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Sains Atmosfer dan Polusi Udara (Solusi pada Issue Lingkungan) Oleh : Abdu Fadli Assomadi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Sains Atmosfer dan Polusi Udara (Solusi pada Issue Lingkungan) Oleh : Abdu Fadli Assomadi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Sains Atmosfer dan Polusi Udara (Solusi pada Issue Lingkungan) Oleh : Abdu Fadli Assomadi

2 Q.1. Ozone in the _________ is a pollutant, but in the ______ is vital for life A.1. Ozone in the Troposfer is a pollutant, but in the Stratosfer is vital for life Di Lapisan Troposfer  ozon merupakan polutan skunder, oksidator yang kuat dan sangat aktif dalam fotokimia, sehingga akan memacu terbentuknya polutan skunder lain melalui reaksi oksidasi dan fotokimia. O + O 2 => O 3 ; O + hydrocarbons => aldehydes ; O 3 + hydrocarbons => aldehydes ; reaksi ini memicu terbentuknya smog fotokimia (O 3, aldehid, PAN) Di Lapisan stratosfer  Terbentuk dari oksigen dengan menyerap UV (panjan ggelombang 250 nm). O 2  2O dan O + O 2  O 3 Ozon juga mengalami fotodissosiasi, dengan menyerap UV (panjang gelomabang nm). O 3  O 2 + O dan O+O 3  2O 2 Reaksi pembentukan dan fotodissosiasi ini berlangsung dengan terus menerus  efek vital screening (menahan radiasi UV cukup kuat ke permukaan bumi)

3 Q.2. Which criteria pollutant is colorless, odorless, and poses a risk to humans, even in small amounts? A.2. Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, and poses a risk to humans, even in small amounts Karbon monoksida  bersifat toksik,mengikat hemoglobin lebih kuat dari oksigen, sehingga mengurangi transport oksigen ke otak dan jaringan lain – Gas tidak berbau dan tidak berwarna, dihasilkan dari pembakaran tidak sempurna (low oksigen) – Resiko pemaparan pad manusia dan hewan (respirasi)  meskipun dalam konsentrasi kecil. Catalytic destruction in auto exhausts: 2CO + O 2  2CO 2

4 Q.3. The Montreal Protocol addressed _______ A.3. The Montreal Protocol addressed Ozone depletion, and was successful – Protokol Montreal  komitmen untuk mengurangi ozone depletion – 180 neraga sepakat mengurangi produksi CFC – Dilanjutkan dengan pengurangan CFC lebih besar, dan juga untuk bahan perusak ozon lain – Saat ini bahan perusak ozone telah turun hingga 95 % – lapisan ozone mulai recover – Catatan keberhasilan lingkungan: – Pembuatan kebijakan melibatkan industri  menyelesaikan masalah ozon – Implementation of the plan allowed an adaptive management strategy that changed strategies in response to new scientific data, technological advances, and economic figures – The Montreal Protocol can serve as a model for international environmental cooperation

5 Q.4. What does this graph show about the mesosphere? A.4. Temperature decreases with increasing altitude Perubahan temperatur pada mesosfer sebanding dengan jumlah ozone yang menyerap UV panjang gelombang menengah (0.1 μm to 0.35 μm). Pada lapisan mesosfer konsentrasi gas ozon makin berkurang tajam ketika altitude makin tinggi, sehingga UV terserap juga makin sedikit  akibatnya suhu makin ke atas akan makin turun

6 Q.5. Which conclusion can you draw from this graph? A.5. Meski populasi dunia dan konsumsi energi terus meningkat, emisi menurun: – populasi meningkat diiringi dengan kemajuan teknologi  proses lebih efisien, low emisi – teknologi pengendali pencemar makin baik – kesadaran dunia akan pencemaran makin baik

7 Q.6. Rainshadow is the dry area on which side of mountain?* E.leeward side Rainshadow  area dry land pada terdapat pada sisi leeward (downwind) gunung. Udara hangat yang mengandung uap air, dibawa angin ke sisi gunung dan naik, makin tinggi udara makin dingin, terjadi kondensasi dan presipitasi (hujan)  udara menjadi kering dan terus melewati sisi gunung satunya (leeward), sehingga menyebabkan evaporasi yang cepat dari lanscape (dry land area)

8 Q.11. True or false:* The deepest zones of the ocean are void of life (fals) Various measurements have been taken of the ocean's depth at the Challenger Deep, but it is usually described as about 11,000 meters deep Single-celled protists called foraminifera, crustaceans and other invertebrates and even fish have been found thereforaminifera

9 Q.14. Approximately ? Of Earth’s population lives within100 miles of the ocean.* D.2/3 Two thirds of the world's population lives within 100 miles of an ocean, inland sea or freshwater lake: 14 of the world's 15 largest megacities (10 million or more people) are coastal. Their impacts include growing loads of sewage and other waste, the drainage of wetlands and development of beaches, and destruction of prime fish nurseries. Sources: United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 1998 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) Population Action International, Why Population Matters (Washington DC: PAI, 1996) Report, Population Summit of the World's Scientific Academies (Washington DC: The National Academy Press, 1993

10 Q.16. Relative humidity is:* A.amount of water vapor a given volume of air holds relative to the maximum amount it could hold Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in an air-water mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water at a prescribed temperature. The relative humidity of air depends not only on temperature but also on the pressure of the system of interest.partial pressurewater vaporsaturated vapor pressure

11 Q.17. Photochemical smog differs from industrial smog in that it:* D.is formed in the presence of sunlight

12 Q.18. Natural sources of air pollution come from:* A.18. C. salt from sea spray, cattle, soil dust, volcanic dust dust storms  Hundreds of millions of tons of dust are blown westward across the Atlantic Ocean by trade winds every year; Unsustainable farming and grazing, erosion and desertification volcanoes  Release large quantities of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide & other gases; remain for months or years; Aerosols = reflect sunlight back into space and cool the atmosphere and surface fires  Pollutes atmosphere with soot and gases; Over 60 million ha of forests and grasslands burn per year; Severe fires are caused by human interaction – Cleared forests, harsh droughts, and climate change (El Niño)

13 Q.19. The largest portion of atmospheric gases by weight is:* C.nitrogen

14 QUESTION: Viewpoints Should the government be able to prevent restaurants from allowing smoking, to protect people from secondhand smoke? a)Yes; I don’t want to be exposed to this form of pollution

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