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PERTUKARAN DAN PASAR.  Konsep Pertukaran dan Opportunity Cost  Pengertian Pasar  Pasar Barang Dan Jasa  Kegagalan Pasar dan Peran Pemerintah  Eksternalitas,

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Presentasi berjudul: "PERTUKARAN DAN PASAR.  Konsep Pertukaran dan Opportunity Cost  Pengertian Pasar  Pasar Barang Dan Jasa  Kegagalan Pasar dan Peran Pemerintah  Eksternalitas,"— Transcript presentasi:


2  Konsep Pertukaran dan Opportunity Cost  Pengertian Pasar  Pasar Barang Dan Jasa  Kegagalan Pasar dan Peran Pemerintah  Eksternalitas, Public Goods Dan Private Goods  Free Rider Problems

3  An old song lyric maintains that “the best things in life are free.  ” A moment’s thought reveals a long list of goods that the songwriter could have had in mind.”

4  Free goods provide a special challenge for economic analysis. Most goods in our economy are allocated in markets, where buyers pay for what they receive and sellers are paid for what they provide.  For these goods, prices are the signals that guide the decisions of buyers and sellers. When goods are available free of charge, however, the market forces that normally allocate resources in our economy are absent.

5 Apa itu pasar & bagaimana bekerjanya pasar dapat dianalisis dg konsep ekonomi demand & supply Pasar dari sisi demand & sisi supply Pada sisi demand ada konsumen & pada sisi supply ada produsen

6  A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service. The buyers as a group determine the demand for the product, and the sellers as a group determine the supply of the product.  Place/ tempat  bukan secara fisik  Penjual dan pembeli masing2 membawa kepentingannya ke pasar

7  Markets take many forms.  Sometimes markets are highly organized, such as the markets for many agricultural commodities. In these markets, buyers and sellers meet at a specific time and place, where an auctioneer helps set prices and arrange sales

8  More often, markets are less organized. For example, consider the market for ice cream in a particular town.  Buyers of ice cream do not meet together at any one time. The sellers of ice cream are in different locations and offer somewhat different products. There is no auctioneer calling out the price of ice cream. Each seller posts a price for an ice-cream cone, and each buyer decides how much ice cream to buy at each store.

9  Markets have evolved because they facilitate trade.  Without organized markets, we would miss out on a substantial part of the potential gains from trade.

10  Di dalam Pasar, terjadi pertukaran barang dan jasa menggunakan alat tukar yang disepakati.  A voluntary exchange between two people makes both people better off.

11  The opportunity cost of something is what you sacrifice to get it  Ex:  Fred s opportunity cost of 1 coconut is 3 fish that s how many fish he could catch in the time required to gather 1 coconut.  Similarly, his opportunity cost of a fish is 1/3 coconut, the number of coconuts he could gather in the time required to catch 1 fish.  For Kate, the opportunity cost of 1 coconut is 1 fish, and the opportunity cost of 1 fish is 1 coconut.

12 Coba ingat prinsip ekonomi No.6 !!!!


14  Perekonomian pasar  keputusan2 para perencana pusat diambil alih oleh jutaan perusahaan rumah tangga (keputusan masing2 apa yang harus dibeli atau dijual) sehingga memperhitungkan biaya dan manfaat  harga dapat membimbing para pengambil keputusan di tingkat individual mengambil pilihan yang, dalam banyak kasus, memaksimalkan kesejahteraan masyarakat secara keseluruhan

15  Markets are useful resource allocation mechanisms because they are automatic, responsive to changes in consumer preferences and, under the right conditions, allocatively efficient (Wonderling, 2005).

16  A free market is one in which there is perfect competition. It is characterized by four features: many producers selling the same product to many purchasers; no restrictions on potential producers entering the market; existing producers have no advantage over the new producers; producers and purchasers are well informed about prices.

17  Dlm situasi pasar persaingan sempurna (perfect market) produsen dpt menjual semua yg diinginkan (jd memaksimalkan profit) dan konsumen dpt membeli semua yg diinginkan (jd memaksimalkan utility)  maximum utility at least cost  Prasyarat: memenuhi asumsi krusial

18 - Certainty /predictable Konsumen tahu apa yg diinginkan, kapan menginginkan, & dimana bisa mendapatkan - No externalities - Perfect knowledge - Consumers act free 1. Konsumen bertindak bebas atas interest-nya sendiri dalam membuat keputusan konsumsi 2.Konsumen bertindak bebas atas interest-nya sendiri dalam menyediakan barang yg dihargai tinggi oleh konsumen relatif thd harganya - Numerous, small producers with no market power 1.Skala tiap-2 produsen adl kecil & berjumlah banyak shg tidak memiliki kekuatan mendikte pasar 2.Mereka saling bersaing hanya berdasarkan harga 3.Utk mempertahankan konsumen, produsen menahan harga serendah mungkin  biaya menjadi minimal

19  A situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate resources efficiently for social welfare (maximizing health benefits) and price optimalization.  Example: imperfect information, imperfect competition, public goods, externalities

20  The uncompensated impact of one person’s actions on the well-being of a bystander (Mankiw, 2011)  Cost or benefit arising from an individual’s production or consumption decision which indirecly affects the well-being of others (wonderling, 2005).  An action undertaken by an individual (or firm) has secondary effect on others, which maybe favorable or unfavorable  Externalities result in a non-optimal amount of output being produced because an individual or firm considers only their own benefits and costs when making a production or consumption decisions (Feldstein, 1994)

21  Positif -Positive externalities in production or consumption lead markets to produce a smaller quantity than is socially desirable. Co: Vaksinasi, Imunisasi  Negatif -Negative externalities in production or consumption lead markets to produce a larger quantity than is socially desirable. Co: Pencemaran Lingkungan



24  Pemerintah dapat mengintervensi dalam pasar untuk mengurangi dampak negatif eksternalitas -Pemberlakuan pajak dari kerugian biaya sosial dari kegiatan yang merugikan itu. (internalizing an externality :altering incentives so that people take account of the external effects of their actions) Pigovian tax : a tax enacted to correct the effects of a negative externality -Subsidi -Pembuatan regulasi -Transfer Program: Medicaid and Medicare in US (Folland et.all, 1997)


26  Masyarakat bisa meminimalkan eksternalitas negatif atau meningkatkan produksi untuk eksternalitas positif  Contoh: Mobil menggunakan standar emisi yang ditetapkan, hibah ke institusi pelayanan kesehatan

27  How well do markets work in providing the goods that people want?  The answer to this question depends on the good being considered.  In thinking about the various goods in the economy, it is useful to group them according to two characteristics: -Is the good excludable? Can people be prevented from using the good? -Is the good rival? Does one person’s use of the good diminish another person’s enjoyment of it?

28  RIVALRY -the property of a good whereby one person’s use diminishes other people’s use -Ex: buy clothes, eat banana, take drug It’s imposible to eat/use it together  EXCLUDABILITY  the property of a good whereby a person can be prevented from using it or can be gotten by paying a certain number  Ex: toll road

29  Private goods - both excludable and rival - Barang tidak dapat dikonsumsi secara bersama (rival), tetapi untuk menikmatinya harus membayar (eksklusif)  Public Goods - neither excludable nor rival - Barang dapat dikonsumsi secara bersama (non-rival), tetapi untuk menikmatinya tidak harus membayar (non-eksklusif)  Common Resources - are rival but not excludable - Barang tidak dapat dikonsumsi secara bersama (rival), tetapi untuk menikmatinya tidak harus membayar (non-eksklusif)  Natural Monopolies - are excludable but not rival - Barang dapat dikonsumsi secara bersama (non-rival), tetapi untuk menikmatinya tidak harus membayar (non-eksklusif)


31  A public good is ‘a good or service that can be consumed simultaneously by everyone and from which no individuals can be excluded (Wonderling, 2005) Ciri-ciri:  Non Excludability  Non Rival  No Marginal cost (tidak menambah biaya). Biaya yang dirasakan oleh 1 orang dengan 20 orang sama  Externality Manfaat intervensi 1 orang bisa dirasakan oleh lebih 1 orang

32  If the provider of a public good tries to ask people how much they are willing to pay to receive it, consumers say they don’t want it.  Why?  Because the consumers know that once the good is provided they can consume it even if they don’t pay for it. This is called the free-rider problem’ (Parkin et al. 2003).  Free rider is a person who receives the benefit of a good but avoids paying for it (Mankiw, 2011).

33  Masyarakat tidak bisa dicegah untuk menikmati layanan penyediaan barang publik. Ada individu yang tidak mau membayar untuk pelayanan publik ini.  Masalah ini membuat private market tidak menyediakan layanan barang publik (Najib, 2011)

34  Solusi untuk masalah free rider -pemerintah dapat memutuskan memberikan pelayanan publik, jika total keuntungan yang dinikmati lebih besar dari biaya yang dibutuhkan Memerlukan tools CBA -pemerintah memberikan layanan barang publik melalui pembayaran pajak dari warganya Untuk Welfare Economics

35  According to economic theory, there are three main areas of government activity: redistribution of wealth and income; stabilization of the macroeconomy (to keep unemployment, inflation and economic growth at reasonable levels); correction of microeconomic market failure.  As regards the last of these, there are four circumstances in which governments can and should get involved: ensuring and protecting public goods; controlling monopoly power; reducing externalities; reducing asymmetry of information redistribusion

36  Jelaskan Jenis –jenis dan klasifikasi Pasar barang dalam ekonomi ?

37  Analisis pernyataan berikut. Apakah sampah merupakan eksternalitas positif atau negatif? Mengapa pasar merupakan solusi terbaik di dalam kasus ini?  Sejak pergantian abad kedua puluh, peternak di kota New Jersey menggunakan limbah makanan di kota Philadelphia untuk memberi makan ternak sapi mereka.  Philadelphia menghemat $ 3 juta per tahun dan mengurangi gundukan sampahnya dengan membiarkan peternak New Jersey mengambil sisa-sisa makanan untuk daur ulang makanan ternak mereka.  Kota ini dibayar $ oleh peternak New Jersey untuk mengambil sampah setiap tahun, dengan tarif $ 79 per ton. Jika tidak, kota harus harus membayar $ 125 per ton ke dewan kota untuk daur ulang di tepi jalan sekitar peternakan mereka dari limbah makanan tersebut.

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