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Presentasi berjudul: "NONVERBAL COMM : THE MESSAGE OF ACTION, SPACE, TIME, AND SILENCE 8th Encounter"— Transcript presentasi:


2 US : shaking hands Arab: kiss on both checks Japan: bow Mexico: embrace US: crossing legs  relaxed Korean : crossing legs  social taboo  Although much of non verbal communication is universal, many of your nonverbal actions are TOUCH by CULTURE

3 IMPORTANCE Judging internal states Secara sadar/ tdk, niat/ tidak, people make important judgement concerning the internal states of others – states that they often express without words. A powerful tool for expressing your emotional and relational feeling toward other. (tone voice, distance  closeness) Your emotions reflected in your posture, face, eyes – so you can express them without ever uttering a word.

4 First impressions Nonverbal message arrive before the verbal. Judgement about others. (skin color, manner of dress, facial expression). Subconscious actions Nonverbal not easily controlled consciously. Your emotion hard to control. (blushing face, stammering speech). Culture-bound Your culture influence the manner in which you send and receive nonverbal. Nonverbal often reveals basic cultural traits.

5 DEFINING Nonverbal communication: “Involves all those nonverbal stimuli in a comm setting that are generated by both the source and his/ her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver.” In Nonverbal, you’re not aware that it have meaning for other people. In Verbal, you consciously dip into your vocabulary and decide what words to use. Although you consciously decide to make nonverbal, you also send countless messages that you never intend to be part of that transaction.

6 FUNCTIONS Nonverbal often interacts with verbal. Accent, untuk menekankan beberapa bagian dari pesan verbal. Misal, melihat ke dalam mata pasanganmu ketika mengatakan “I Love You.”, memukul tanganmu di meja untuk menenkankan komitmenmu. Complement, untuk menambahkan nuansa makna yang tidak kamu komunikasikan dengan pesan verbal. Misal, kamu akan tersenyum ketika bercerita cerita lucu. Contradict, bertujuan yang berlawanan dengan pesan verbal.

7 Control, keinginan untuk mengendalikan jalannya pesan verbal. Misal, mengangkat tangan ketika ingin berbicara. Repeat, pengulangan dari pesan verbal. Misal, setelah kamu mengatakan “Kamu baik-baik saja ?” dengan menaikkan alis matamu dan pandangan bertanya, “Ayo pergi!” dengan menggerakkan tangan dan kepalamu. Substitute, pengganti pesan verbal. Misal, signal “OK” dengan gerak tangan, mengangguk dan menggeleng ketika merespon ajakan.

8 NONVERBAL: GUIDELINES AND LIMITATIONS Often ambiguous “We can never be sure that others understand the meaning we intended to express with our nonverbal behaviour” Aware of the ambiguous nature of this form of interaction. We are more than our culture Not all people engage in the same actions. While there are generalizable cultural characteristics, there must be an exceptions. People are the products of NOT ONLY their culture, but also religion, education, etc.

9 NONVERBAL & CULTURE Nonverbal = Culture ◦ All pervasive, its everywhre and everything  Your clothes, your gaze, your use of time SERVE as MESSAGE = SYMBOL. Budaya berdasar pada simbol. ◦ Need to be learned  Although smilling, angry, eye contact are innate, you are not born knowing the COMMUNICATION dimensions associated with nonverbal message. People in the world experience the same basic emotions. But, WHAT SPARKS a particular emotion, how and where a person express it, and how people define emotions in general vary as matters of CULTURE.

10 CLASSIFICATIONS 1. Produced by body 1.Body Behaviour (appereance, attire) How you dress – the price that you pay to nonverbally tell the other who are you. By the husk, you may judge the nut. 2.Body Movement – kinecics Those visible body shifts and movement that can send message about: a. Your attitude toward the others b. Your emotional state c. Your desire to control your environment All people use movement to communicate, culture teaches you how to use and interpret these movement. ex: Japan (bow  show status), India (namaskar  greet).

11 3. Paralangue Movie – subtitle – understand what being said. Movie – NO subtitle – (still) understand what being said  How something is said and not the actual meaning of the spoken words. a. Vocal characteristic (laughing, crying, moaning, etc) b. Vocal qualifiers (volume, pitch, tone) c. Vocal segregates (un-huh, shhh, uh, ooh, mmm) -- cues to drawing conclusions about individual’s emotional state. Volume Arab – loudness (strenght), softness (weakness) German – commanding tone (authority and self confidence) Japan – loud voice (lack of self control), gentle (reflect good manner and helps mantain social harmony  values) Noises Number of sounds that have special significance. Japan (hai, so.., e..)

12 NON VERBAL TABOOS Perilaku Non VerbalTaboo Mengedipkan mata Melipat tanganmu di depan dadamu Meletakkan tanganmu di saku Melambaikan tanganmu Gesturing dengan jempol menghadap atas Tapping kedua hari telunjukmu bersamaan Menunjuk dengan jari telunjuk Menggunakan tangan kiri untuk makan atau untuk bersalaman Dianggap tidak sopan di Taiwan Dianggap tidak menghargai di Fiji Dianggap tidak sopan di Malaysia Dianggap menantang di Nigeria dan Yunani Dianggap kasar di Australia Di Mesir, hal ini berarti pasangan sedang tidur bersama atau mengajak tidur bersama Dianggap tidak sopan di banyak negara Timur Tengah, Cina, Indonesia Dianggap tidak sopan dalam berbagai macam budaya, Malaysia, Indonesia, negara Arab

13 2. Space and Distance How you might allow one person to stand very close and keep the other at distance  convey message  PROXIMICS. 1.Personal Space Piece of the universe you occupy, invinsible boundary surrounding your body. Cultures that stress Individualism (US) demand more spaces than do collectivism (Arab, Mexico). 2.Seating Americans, in groups, tend to talk with those opposite them rather than those seated beside them  leader (choose chair at the end of the table) China – meeting – in couches. 3.Furniture Arrangement US – furniture arrange pointed toward the television set. For France, Italy, Mexico that considered conversation = important, that arrangement stifles conversation. For them, furniture is positioned to encourage interaction.

14 3. Time Although you cant hold and see time, you respond to it as if it had command over your life. How people respond to time (late : feeling guilty or not)  nonverbal message about them. Amount of time people spend together is a hallmark of succesfull relationship. How the parties are perceiving and using time is sending a message about how much they care each other. a. Monochronic – Time is comodity. Time can be gained, lost, spent, wasted. Time is linier, with one event happening at a time. This culture value being punctual, completing tasks, keeping schedule, no reason for late. b. Polychronic – Time is holistic, circular. Several events can happen at once. People socialize during meeting and that meeting may be canceled because of personal obligation. This culture see Monochronic culture too tied to their schedule, not care enough about relationship.

15 4. Silence Silence is also speech (African proverb). As meaningful as language. We cannot not communicate. ◦ Providing an interval in ongoing interaction (people to think) ◦ Check emotions ◦ Helps provide feedback ◦ Evidence of agreement, lack of interest, injured feeling. ◦ Careful judgement In US, to reduce uncertainty in initial meeting, they asking question. In other culture, people tend to remain silent, observing, or ask the third party about someone’s behaviour. “There is no such thing as empty space or an empty time. There is always something to see, something to hear. In fact, try as we may to make silence, we cannot”

16 S E L E S A I

17 TUGAS  Masalah apa yang mungkin bisa timbul dari kesalahpahaman memahami perilaku non verbal budaya lain?  Mengapa mempelajari aspek antarbudaya dari perilaku nonverbal dapat membantumu untuk menemukan etnosentrisme mu? Berilah contohnya?


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