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Occurrence: Perhumid Lowland Climate with absent water stress (no reguler annual dry season) ± 1200 m above mean sea level an dry land site Distributed.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Occurrence: Perhumid Lowland Climate with absent water stress (no reguler annual dry season) ± 1200 m above mean sea level an dry land site Distributed."— Transcript presentasi:


2 Occurrence: Perhumid Lowland Climate with absent water stress (no reguler annual dry season) ± 1200 m above mean sea level an dry land site Distributed in Eastern tropics, western Amazonia and Facific coast of South America, Africa (near coast of West Africa; between Guinea and Liberia; between Cameroon and Gabon)

3 Morphological Characteristics Large number of species. Lofty dense. Evergreen forest 45 m or more tall. 2-3 or more canopy tree layers (conventionally having three tree layers) with the top layers of individual or grouped giant emergent trees, over a main stratum of 24-36 m, and with smaller, shade-dwelling trees below that. Ground vegetation is often sparse mainly of small trees, where herbs are patchy.

4 Some of biggest trees have clear bole of 30 m and 4.5 m in girth, maybe decidious or semi decidious. Boles are almost cylindrical. Buttresses, cauliflory/ramiflory are common feature. Leaf = pinnate, leafblade of mesophyll size. Big woody climbers, mostly free hanging are abundant. Shade and sun epiphytes are occasional to frequent. Bryophytes are rare.

5 Occurrence: Eastern Tropic Less extensive in Africa (occur in Cameroon and Zaire river basin)

6 Montain Rain Forest Zones in Malaya Forest formation Upper montane Lower montane Lowland Montane ericaceous Oak-laurel Upper dipterocarp Hill dipterocarp Lowland dipterocarp

7 Florictic zoneImpotant groups Montane ericaceousConiferae Ericaceae Myrtaceae Oak-laurelFagaceae, Lauraceae Upper dipterocarpShorea platyclados, S. Ciliata, S. Ovata, Dipterocarpus retusus Hill dipterocarpAs bellow + Shorea curtisii Lowland dipterocarpNumerous dipterocarps especially Dipterocarpus spp., Shorea spp. and Dryobalanops aromatica

8 Morphological Characteristics of Mountain Rain Forest (Whitemore, 1990) FormationTropical lowland boleevergreen rain forest Tropical lower montane rain forest Tropical upper montane rain forest Canopy height25-45 m15-33 m1.5-18 m Emergent treesCharacteristic, to 60(80) m tall Often absent, to 37 m tall Usually absent, to 26 m tall Pinnate leavesFrequentRareVery rare Principal leaf size class of woody plants Mesophyll Microphyll ButtressesUsually frequent and large Uncommon, smallUsually absent CaulifloryFrequentRareAbsent Big woody climbersAbundantUsually noneNone Bole climbersOften abundantFrequent to abundant Very few Vascular epiphytesFrequentAbundantFrequent Non-vascular epiphytes OccasionalOccasional to abundant Often abundant

9 Batas-batas orografik dari flora pegunungan Malesia (Van Stenis, 1972) Elevasi (m) Batas terendah Batas tertinggiTotal -5 - 1 ZONA LITORAL (lamun dan alga) ZONA LAUT VEGETASI POHON ALAMI -1 - 0.25......................................... MANGROVE ZONA TROPIK 0.25 - 1......................................... FLORA PANTAI 1 - 5......................................... Formasi BARRINGTONIA & GUMUK PASIR......................................... ZONA PAMAH 5-500......................................... ZONA BUKIT (COLLINE ZONE) 500-1000......................................... 100011420134 Hutan tertutup berbatang pohon tinggi dan miskin akan lumut ZONA SUBPEGUNUNGAN 1100131124 1200441155 1300331649 1400481361 15006139100 1600251136 Hutan tertutup berbatang pohon tinggi di atas elevasi 2000 m, dengan diameter batang yang bertambah kecil dan lumut yang bertambah banyak ZONA PEGUNUNGAN 1700341953 1800401454 190016925 2000453277 2100212950 2200102232 2300111627 24003882120

10 Elevasi (m) Batas terendah Batas tertinggiTotal 2500294069 Hutan rendah rapat dengan pohon-pohon tinggi menyendiri, sering berlumut, atau terdapat Konifera ZONA SUBALPIN VEGETASI POHON ALAMI 260083038 2700123850 280092534 2900066 3000214667 320051419 3300185270 34007411BATAS HUTAN 3500268 3600251338 370092736 Semak-semak rendah menyendiri atau berupa rumpun atau Konifera 380072229 390012223 400045054 BATAS POHON 4100000 ZONA ALPIN VEGETASI TERNA ALPIN ABADI 4200011GURUN BATU 4300000 Dengan lumut, lumut kerak dan beberapa Fanerogam, terutama rumput dan teki 4400000 4500000 4600000 SALJU ABADI ZONA SALJU (NIVAL ZONE) 4700000 4800000 4900000 5000000

11 Affected by the change of climate at different altitude. Morphological Characteristic At low to medium altitude o Rainfall increase o More luxuriant vegetation Temperature decrease with increasing altitude. Above the medium altitude o Height and diameter of trees decrease o Number of species decrease

12 o Three tree canopy layer change become to two canopy layer o Luxuriant epiphytes (mainly mosses and liverworths) o Trunks and branches are covered by mosses and liverworths o Few woody vine SUBMONTANE FOREST

13 Alpine Forest or Mossy Forest (above the sub- montane forest) or True Montane Forest o Single storey of twisted trees of massive growth and rich branching. o Leaves are smaller than those of rain forest. o Trunks and branches are covered with thick mat mosses and liverworths. o A number of ferns and flowering plants grow among liverworths and mosses. o More light penetrates and ground vegetation is heavier.

14 o Numerious of flowering trees, shrubs and epiphytes. o Stranglers are absent. o Small climbers may be found near the upper limits of the forest. Above the Alpine Forest (zone of dwarf shrub, followed by Alpine Meadow or Alpine Savanna with short and matted plant). Above those zones is NIVAL ZONE (SALJU).

15 Heat Forest is called HUTAN KERANGAS in Bahasa Indonesia/Melayu and campina/campinarana/caatinga Amazonica/campina repustre in Brazil. Occurrance: Rio Negro & Rio Orinoco in South America Kalimantan, Serawak, Brunei in Borneo Coastal sand in Gabon, Cameroon and Ivory Coast in Africa

16 Habitat: Soil: siliceous sand (tanah pasir kuarsa/silikat), either coastal alluvium or weathered sandstones, these become podzolized. o Acidic (pH<4) o Low sesquioxide o Coarse texture, freely draining o Stream draining heat forest is black/tea- colored due to precense of organic colloids, acid with low cation content.

17 Morphological Characteristics Storey formed by large number of saplings and small poles, often difficult to penetrate. Canopy is low, uniform and usually densely closed. Big woody climbers are rare. Epihytes are common. Mycrophyte and insectivetons plants may be abundant, i.e. Nepenthes (Kantong semar)


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