Nominal and Verbal Sentences AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES (KALIMAT BERITA) NOMINAL SENTENCEVERBAL SENTENCE I am curious You are nice She is polite He is our teacher.
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Nominal and Verbal Sentences AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES (KALIMAT BERITA) NOMINAL SENTENCEVERBAL SENTENCE I am curious You are nice She is polite He is our teacher We are students I learn my lesson You treat me nicely She plays the piano He teached us English We worked here
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES (KALIMAT BERTANYA) NOMINAL SENTENCEVERBAL SENTENCE Am I curious ? Are you nice ? Is She polite ? Is He our teacher ? Are We students ? Do I learn my lesson ? Do You treat me nicely ? Doe She play the piano? Did He teach us English ? Did We work here ?
NEGATIVE SENTENCES (KALIMAT MENYANGKAL) NOMINAL SENTENCEVERBAL SENTENCE I am not curious You are not nice She is not polite He is not our teacher We are not students I do not learn my lesson You do not treat me nicely She does not play the piano He did not teach us English We did not work here
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES (KALIMAT PERINTAH) NOMINAL SENTENCEVERBAL SENTENCE Be nice! Be polite! Don’t be angry! Don’t be lazy! Close the door! Stand up! Don’t play with my heart! Don’t forget me!
Exercise I Susunlah kata-kata berikut sehingga didapatkan urutan kata-kata yang benar dan kalimat yang bermakna. Arrange the following words, so we will get the right sequence words and meaningful sentences. 1. hydrogen / oxygen / and / water / each other / to form / combine 2. three atoms / ozone / in / its molecule / contains 3. result / excellent / what a / this is 4. litmus paper / changes / in / solution / acid / the color of 5. Rutherford / in 1817 / atomic theory / introduced
Combined Sentence Combined sentence is formed from the combination of two or more simple sentences The word used to combine simple sentences is called conjunctions. Besides and the other words used as conjunction are: and then, but, for, or, so, either... or; Neither... nor; not only..,. but also.
Example : Nitric acid is a strong acid. It can oxidise carbon compound. Nitric acid is a strong acid and can oxidise carbon compound. If the combined sentences have the same subject, the subject is usually not written down repeatedly Example : Acids react with metals. Acids have the ability to change the colour of indicators. Acids react with metals and have the ability to change the colour of indicators
Conversely, if the subject is different, the two subjects have to be written down in its own clause Example : at the beginning of reaction, the concentration of product shows the greatest rate of increase. at the beginning of reaction, the concentrations of reactants show the highest rate of decrease. At the beginning of reaction, the concentration of product shows the greatest rate of increase and the concentrations of reactants show the highest rate of decrease
Exercise Circle one correct word in the brackets to construct a correct combined sentence 1. The customers at the funfair were leaving (and/but) the lights were going out. 2. The stalls closed down (so/and) the stall-owners went home. 3. At 2 a.m. four night-watchmen walked round the funfair, (but/so) there was no one to be seen. 4. We can (or/either) play cards (either/or) sit and talk. 5. They were bored (so/for) there was nothing to do on this quite warm night. 6. They were not rescued till morning (and/but) by then they left very sick indeed.
Complex sentences can be formed from the combination of two or more simple sentences. In a complex sentence there is only one main idea and one or more additional ideas. Sentences that contain the main ideas can be separated from the complex sentence and can stand alone with the meaning intact Complex Sentences
Example: The alarm was raised as soon as the fire was discovered. The alarm was raised when the fire was discovered. The alarm was raised after the fire was discovered. Dalam kalimat-kalimat di atas, as soon as, when dan after disebut dengan kata sambung. Kata sambung lain yang sering digunakan dalam pembentukan kalimat kompleks adalah since, that, if, so that, whether. Dalam kalimat-kalimat di atas, The alarm was raised adalah anak kalimat utama dan dapat berdiri sendiri, sedangkan yang lainnya tidak dapat berdiri sendiri dan hanya memberikan ide tambahan pada anak kalimat utama.
Pernyataan Alasan dalam Kalimat Kompleks Dalam suatu kalimat kompleks, sering dijumpai adanya anak kalimat yang berisi suatu alasan. Anak kalimat ini merupakan anak kalimat yang menjawab pertanyaan Why? Anak kalimat ini diawali atau bergabung dengan induk kalimatnya dengan memakai kata sambung because, as, since. In a complex sentence, often found the existence of the clause that contains a reason. This clause is a subordinate clause that answers the question Why? This clause begins by or merged with the parent sentence using conjunctions because, as, since. Example : Because neon is a noble gas, it is relatively inert toward chemical reaction. Amonia (NH3) is an amphoteric subtance because it can donate proton in the presence of strong bases and accept proton in the presence of strong acids. The word in the sentence above can be replaced with the word as or since.
As neon is a noble gas, it is relatively inert toward chemical reaction. Since neon is a noble gas, it is relatively inert toward chemical reaction. Amonia (NH3) is an amphoteric subtance since it can donate proton in the presence of strong bases and accept proton in the presence of strong acids.
Pernyataan Kontradiksi dalam Kalimat Kompleks Adanya kontradiksi dalam kalimat kompleks dapat ditandai dengan adanya kata sambung seperti although, considering (that), though, eventhough, even if, much as, while dan whereas.
Though I have had more than 100 experimental data, I am still confuse to draw any conclusion. I am going to buy a computer even though I have not got much money. I intend to do experiment till night to day even if I have mathematics examination tomorrow
Combine the sentences below by using the available words in the brackets. 1.I would like to help you. I am afraid I will not be able to. (much as) 2.Your design is excellent. It is not suitable foe our purposes. (while) 3.I try hard to play the piano. I do not seem to improve. (although) 4.Chemistry is so difficult. It is surprising how many students learn it. (considering that) 5.The play was wonderful. The film was a commercial failure. (whereas)
Pernyataan Hasil dalam Kalimat Kompleks Pernyataan hasil dapat terungkap dari kata sambung so + kata sifat (that) atau such + kata benda (that)
The acid base reaction is so fast that it is difficult to determine the reaction rate. There were such a delay that I missed my English lesson
Pernyataan Perbandingan dalam Kalimat Kompleks Adanya perbandingan dalam kalimat kompleks ditandai oleh adanya kata sambung as.... as, not so..... as, not..... as much as, kata perbandingan + than
1.The course General Biology is not as difficult as the course Biochemistry. 2.Woods are not so strong as metals. 3.This computer do not hold information as much as that one. 4.Light travels faster than sound
Susunan Present Participle dalam Kalimat Kompleks Present Participle adalah kata kerja bentuk –ing, seperti finding, recording, dan trying. Present Participle dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan kata sambung so, and, dan lainnya dalam menggabungkan dua kalimat sederhana
I found my beaker glass was broken. I looked for new beaker glass Dapat digabung menjadi :I found my beaker glass was broken and looked for the new one, atau Finding my beaker glass was broken, I looked for the new one. Contoh lain : Not knowing the chemical formula, I was not able to count its molecular weight (not knowing = I did not know) Being lack of phenolphthalein, I used litmus paper (being = I was)
Present Participle sering pula digunakan setelah kata sambung, seperti: Present Particile is often used after conjunctions, such as: Since I learnt Advanced Calculus, I have made significant progress on mastering Chemical Thermodynamics Dapat dinyatakan sebagai : Can be expressed as: Since learning Advanced Calculus, I have made significant progress on mastering Chemical Thermodynamics
Present Participle sebagai pengganti kata ganti orang atau barang : Present Participle can also function as a pronoun Student who is reading at the classroom corner is very clever Bottle which is lying on that table contains concentrated hydrochloric acid Masing-masing dapat dinyatakan sebagai : Each can be expressed as: Student reading at the classroom corner is very clever Bottle lying on that table contains concentrated hydrochloric acid
Susunan Present Participle dalam Kalimat Kompleks Present Participle adalah kata kerja bentuk III, seperti built, played, reacted, dan sebagainya. Present Participle dapat digunakan sebagai ganti bentuk pasif. Present Participle is a verb form III, as built, played, reacted, and so forth. Present Participle can be used as a substitution of the passive form. If stirred continuously, it will mix faster (If it is stirred...) Although reacted hours ago, the product was not formed (It was reacted...) Present Participle dapat menggantikan kata ganti who dan which Present Participle can replace the pronoun Who and Which. The system used here is very successful (which is used...)