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Copyright©2004 South-Western KURVA INDIFFERENCE II.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Copyright©2004 South-Western KURVA INDIFFERENCE II."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Copyright©2004 South-Western KURVA INDIFFERENCE II

2 Copyright©2004 South-Western Review Pertemuan Sebelumnya Budget Constraint / Kendala Anggaran Preferences Indifference Curve 4 Sifat Kurva Indifference Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS) Optimalisasi Pilihan Konsumen

3 Copyright©2004 South-Western Review: Budget Constraint The budget constraint shows the various combinations of goods the consumer can afford given his or her income and the prices of the two goods. The limit on the consumption “bundles” that a consumer can afford. People consume less than they desire because their spending is constrained, or limited, by their income

4 Copyright©2004 South-Western Review: Budget Constraint Ice Cream (cup) Coklat (Batang) Pengeluaran utk Ice Cream Pengeluaran utk Coklat Pengeluaran Total

5 Copyright©2004 South-Western Review: Budget Constraint Consumer’s budget constraint 100 A 500 B 0 Quantity of Ice Cream Quantity of Coklat

6 Review: Budget Constraint Quantity of Coklat Quantity of Ice Cream 0 Consumer’s budget constraint 500 B C 100 A Copyright©2004 South-Western

7 Review: Preferences Secara sederhana preferences adalah apa-apa yang diinginkan konsumen. Sekumpulan (bundle) barang & jasa yang diinginkan konsumen Setiap orang memiliki preferensi yang berbeda- beda

8 Copyright©2004 South-Western Review: Kurva Indifference Preference atau preferensi seseorang bisa ditunjukkan dengan kurva indifference Kurva Indifference adalah kurva yg menunjukkan kumpulan/kelompok/kombinasi konsumsi dimana konsumen memiliki tingkat utilitas / kepuasan yg sama (indifference).

9 Review: Kurva Indifference Quantity of Coklat Quantity of Ice Cream 0 Indifference curve,I1I1 I2I2 C B A D Copyright©2004 South-Western

10 Review: 4 Sifat Kurva Indifference Kurva Indifference yg lebih tinggi lebi disukai daripada yg lebih rendah. Kurva Indifference berbentuk miring dari kiri atas ke kanan bawah. Kurva Indifference tidak saling berpotongan satu sama lain. Kurva Indifference cembung terhadap titik 0 (titik origin).

11 Copyright©2004 South-Western Review: The Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS) The Marginal Rate of Substitution ditunjukkan oleh slope Kurva Indifference Adalah tingkat dimana konsumen bersedia menukarkan satu barang untuk barang yg lain. Jumlah barang yg harus diberikan agar sesorang bersedia mengurangi konsumsi barang yg lain.

12 Review: The Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS) Quantity of Coklat Quantity of Ice Cream 0 Indifference curve,I1I1 I2I2 1 MRS C B A D Copyright©2004 South-Western

13 Review: The Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS) Quantity of Coklat Quantity of Ice Cream 0 Indifference curve 8 3 A 3 7 B 1 MRS = 6 1 MRS = Copyright©2004 South-Western

14 Review: Optimalisasi Pilihan Konsumen Combining the indifference curve and the budget constraint determines the consumer’s optimal choice. Consumer optimum occurs at the point where the highest indifference curve and the budget constraint are tangent.

15 Review: Optimalisasi Pilihan Konsumen Quantity of Coklat Quantity of Ice Cream 0 Budget constraint I1I1 I2I2 I3I3 Optimum A B Copyright©2004 South-Western

16 Perubahan Keseimbangan Konsumen 1.Perubahan Budget / Income 2.Perubahan Harga Barang

17 Copyright©2004 South-Western 1.Perubahan Budget / Income Perubahan Income konsumen akan menggeser budget constraint dengan arah sejajar Kenaikan income akan menggeser budget constraint ke luar / kanan Konsumen memiliki kemampuan untuk memilih kombinasi barang dan jasa pada kurva indifference yg lebih tinggi. Penurunan income akan menggeser budget constraint ke dalam / kiri Konsumen harus memilih kombinasi brg/jasa pada kurva indifference yg lebih rendah

18 Copyright©2004 South-Western 1. Perubahan Income  Peningkatan Income Quantity of Coklat Quantity of Ice Cream 0 New budget constraint I1I1 I2I konsumsi coklat naik Konsumsi Ice Cream Naik Initial budget constraint 1. An increase in income shifts the budget constraint outward... Initial optimum New optimum Copyright©2004 South-Western

19 1.Perubahan Budget / Income Barang Normal vs Barang Inferior If a consumer buys more of a good when his or her income rises, the good is called a normal good. If a consumer buys less of a good when his or her income rises, the good is called an inferior good.

20 Copyright©2004 South-Western 1.Perubahan Income  Barang inferior Quantity of Coklat Quantity of Bakiak 0 New budget constraint I1I1 I2I konsumsi coklat naik Konsumsi Bakiak Turun Initial budget constraint 1. An increase in income shifts the budget constraint outward... Initial optimum New optimum Copyright©2004 South-Western

21 2. Perubahan Harga Barang Perubahan harga barang akan merubah kemiringan Budget Line / Garis Anggaran Turunnya harga barang akan membuat Garis Anggaran memiliki kemiringan lebih tegak Demikian juga sebaliknya

22 Copyright©2004 South-Western 2. Perubahan Harga Barang: Harga Ice Cream Turun Quantity of Coklat Quantity of Ice Cream 0 1,000 D 500 B 100 A I1I1 I2I2 Initial optimum New budget constraint Initial budget constraint 1. A fall in the price of Pepsi rotates the budget constraint outward Konsumsi ice cream naik Konsumsi coklat turun... New optimum Copyright©2004 South-Western

23 2. Perubahan Harga Barang A price change has two effects on consumption. 1.Income Effect 2.Substitution Effect

24 Copyright©2004 South-Western 2. Perubahan Harga Barang :  Income and Substitution Effects The Income Effect Merupakan perubahan konsumsi ke dalam kurva indifference yg lebih tinggi atau lebih rendah sbg akibat perubahan harga. The Substitution Effect Merupakan perubahan konsumsi di sepanjang kurva indifference sbg akibat perubahan harga.

25 Copyright©2004 South-Western 2. Perubahan Harga Barang :  Income and Substitution Effects Substitution Effect Perubahan harga menyebabkan konsumsi konsumen berpindah dari satu titik ke titik dilain di sepanjang kurva indifference yg sama Ditunjukkan dari pergerakan dari titik A ke B. Income Effect Setelah berpindah dari satu titik ke titik lain, konsumen kemudian pindah ke titik di kurva indifference yg lain (lebih tinggi atau lebih rendah). Ditunjukkan dari pergerakan dari titik B ke C

26 2. Perubahan Harga Barang :  Income and Substitution Effects Quantity of Coklat Quantity of Ice Cream 0 I1I1 I2I2 A Initial optimum New budget constraint Initial budget constraint Substitution effect Substitution effect Income effect Income effect B CNew optimum Copyright©2004 South-Western

27 Menurunkan Kurva Permintaan Kurva permintaan konsumen bisa dilihat sebagai keputusan optimal seorang konsumen yg berasal dari interaksi antara budget constraint dan kurva indifference konsumen tersebut.

28 Menurunkan Kurva Permintaan Quantity of Coklat 0 Demand (a) The Consumer’s Optimum Quantity of Ice Cream 0 Price of Ice Creami (b) The Demand Curve for Ice Cream Quantity of Ice Cream 250 $2 A B I1I1 I2I2 New budget constraint Initial budget constraint 750 B 250 A Copyright©2004 South-Western

29 Giffen Goods Economists use the term Giffen good to describe a good that violates the law of demand. Giffen goods are goods for which an increase in the price raises the quantity demanded. The income effect dominates the substitution effect. They have demand curves that slope upwards.


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