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Materi ke - 1. A Basic Model of Inquiry Pertanyaan Teori Observasi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Materi ke - 1. A Basic Model of Inquiry Pertanyaan Teori Observasi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Materi ke - 1

2 A Basic Model of Inquiry Pertanyaan Teori Observasi

3 Tiga tahap dalam penelitian The first, is asking questions : - Questions of definition call for concepts as answers, seeking to clarify what is observed or inferred,(What is it ? What will we call it?) - Question of fact ask about properties and relations in what is observed, (What does it consist of ? How does it relate to other things ?) - Question of value probe aesthetic, pragmatic, and ethical qualities of the observed (Is it beautiful ? Is it effective ? Is it good ?)

4 The second, is observation : - Metode yang digunakan bermacam – macam, berbeda antara satu tradisi dengan yang lain. - Mereka mengobservasi dengan mengkaji catatan atau artefak, keterlibatan personal, menggunakan alat dan mengontrol eksperimen, wawancara. The third, is constructing answers : - Di sini, peneliti berusaha untuk mendefinisikan, mendeskripsikan dan menjelaskan dan membuat penilaian. Tahap ini biasanya merujuk sebagai TEORI.

5 Tahap – tahapan tersebut tidak selalu berjalan linier ! Setiap tahap mempengaruhi dan dipengaruhi oleh yang lain Observasi sering memunculkan pertanyaan baru, teori – teori hadir karena observasi dan pertanyaan. Teori menimbulkan pertanyaan baru, dan observasi ditentukan sebagian oleh teori. Dengan demikian maka, penelitian, lebih seperti berjalan di sekitar lingkaran, kemudian berjalan dalam garis lurus.

6 Sifat Teori Teori adalah ABSTRAKSI  mereduksi pengalaman menjadi “a set of a categories and as a result always leave something out”  fokus pada hal-hal tertentu dan mengabaikan diluarnya  Tidak ada satupun teori yang dapat menjawab semua “truth” atau mampu menjelaskan suatu subyek penelitian

7 Teori adalah KONSTRUKSI  Teori merepresentasi bermacam cara observer melihat lingkungannya, tapi teori itu sendiri tidak merefleksikan realitas  Abraham Kaplan: “The formation of theory is not just the discovery of a hidden fact; the theory is a way of looking at the facts, of organizing and representing them”

8  Stanley Deetz: “a theory is a way of seeing and thinking about the world. As such it is better seen as the ‘lens’ one uses in observation than as a ‘mirror’ of nature”  Karena teori adalah konstruksi, maka mempertanyakan KEGUNAAN teori akan lebih bijak daripada mempertanyakan KEBENARAN.  Apapun kebenaran yang diberikan, dapat direpresentasikan dengan berbagai cara, tergantung orientasi para ahli

9 Teori terkait dengan TINDAKAN Bagaimana kita berpikir menuntun bagaimana kita bertindak; bagaimana kita bertindak menuntun bagaimana kita berpikir Dalam ilmu pengetahuan formal theories dan intellectual practices are inseparable. James Anderson: “Theory..contains a set of instructions for reading the world and acting in it.. [It] speaks to the singular, overarching question of ‘What do I believe to be true..?’”

10 Elemen Dasar Teori Asumsi-asumsi Filosofis Konsep-konsep Eksplanasi Prinsip-prinsip  Suatu yang layak disebut teori minimal punya 3 elemen yang pertama.

11 Asumsi – asumsi Filosofis Epistemologi (questions of knowledge) Ontologi (questions of existence) Aksiologi (questions of value)

12 Asumsi Filosofis - Epistemologi Epistemologi  Branch of philosophy that studies knowledge, or how people know what they claim to know. To what extent can knowledge exist before experience? To what extent can knowledge be certain? By what process does knowledge arise? Is knowledge best conceived in parts or wholes? To what extent is knowledge explicit?

13 Asumsi Filosofis - Epistemologi To what extent can knowledge exist before experience? Umumnya orang percaya bahwa semua pengetahuan berasal dari pengalaman Kita mengamati dunia dan karenanya menjadi tahu tentang sesuatu Lantas apakah tidak ada yang alami dalam diri kita hingga menjadi pengetahuan sebelum kita menemukan realitasnya? Banyak filosof percaya itu Kapasitas berpikir dan mempersepsi sering menjadi “pembukti” dari kebenaran anggapan tentang suatu hal.

14 Asumsi Filosofis - Epistemologi To what extent can knowledge be certain? Apakah pengetahuan bersifat absolut hingga berlaku bagi siapa/apapun juga? Absolutis akan dapat mengakui adanya kesalahan dalam teori yang diyakininya. Tapi itu lebih karena “si teori” belum sepenuhnya utuh. Relativis percaya bahwa pengetahuan tidak akan pernah pasti, karena realitas universal itu tidak ada.

15 By what process does knowledge arise? 1. Rationalism - Pengetahuan muncul dari kekuatan pikiran manusia untuk tahu kebenaran - Iman adalah tempat paling dalam, pada penalaran manusia untuk memastikan kebenaran 2. Empiricism - Pengetahuan muncul dalam persepsi - Kita mengalami dunia dan secara harafiah “melihat” apa yang sedang terjadi

16 3. Constructivism - Orang menciptakan pengetahuan, agar dapat berfungsi secara pragmatis di dunia dan mereka membawa proyek mereka sendiri ke dalam apa yang mereka alami - Fenomena di dunia dapat berubah, dan bisa dipahami dengan berbagai macam cara dan pengatahuan adalah apa yang telah diperbuat / dilakukan oleh seseorang terhadap dunia.

17 4. Social Constructionism - Pengetahuan adalah hasil interaksi simbolik dalam kelompok sosial - Dengan kata lain, realitas sosial dibangun dan merupakan hasil kelompok dan kehidupan budaya

18 Asumsi Filosofis - Epistemologi Is knowledge best conceived in parts or wholes? Kaum gestalt mengajarkan pengetahuan sejati adalah terdiri dari hal – hal yang umum, menyeluruh, pemahaman tak terpisahkan. Mereka percaya bahwa fenomen – fenomena tersebut beroperasi sebagai sebuah sistem Analisis percaya, bahwa pengetahuan adalah memahami bagaimana bagian – bagian beroperasi secara terpisah

19 Asumsi Filosofis - Epistemologi To what extent is knowledge explicit? Banyak ahli berpendapat bahwa kita tidak dapat mengetahui sesuatu kalau kita tidak menyatakannya. * knowledge is that which can explicitly be articulated Ahli lain berpendapat banyak pengetahuan yang hidden (tacit)  orang hanya dapat menggunakan sensibilitas/ kepekaan yang tidak disadari dan mereka tidak ingin mengekspresikannya

20 Asumsi-asumsi Filosofis - Ontologi Ontologi  Branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of being To what extent do humans make real choices? Is human behavior is best understood in terms of states or traits? Is human experience primarily individual or social? To what extent is communication contextual?

21 Asumsi-asumsi Filosofis - Ontologi In social sciences, ontology deals largely with the nature of human existence In communication, ontology centers on the nature of human social interaction because being is intricately intertwined with issues of communication * the way a theorist conceptualizes interaction depends in large measure on how the communicator viewed

22 Asumsi-asumsi Filosofis - Ontologi To what extent do humans make real choices ? Determinists * behavior is caused by a multitude of prior conditions that largely determine human behavior  Humans are basically reactive and passive Pragmatists People plan their behavior to meet future goals. people as active, decision-making beings who affect their own destinies

23 Asumsi-asumsi Filosofis - Ontologi Is human behavior is best understood in terms of states or traits? State View humans are dynamic and go through numerous states in the course of a day, year, and lifetime. Trait View people are mostly predictable because they display more or less consistent characteristics across time. Humans are seen as basically static.

24 Asumsi-asumsi Filosofis - Ontologi Is human experience primarily individual or social? Behavior dapat dimengerti sebagai individualistic, dengan unit analisisnya kesadaran/pikiran manusia secara individual Tetapi behavior juga dapat dimengerti berdasarkan kehidupan sosialnya, sebagai unit analisis utama. Menurut kelompok ini manusia tidak dapat dipisahkan dari relasi dengan others dalam kelompok dan kulturalnya.

25 Asumsi-asumsi Filosofis - Ontologi To what extent is communication contextual? Behavior is governed by universal principle. Human life and action are best understood by looking at universal factors Behavior is governed depends on situational factors. Because behavior is richly contextual and cannot be generalized beyond the immediate situation

26 Asumsi Filosofis - Aksiologi Aksiologi  Branch of philosophy concerned with studying values Can theory be value free?  To what extent does the process of inquiry itself affect what is being seen? What are the ends for which scholarship is conducted? To what extent should scholarship attempt to achieve social change?

27 Asumsi Filosofis - Aksiologi Can theory be value free? Classical science: Affirmative  theories and research are value free, scholarship is neutral, and that what the scholars attempts to do is to uncover the facts as they are. Modern science: not value free, not neutral, researcher’s work is always guided by preferences about what to study and how to conduct inquiry, scientists choices are affected by personal as well as institutional values.

28 Asumsi Filosofis - Aksiologi Theory and knowledge themselves affect the course of human life Potential problems: Scholars  agent of change; consider the ethical issues. Studying human life changes that life

29 Asumsi Filosofis - Aksiologi What are the ends for which scholarship is conducted? Traditional scientist  they are not responsible for the ways scientific knowledge is used Critical scientist  knowledge by is very nature is instrumentalist and control oriented and necessarily promotes power domination in society

30 Asumsi Filosofis - Aksiologi Traditional communication knowledge  communication is an administrative tool of the power elite Critical communication knowledge  do not themselves claim to be above power, but see themselves as making a choice in favor of a set of values that challenges domination in society rather that perpetuating it.

31 Asumsi Filosofis - Aksiologi To what extent should scholarship attempt to achieve social change? Many believe that the proper role of the scholar is to produce knowledge: Let the technicians and politicians do what they will with it. Others disagree: responsible scholarship involves an obligation to promote positive change. Two general positions: value-free vs. value- conscious

32 Konsep - konsep Things are grouped into conceptual categories according to observed qualities Concepts (terms & definitions) tell us what the theorist is looking at and what is considered important To determine concepts, the communication theorist observes many variables in human interaction and classifies and labels them according to perceived patterns.

33 Konsep - konsep The result is to formulate and articulate a set of labeled concepts. Theories that stop at the conceptual level are known as taxonomies  do not provide an understanding of how things work. The best theories provide explanations, to show how concepts are connected.

34 Eksplanasi Here the theorist identifies regularities or patterns in the relationships among variables. Causal explanation  events are connected as causal relationships; one variable seen as an outcome or result of the other. Explain outcomes as responses, the consequent event is determined by some antecedent event

35 Eksplanasi Practical explanation  actions as a goal related, with the action designed to achieve a future state. Action as controllable and strategic, outcomes are made to happen by actions that are chosen In the social sciences, the connection is rarely taken as absolute. We can say “often” or “usually” to describe the probable relationship.

36 Prinsip - Prinsip Is a guideline that enables you to interpret an event, make judgments about what is happening, and then decide how to act in the situation. Has 3 parts: It identifies a situation or event It includes a set of norms or values It assert a connection between a range of actions and possible consequences


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