Bab 3. THE CULTURAL CONTEXT FOR INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT Tujuan Bahasan 1. Mendefinisikan Budaya. 2. Menjelaskan bagaimana persepsi dan stereotipi berpengaruh.
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Presentasi berjudul: "Bab 3. THE CULTURAL CONTEXT FOR INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT Tujuan Bahasan 1. Mendefinisikan Budaya. 2. Menjelaskan bagaimana persepsi dan stereotipi berpengaruh."— Transcript presentasi:
Bab 3. THE CULTURAL CONTEXT FOR INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT Tujuan Bahasan 1. Mendefinisikan Budaya. 2. Menjelaskan bagaimana persepsi dan stereotipi berpengaruh terhadap perilaku dalam lingkungan internasional. 3. Menggambarkan konsep nilai-nilai budaya dan menghubungkannya dengan berbagai perbedaan, persamaan dan perubahan internasional yang terjadi baik dalam nilai-nilai manajerial maupun kerja. 4. Mengidentifikasi dimensi utama budaya yang relevan dengan pekerjaan dan pengaruhnya terhadap lingkungan internasional. 5. Membahas analisis nilai negara kelompok dalam membangun praktek manajemen internasional.
DEFINISI BUDAYA Culture is acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and to generate social behavior. (Hodget and Luthan, 1994,59). Culture is a pattern of basic assumption-invented, discovered or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has work well enough to be concidered valid and therefore to be taugh to new member as correct way to percieve, think and feel in relation to those problems. (Schein, 1992, ) Tingkatan Budaya (Schein) : 1. Artifact 2. Values 3. Basic underlying Assumptions
PERBEDAAN BUDAYA Budaya dapat mempengaruhi : 1.Transfer Teknologi 2.Managerial Attitude 3.Managerial ideology 4.Hubungan bisnis pemerintahan 5.Cara manusia berpikir dan berperilaku 1.LEARNED 2.SHARED 3.TRANSGENERATIONAL 4.SYMBOLIC 5.PATTERNED 6.ADAPTIVE KARAKTERISTIK BUDAYA
Budaya mempengaruhi manajemen internasional dan tercermin Pada kepercayaan dasar dan perilaku – manusia. Terdapat beberapa contoh khusus dimana budaya masyarakat secara langsung mempengaruhi pendekatan manajemen, antara lain : c centralized vs decentralized safety vs risk individual reward vs group reward nformal vs formal procedurs high vs low organizational loyalty coorporation vs competition short term vs long term horizon tability vs innovation
DEFINISI PERSEPSI DAN STEREOTIPI A perception is a person’s interpretation of reality and people in different culture often have different perception of the same event. A stereotype is the tendency to perceive another person as belonging to a single class or category. Values are basic convictions that people have regarding what is right and wrong, good and bad, important or unimportant.
DIMENSI-DIMENSI BUDAYA Geerrt Hofstede (peneliti Belanda) menemukan ada 4 dimensi budaya yang membantu menjelaskan bagaimana dan mengapa orang-orang dari berbagai budaya berperilaku sebagaimana yang mereka kerjakan. 4 Dimensi budaya tersebut adalah : 1.Power Distance 2.Uncertainty Avoidance 3.Individuality VS Collectivity 4.Masculinity VS Femininity
POWER DISTANCE is the extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE is the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situation and have created belief and institutions that try to avoid these. INDIVIDUALISM is the tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only. Collectivism is the tendency of people to belong to groups or collectives and to look after each other in exchange for loyalty.
MASCULINITY is defined by Hosted as a situation in which the dominant values in society are success, money, and things. Femininity is the term used by Hosted to describe a situation in which the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life.
Comparison of Low Power Distance and High Power Distance Country Low Power Distance Country High Power Distance Country Inequalities among people are expected and disired. Less powerful people should be dependent on more Powerful people Parent teach children to be obidient. Student treat teacher with respect. Centralization is populer. Both more and eeducated people show almost equally authoritarian values. Hierarchy in organization reflects the existential inequally between those at the top of organizations and those lower down. There is a wide salary gap between those at the top of organization and those at the The ideal boss in abenevolent autocrat Privileges and symbols of status are both expected and popular Inequalities among people are minimize There should be, and is interdepence Between less and more powerrful people Parent theat children as equals Student treat teacher as equals Decentralization is popular More educated people hold less authoritarian values than less eeducated people Hierarchy in organization means in equality of roles, but the hierarchy is establised mostly for purposes of convinience There is a nerrow salary gap between those at the top of the organization and those at the bottom The ideal boss is resourcefull democrat Privilages and symbols of status are frown on
Partial Comparison of Low Uncertainty Avoidance countries And High Uncertainty Avoidance Countries Low Uncertainty Avoidance High Uncertainty Avoidance There few laws and rules and they are fairly General. People believe that if the rules cannot be respected, they should be changed. Protest by citizens are acceptable. People are positive in their view of social institution. There is a positive attitude toward young people. Society is characterized by tolerance andmoderation There is a belief in generalist and common sense. People believe that one group’s belief shouldnot be imposed on another. There is religious, political and ideologicaltolerance. In philosophy and science, there is a tendency toward relativism and empiricism. There are many laws and rule and they are very specific. People believe that if the rules cannot be respected, they, themselves are sinners and should repent. Protest by citizens are unacceptable and should be repressed. People are negative in their view of social institutions. There is a negative attitude toward young people. Society is charactherized by extremism and low- and-order concerns. There is a belief in specialist and experts. Peole believe there is only one Truth and they have it. There is religious, political and ideological intolerance. In philoshophy and science, there is a tendency toward grand theories.
Partial Comparison of Low Individualism countries And High Individualism Countries Low Individualism High Individualism People are born into families which continue to protect them In exchange for loyalty. People’s indentities are based on the social network to which they belong to. Children are taught to think in term of “we”. Harmony should always be maintenance and Direct confrontation should always be avoided. The purpose of education is to learn how to do things. Education diplomas provide an entry to higher Status group. The relationship between an employer and employee is viewed like a family link. Relationship prevail over task. As people grow older, they are expected to look after themselves their immediate family only. Identity is based on the individual. children are taught to think in term of “I”. Speaking one’s mind is the sign of an honest person. The purpose of education is to learn how to learn. Diplomas increase the economic worth And self-respect of individuals. The relationship between an employer and employee is a contract based on mutual advantage. Task take precedence over relationship.
Country cluster Berdasarkan analisis integratif terhadap penemuan yang dilakukan Ronen dan Shenkar, menemukan bahwa ada delapan kelompok Besar berkaitan dengan studi selama 15 tahun. Namun studi tersebut Membahas menjadi empat kategori saja sebagai berikut : 1.The importance of work goals 2.Need deficiency,fulfillment and job satisfaction 3.Managerial and organizational variables, and 4.Work role and interpersonal orientation.