— Transcript presentasi:

1 ETIKA DALAM PENELITIAN
DATA DAN INFORMASI ETIKA DALAM PENELITIAN

2 ETIKA DALAM PENELITIAN
Etika merupakan norma atau standar perilaku yang menjadi pedoman moral perilaku seseorang dan huungannya dengan orang lain Tujuan etika dalam penelitian adalah untuk menjamin agar tidak ada seorangpun yang dirugikan atau mendapat dampak negatif dari kegiatan penelitian. Cooper dan Emory (1996): kegiatan-kegiatan tidak etis dapat berupa: Pelanggaran persetujuan tentang kerahasiaan Salah menyajikan hasil dan temuan penelitian Menipu orang Menagih biaya yang tidak wajar Menghindari tanggung-jawab hukum Dan lainnya

3 ETIKA DALAM PENELITIAN
O’Sullivan dan Ressel (1989): Tiga pedoman etika thd responden: Memulai pengumpulan data dengan menjelaskan kepada responden mengenai manfaat yang diharapkan dari penelitian. Menjelaskan kepada responden bahwa hak-haknya dan kesejahteraannya dilindungi secukupnya dan bagaimana caranya Memastikan bahwa pewawancara mendapat persetujuan dari responden.

4 But what has ethics got to do with research?
Is “pure” research above ethics and morality? Is ethics and morality to do with technology and politics (the appliance of research) not research itself? DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

5 Science as a black box SOCIETY TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH POLITICS MANAGEMENT
One view of research might be that it is isolated from society – although it influences society it is isolated from it with its own Sociology Norms Ethics Science as a black box SOCIETY TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH POLITICS MANAGEMENT DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

6 Research is defined by its special methods
Experimentation, observation, analysis, Objective Theorizing As if it transcends ethical and political considerations Scientific research DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

7 Information about natural phenomena Acquired by research
Research is a system of organized knowledge above mundane considerations Archival aspect Information about natural phenomena Acquired by research Organized in coherent theoretical schemes Published in books and journals Historical process DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

8 Facts are not completely objective – they are not isolated from the society that gave rise to them
Facts can only be recorded in the framework of a theory. The history, the environment, the culture, the politics, the religion, the personality of the scientist all influence the theory and therefore the facts recorded. Research cannot be isolated from society and an ethical system Which is brighter, a snowball seen indoors or a lump of coal outside? A bright, sunlit day is about one hundred times brighter than a room lit by electric light. If we use a light meter to measure the absolute number of photons being reflected, the outdoor coal registers a higher value than the indoor snowball. The coal is brighter, and more photons are hitting your retina, sending a stronger signal to your brain. DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

9 “There are no facts, only interpretations.”
“Get your facts first, and then you can distort them as much as you please.” Mark Twain ( ) “If the facts don't fit the theory, change the fact.” Albert Einstein ( ) “There are no facts, only interpretations.” Friedrich Nietzsche ( ) “Science is facts; just as houses are made of stones, so is science made of facts; but a pile of stones is not a house and a collection of facts is not necessarily science.” Henri Poincare ( ) “The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them.” Sir William Bragg ( ) It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle ( ) “We want the facts to fit the preconceptions. When they don't, it is easier to ignore the facts than to change the preconceptions.” Jassamyn West (1907–1984) DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

10 The separation of academic and industry/technology/society is illusory
Research transforms society AND The inner workings of science are changed by the social forces acting on it even down to the philosophical and psychological level Ethical decisions have to be made at all levels in the scientific chain of discovery DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

11 The chain of discovery DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

12 The chain of discovery DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

13 The chain of discovery DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

14 Because research has a profound influence on society scientists cannot ignore the consequences of their discoveries SOCIETY TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH Discovery Invention DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

15 Research is often a means of solving problems
It is intimately connected with politics, technology and society Research should be used wisely but this is not for researchers to decide alone DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2012

16 The Impact of Research on Values and Values on Research
Ethical considerations are to the fore with the development of new technologies and new social systems Society is inherently conservative and seeks to set the limits of research activity I’m damned if they are going to make me redundant DIUNDUH DARI: 20/10/2013

17 .. THE RESEARCH PROCESS DAISY.
DATA DAN INFORMASI DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 20/10/2013

18 .MACHINE INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH..
DATA DAN INFORMASI DIUNDUH DARI sumber:

19


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