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BIOLOGI MOLEKULER I.Pengenalan Biologi Molekuler II.Materi Genetik Struktur dan Sifat Asam Nukleat Replikasi DNA, Mutasi dan Repair DNA III. Ekspresi Gena.

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Presentasi berjudul: "BIOLOGI MOLEKULER I.Pengenalan Biologi Molekuler II.Materi Genetik Struktur dan Sifat Asam Nukleat Replikasi DNA, Mutasi dan Repair DNA III. Ekspresi Gena."— Transcript presentasi:

1 BIOLOGI MOLEKULER I.Pengenalan Biologi Molekuler II.Materi Genetik Struktur dan Sifat Asam Nukleat Replikasi DNA, Mutasi dan Repair DNA III. Ekspresi Gena Transkripsi, Translasi, dan Regulasi IV. Pertumbuhan Sel Eukariot Sel Signaling dan Siklus Sel V. Transformasi Genetik Rekombinasi, Transposon dan Retrovirus

2 III. DAFTAR PUSTAKA Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, A.L., Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D., Darnell, J., 2000, Molecular cell Biology, 4th ed., Freeman and Company, New York. Alberts,B., Bray, D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Robert, K., Watson, JD., 1994, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3th ed.,Garland Publishing, Inc, New York. Devlin T.M., 2002, Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 5th ed., wiley-Liss, New York. Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., Stryer.,2002, Biochemistry, 5th ed.,W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. Freifelder, D.,1987, Molecular Biology, 2th ed., Jones and Bartlett Publisher, Boston. Glick, B.R. and Pasternak, J.J., 1998, Molecular Biotechnology, Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA, 2nd. Ed. ASM Press, Washington DC. Brown, T.A., 2001, Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis, An Introduction, 4th ed., Blackwell Science, UK

3 46 (Berg JM et al, 2002) Human 2.9x10 9 bp

4 REKAYASA GENETIK TEKNOLOGI GENA FARMASETIK

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6 ProkariotEukariot Organisme Bakteria dan sianobakteria Fungi, hewan, manusia Ukuran sel  m  m Organel Beberapa / tidak ada Inti, mitokondria, kloroplast GENOM Sirkuler dalam sitoplasma, Satu molekul kromosom Linier panjang, dipak rapi dgn protein histon dalam inti. Manusia mempunyai 46 cromosom RNA dan protein Disintesis dalam sitoplasma RNA : dalam inti, Protein: dalam sitoplasma OrganisasiUniselMultisel PERBEDAAN PROKARIOT & EUKARIOT

7 mRNATranslation RNAses Decay Proteins TurnoverInteractions Modification Regulatory factors Localization DNA mRNA IFs, EF, RF

8 mRNAStorageTranslation RNAses Decay Proteins TurnoverInteractions Modification (PO 4 /dPO 4, glycosylation) Regulatory factors Localization Pre-mRNA Capping Polyadenylation Splicing mRNA eIFs, eEF, eRF

9 II. MATERI GENETIK Mahluk hidup tersusun dari  SEL yang dapat membelah dan menurunkan INFORMASI GENETIK nya Dibawa oleh DNA : rantai polimer panjang yang merupakan rangkaian dari jutaan nukleotida Molekul DNA yang terdiri dari beberapa gena di paking membentuk CHROMOSOM Total informasi genetik yang tersimpan dalam kromosom  GENOM Fragmen DNA yang mengkode protein, suatu unit keturunan  Gena

10 What Is Cloning? A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism, such as the famous sheep ‘Dolly’ Similar to an identical twin

11 The Making of Dolly Cloning depends on DNA Step 1: Take the Nuclei out of a sheep egg Empty DNA Step 2: Transfer nuclei from the Mother Sheep Egg Mother’s Egg

12 Hello Dolly She was cloned using a cell taken from a healthy six-year-old sheep July 5, 1996, Dolly was born at the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland

13 Nucleus Cloning and the Cell Its all about DNA

14 Cloning Depends on DNA Nucleus Chromosome

15 Good-Bye Dolly Dolly’s DNA was already 6 years old when she was born - WHY?  At age 3 Dolly showed signs of premature aging.  Dolly died at 6 years old from progressive lung disease (symptom of old age)  At age 3 Dolly showed signs of premature aging.  Dolly died at 6 years old from progressive lung disease (symptom of old age) It’s all about DNA

16 Chromosome DNA Gene 1 Gene 2 Telomeres TTAGGG

17 Telomere Length Declines ,500 3,000 8,000 Age (years) Telomere length in base pairs (human white blood cells) Telomere length in base pairs (human white blood cells)

18 More on Dolly and Cloning How many failures will it take to produce a human Dolly’s experimenters used 277 cloned embryos to produce one sheep, meaning 276 failed. Question

19 Other Cloned Animals July 1998 cloned calves Cloned mule Cloned mouse

20 Future Experiments ButterCat CatCow

21 Future Experiments SparrowBoxer TigerOwl

22 JUMLAH BASA VS KOMPLEKS MAKHLUK

23 Chromosomes

24 Chromosomes

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26 Human Genome Genome inti 23 pasang kromosome  2x (4x10 9 bp)  2 m DNA/sel Genome mitokondria

27 Some organisms are diploid - that is, they have paired homologous chromosomes in their somatic cells, and thus contain two copies of each gene. An organism in which both copies of the gene are identical - that is, have the same allele - is said to be homozygous for that gene. An organism which has two different alleles of the gene is said to be heterozygoushomozygous heterozygous

28 E. Coli 4.7 x 10 6  1 Chromosom 40 – 50 loop superkoil Human 4 x 10 9  22 autosom yang berbeda 2 sex kromosom Masing2 single linier DNA

29 Kromosom tanpa histon

30 DNA CHROMOSOME

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32 KROMOSOM CENTROMER region dari chromosom yang diperlukan untuk pengikatan mitotic spindle saat proses mitosis TELOMER fragmen di ujung chromosom linier replikasi secara khusus untuk mencegah perpendekan chromosom ORIGIN REPLIKASI tempat awal replikasi berlangsung

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39 mRNA Transcription Introduction The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Cell Polypeptide (protein) Translation Ribosome Reverse tanscription DNA

40 KOMPOSISI GENA FUNGSIONAL PROMOTER OPERATOR ACTIVATOR BINDING SITE STRUKTURAL GEN : mRNA TERMINATOR

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