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Studi Mengenai Penerapan

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1 Studi Mengenai Penerapan
ecocity Studi Mengenai Penerapan Konsep Eco-city Gatot Surarjo

ecocity TUJUAN & SASARAN PENELITIAN Relevansi Studi : Kondisi global climate change , tingkat urbanisasi yang tinggi, eksploitasi energi dan penurunan kualitas lingkungan adalah issue penting di seluruh dunia, termasuk kota-kota di Indonesia Pokok Permasalahan : Eco-city sebagai sebuah konsep urban development adalah hal relatif baru; belum ada ‘planning principles’ yang sudah terbukti sukses. Apa driver dan barrier nya untuk Indonesia ? Batasan Penelitian : Lebih kepada kajian mengenai planning principles dan pengamatan pada perumahan berskala besar Tujuan, Sasaran & Manfaat Peneletian TUJUAN : Mempelajari penerapan konsep eco-city di berbagai negara dan melihat kemungkinan penerapannya di Indonesia untuk perumahan skala besar SASARAN : Mengidentifikasi prinsip-prinsip penting eco-city 2. Mempelajari best practises eco-city dari negara lain 3. Mengidentifikasi aspek : Teknologi, Stakeholders & Institusi 4. Mengidentifikasi keberadaan konsep eco-city ( perumahan skala besar )di Jabotabek MANFAAT : Menjadi penelitian awal yang dapat memberi gagasan mengenai positioning (planning principles) Indonesia dalam penerapan eco-city 2

3 ecocity Bagan Alur Pemikiran In depth interview
Study Case 1 Eco-city principles Motivation to implement eco-city Studi Case 2 StudiyCa 3 General Principles Theoritical Eco-city Concept Refference Model for Indonesia’s Eco-city Model Application on Large Scale Housing Development International Best Practises Basic Applied eco-city systems Evaluation Modified Systems as recommendation In depth interview Fact Findings : Developers in Jabotabek Literatur Study

4 ecocity Item Penjelasan Dasar Teoretis
Definisi dan penjelasan mengenai Konsep Eco-city relevansi nya terkait dg Sustainable Development Eco-city sebagai new ideal city (Urban Theory) Principles & Models (utk mengaplikasikan Eco-city) Faktor-Faktor Keberhasilan Penerapan Konsep Eco-city 3 faktor utama :Teknologi, Stakeholders, Institusi (hasil kajian awal) Metoda penelitian Kajian Teoritis Studi data sekunder dan Studi Lapangan In-depth interview Kasus-kasus yang relevan kasus dari DongTan, Masdar, Bedzed London, TianJin kasus di Indonesia : Bintaro Jaya dan Alam Sutera Pihak yang di interview Urban Planner, REI, Staff Menpera Konsultan Arsitek + Landscape Developers 4

5 ecocity Eco-city Theory : The Extended Metabolism Model Eco-city

6 Eco-city Theory ecocity Vision of an Eco-city
The ECOCITY objectives The main goals for sustainability in the context of urban development are: • minimizing use of land, energy and materials • minimizing the impairment of the natural environment. A sustainable city, or eco-city is a city designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO2, methane, and water pollution (Richard Register, 1987) Vision of an Eco-city City of accessibility for everyone City with public space for everyday life City in balance with nature City with integrated green areas City of bioclimatic comfort City of minimized demand for land City for pedestrians, cyclists and public trans­port City of reduction, re-use and recycling of waste City contributing to closed water cycles City of balanced mixed use City of short distances City with new balance of con­centration and decentralization City as network of urban quarters City as power station of renewable energies City of health, safety and well-being City of sustainable lifestyle City of qualified density City of human scale and urbanity City for strong local economy City built and managed with the inhabitants City of development concentrated at suitable sites City integrated into the surrounding region City of minimized energy consumption City integrated into global communication networks Benefits of Eco-city (how it Different with traditional city) Benefit to Liveability Benefit to Cost : - lower investment cost - lower operating & using cost - lower life cycle cost - create less cost for the general economy Benefit to nature environmental Source : Eco-city “How To Make It Happen”

7 Eco-city Theory : Tujuan Umum Eco-city
Ecological Dimensions • Minimize demand for land (particularly for greenfield sites) • Minimize primary material and primary energy consumption • Optimize interaction with municipal and regional material flows • Minimize impairment of the natural environment • Maximize respect for natural context • Minimize transport demand Socio-Cultural Dimensions • Satisfy basic needs and realize structures for human care • Minimize impairment of human health • Maximize mental wellbeing and community feeling • Maximize respect for (anthropogenic) context • Create a framework for good governance • Maximize awareness of sustainable development Dipakai sebagai dasar untuk prinsip-prinsip Perencanaan eco-city Economic Dimensions • Realize a diversified, crisis-resistant, innovative local economy • Minimize total life cycle costs (maximize productivity)

HANNOVER MELBOURNE C.A.S.E. (Cities As Sustainable Ecosystems) by Bossel 1. Insist on rights of humanity and 1. Vision 1. Healthy (Effective) nature to co-exist 2. Recognize interdependence. 2.Economy and Society 2. Zero Waste 3. Respect relationships between 3. Biodiversity 3. Self-Regulation spirit and matter. 4. Accept responsibility for the 4. Ecological Footprints 4.Resilience and Self- Renewal consequences of design. 5. Create safe objects of 5. Model Cities on Ecosystems 5. Flexibility long-term value. 6. Eliminate the concept of waste. 6. Sense of Place 6. Ethics 7. Rely on natural energy flows. 7.Empowerment 7. Psychological Fulfillment 8. Understand the limitations of design. 8.Partnerships 8. Cooperative (Coexistence) 9. Seek constant improvement by the 9. Sustainable Production and sharing of knowledge. Consumption 10. Governance and Hope Source : McDonough, 1992 Source : UNEP/IETC 2002 Source : Bossel 1998

9 ecocity C.A.S.E. Characteristics
Urban Social and Institutional Strategies Urban Form and Infrastructure 1. Healthy (Effective) • Bioregional, needs-based economies • Local/bioregional self-sufficiency (food, water, and energy) • Promotion of conserver lifestyles by meeting needs with resourceintensive or nonmaterial satisfiers • Cooperative interactions • Stable populations • Sustainable agriculture; industrial ecology • Walking-based cities with transit for energy efficiency • Use of solar energy • Compact urban form to minimize land use and maximize green space • Protection and restoration of surrounding ecosystems through a system of static and dynamic reserves 2. Zero Waste • Conserver lifestyles—Reduce, Reuse, Recycle! • Closure of nutrient loops in food production • Recycling of wastewater • Closure of material loops in industrial systems • Harnessing of waste heat • Organic architecture to reduce heat-island effect • Fuel conservation through walking and clean-energy transit 3. Self-Regulation • Local and bioregional governance structures • Visibility of processes • Integrated systems for water, energy, and food 4.Resilience and Self-Renewal • Bioregional, place-based design • Local/bioregional economies • Polycentric institutions and adaptive management • Compact buildings • System of static and dynamic reserves, with reserves in city linked to bioregional system 5. Flexibility • Civic participation • Partnerships and networks • Decentralized, polycentric structures • Place-based decision making (from regional down to precincts) • Polycentric urban design (linked ecovillages) with walkable centers 6. Ethics • An ethic of care, nurtured through a process of reinhabitation • Visibility of biodiversity and ecological processes in the city • Walkable town centers 7. Psychological Fulfillment • Cultivation of a sense of place through frequent, varied interactions with nature and bioregional celebrations • Meaningful livelihoods and flexible work patterns • Opportunities for creativity • Civic involvement in restoration activities, community service work, and community gardening • Place-based design • Compact urban design for easy access to activities 8. Cooperative (Coexistence) • Peace initiatives and community development • Trade surpluses • Links between bioregions; global cooperation • Interregional linkages and biodiversity corridors Source: Based on Bossel 1998. Prinsip Healthy & Zero Waste dikembangkan untuk Input bagi model eco-city Indonesia Melihat peranan Stakeholders & Institusi

10 ecocity Faktor-faktor mengapa Dipilih perumahan skala besar
Problems & Challenges Obstacles Dependency Dependency on sites of sufficient size in appropriate locations Non-availability of suitable land due to lack of administrative instruments and/or non-cooperation of land owners Suitable sites in public ownership (municipality) Owner is initiator or enthusiast Necessity of a minimum size of the first implementation phase Insufficient demand potential to attract investors / entrepreneurs for services due to insufficient demand for local dwellings and thus too few potential inhabitants Contractual agreements with service providers and developers before the start Concentrating dwelling demand of a larger region at the suitable sites Potential limitations set by surrounding (infra-)structures and environments ECOCITY needs to be embedded in the existing infrastructure (e.g. for transport), which may compromise its sustainable development Consideration of the surroundings and inclusion in planning, initiating local and regional improvements necessary for the effective operation of an ECOCITY Complexity of the project requires agreement of many stakeholders on political, economic, technical, social, strategic and personal levels Inadequate political support (fear of losing influence), and resistance from citizens Holistic integrated planning Dedication of visionary, committed and ambitious key actors (politicians, developers, etc.) Formation of win-win-win-coalitions Involvement of citizens and other stakeholders in the decision-making process from start- to implementation phase Demand for ecological awareness, often requiring rethinking (e.g. questioning conventional behaviour) Need for and/or the concept of sustainable development is not (fully) understood.Misuse of the terms ECOCITY, sustainable ... Awareness of environmental problems and the existence of social capital The environment and the surroundings are considered worthy of protection The economic framework favours the status quo. Sole focus on economic gains in the short-term Fear of higher (investment) costs Investment subsidies for particular elements (e.g. solar power related equipment) Increased attractiveness to investors and citizens due to enhanced liveability Delayed visibility of benefits Improvements on conventional solutions become increasingly clear only in the medium to long term. Use of scenarios of different alternatives and sectoral good practice examples to support the recognition of benefits Faktor-faktor mengapa Dipilih perumahan skala besar 3 Aspek utama: Teknologi, Stakeholders Institusi

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