apa? aksi : berbuat sesuatu / melawan; bukan hanya diam / pasrah / takluk pacifism? active nonviolence? nirkekerasan : tidak menggunakan kekerasan, baik terhadap diri sendiri maupun lawan jahit mulut, mogok makan, puasa, bakar diri, lempar batu? “an umbrella term for describing a range of methods for dealing with conflict which share the common principle that physical violence, at least against other people, is not used” (Weber & Burrowes 1991: 1) diplomasi, negosiasi? prasyarat: complementarity of nonviolent action & conflict resolution (Veronique Dudouet) diwarnai bentrokan dan makian, mengganggu kepentingan umum, dll? untuk menggulingkan kekuasaan?
apa? Gene Sharp (1973: 64) Nonviolent action is about “deny(-ing) the enemy the human assistance and cooperation which are necessary if he is to exercise control over the population” It is one response to the problem of how to act effectively in politics, especially on how to wield power effectively (Sharp 1973: 64). Peter Ackerman and Christopher Kruegler (1994: 4) Nonviolent actions are “methods capable of bringing pressure to bear against the most ruthless opponents, by mobilizing social, economic, and political power, without recourse to killing or otherwise causing direct physical injury to the opponents or their agents”. Mohandas Karamchad Gandhi Ahimsa, or the principle of non-violence, is in man’s nature itself (Gandhi, in Merton 1964: 23) and can be effectively taught only by living it (Gandhi 1966: 5), or in other words, embracing it as a way of life. The Gandhian concept of nonviolence is more than merely rejecting violence. It is also about love, seeking for truth, building positive relationships, and developing just structures – sometimes involving self-suppression and suffering. The term satyagraha, which in many literatures is simply translated as nonviolent action, actually means an ongoing and persistent search for truth and a determination to achieve truth. Here, the exclusion of violence is based on the notion that no one is capable of knowing the absolute truth (Gandhi, cited in Burrowes 1996: 107-108). (1) ideologis/pragmatis? (2) mengapa perlu dibedakan?
the consent theory of power power is pluralistic, not monolithic or inherently possessed by one party political power emerges from the interaction of all or several of these sources: (1) authority, or the acceptance by others of one’s right to command, (2) human resources, (3) skills and knowledge of the power holder and his or her supporters, (4) intangible factors, such as psychological considerations and ideological conditioning, (5) material resources, meaning one’s possession and, or, control, over properties, natural and financial resources, economic system, means of communication and transportation, and (6) the type and extent of sanctions at the power holder’s disposal a power holder is dependent on the obedience and cooperation of others in allowing him or her to gain access to the above sources – nonviolence is about exploiting this dependency, i.e. by withdrawing the consent or obstructing the power holder from getting the resources needed for exercising power “nonviolent action is possible, and is capable of wielding great power even against ruthless rulers and military regimes, because it attacks the most vulnerable characteristic of all hierarchical institutions and governments: dependence on the governed” (Sharp cited in Ackerman and Duvall 2000: 9).
beberapa cerita “… when the Japanese approach, the people evacuate the village completely, bury their food, remove all animals and utensils, and retire to the hills. The Japanese must, therefore, bring with them everything they need” (George Taylor, cited in Sharp 1973: 211).
beberapa cerita “… each morning an entire platoon of Chinese soldiers would march out on the ice and lowering their trousers train their buttocks towards the Soviet side, the ultimate in Chinese insults. This exercise continued until one morning just as the Chinese assumed their positions the Russians set up large portraits of Mao facing in their direction. The Chinese hastily covered themselves and retired in confusion. There were no repetitions” (Edmund Stevens, cited in Sharp 1973: 145).
beberapa cerita “The year was 1600, or thereabouts, when these tribal feminists decided that they had enough of unregulated warfare by their men. Lysistratas among the Indian women proclaimed a boycott on lovemaking and childbearing. Until the men conceded to them the power to decide upon war and peace, there would be no more warriors. Since the Iroquois men believed that women alone knew the secret of birth, the feminist rebellion was instantly successful” (Stan Steiner, cited in Sharp 1973: 191).
198 metode aksi nirkekerasan 52 metode protes & persuasi 16 metode nonkooperasi sosial 49 metode nonkooperasi ekonomi 38 metode nonkooperasi politik 41 metode intervensi
mengapa? (2) (meskipun menghadapi lawan yang tidak segan-segan menggunakan kekerasan) kekerasan hanya akan melahirkan kekerasan mentalitas korban, justifikasi kekerasan hanya mereproduksi masalah, bukan menyelesaikannya (i.e. violent counterterrorism measures) ideologis sekejam apapun, lawan adl manusia, sehingga bisa diketuk nuraninya membangun kepercayaan lawan ada lawan taktis, ada lawan strategis pragmatis dengan atau tanpa kekerasan, peluang menang kecil, jadi lebih baik tanpa kekerasan, supaya tidak ada alasan legal/valid bagi lawan untuk menggunakan kekerasan (demo mahasiswa 1998) bagaimanapun, aksi nirkekerasan jauh lebih ‘murah’ great chain of nonviolence (Galtung)
mengapa? (3) strategis vs taktis alasan kolektif vs alasan personal alasan altruis vs alasan egois ingin perubahan – protes – tidak mau terlibat kesalahan lawan – cari aman percaya vs ikut-ikutan swakarsa vs dibayar tujuan baik vs tujuan buruk oleh si lemah vs oleh si kuat Mayor of Bogota, PM of Thailand nonviolent policing, nonviolent counterinsurgency
bagaimana? mechanisms of change (Lakey + Sharp) konversi : lawan terketuk nuraninya, berbalik mendukung tujuan kita persuasi : lawan tidak terketuk nuraninya untuk mendukung kita, namun berhasil diyakinkan bahwa kita bukan ‘penjahat’ yang pantas menerima tindak kekerasan koersi : lawan tidak terketuk nuraninya, masih mengganggap kita ‘jahat/sesat’ tetapi terpaksa menurut keinginan kita disintegrasi : struktur kekuasaan lawan hancur
bagaimana? metode (Sharp) Protest and persuasion: “includes a large number of method which are mainly symbolic acts of peaceful opposition or of attempted persuasion, extending beyond verbal expressions but stopping short of noncooperation and nonviolent intervention.” Noncooperation: “deliberately withdraw the usual forms and degree of cooperation with the person, activity, institution, regime with which they have become engaged in conflict.” Nonviolent intervention: “operate(s) both negatively and positively: they may disrupt, and even destroy, established behavior patterns, policies, relationships, or institutions which are seen as objectionable; or they may establish new behavior patterns, policies, relationships, or institutions which are prefered.” active nonviolence?
contoh metode raid / air raid nv invasion nv interjection nv obstruction nv harrasment dumping boycott vegan & veggie stay at home lysistratic sanctuary strike
enhancing the margins of success tingkat represi kultur politik asertivitas dalam menyampaikan pendapat budaya kekerasan kesamaan kultur politik taktik dan persiapan rencana a – z rencana komplemen antisipasi represi kepemilikan dan keterikatan dengan isu simpati polarisasi – anda mau berada di kapal yang mana? alasan yang kuat
Power is not only what you have but what the enemy thinks you have. Never go outside the experience of your people. When an action is outside the experience of the people, the result is confusion, fear, and retreat. Wherever possible go outside of the experience of the enemy. Here you want to cause confusion, fear, and retreat. Make the enemy live up to their own book of rules. You can kill them with this, for they can no more obey their own rules than the Christian church can live up to Christianity. Ridicule is man's most potent weapon. It is almost impossible to counterattack ridicule. Also it infuriates the opposition, who then react to your advantage. A good tactic is one that your people enjoy. If your people are not having a ball doing it, there is something very wrong with the tactic. A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag. man can sustain militant interest in any issue for only a limited time, after which it becomes a ritualistic commitment... Keep the pressure on, with different tactics and actions, and utilize all events of the period for your purpose. The threat is usually more terrifying than the thing itself. The major premise for tactics is the development of operations that will maintain a constant pressure upon the opposition. If you push a negative hard and deep enough it will break through into its counterside; this is based on the principle that every positive has its negative... The price of a successful attack is a constructive alternative. You cannot risk being trapped by the enemy in his sudden agreement with your demand and saying "You're right--we don't know what to do about this issue. Now you tell us." Pick the target, freeze it, personalize it, and polarize it.