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PERTANYAAN PENELITIAN YANG BAGUS Good Research Question.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PERTANYAAN PENELITIAN YANG BAGUS Good Research Question."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PERTANYAAN PENELITIAN YANG BAGUS Good Research Question

2 FEASIBLE CLEAR SIGNIFICANT ETHICAL PERTANYAAN PENELITIAN YANG BAGUS Good Research Question Sumber: homepages.wmich.edu/.../Lecture%202%20-...‎

3 “Pertanyaan-Penelitian” yang Bagus: The question should be feasible: it can be investigated without an undue amount of time, energy, or money. è How do students feel about the new guidance program? è Is a whole-language approach to reading more or less effective than a basal approach? Sumber: homepages.wmich.edu/.../Lecture%202%20-...‎

4 n The question should be clear: most people would agree as to what the key words in the question mean. è Did the 2nd grade math curriculum work? è Is mainstreaming effective? è Key words? è Rephrase question. “Pertanyaan-Penelitian” yang Bagus:

5 n The question is significant: is the question worth investigating in terms of time needed, energy required, effect on or for subjects. è What is the effect on student self-esteem when taught to type on a manual typewriter vs. a Pentium II computer with a high resolution video screen? è Does an in-school suspension program decrease problematic behaviors? è Problems? “Pertanyaan-Penelitian” yang Bagus:

6 n The question is ethical: it will not involve physical or psychological harm or damage to human beings, or to the natural or social environment of which they are apart. è Apakah hukuman fisik lebih efektif daripada penguatan positif dalam menurunkan “gangguan kencing”? è Will students master basic math facts faster if instruction is delayed until grade 2? “Pertanyaan-Penelitian” yang Bagus:

7 Tipe-tipe Penelitian 1. Penelitian Deskriptif 2. Penelitian Historis 3. Penelitian Eksperimental

8 1.Penelitian yang mendeskripsikan “APA”, menjelaskan, mencatat, menganalisis, dan menafsirkan kondisi yang ada. 2.Melibatkan beberapa jenis pembandingan dan upaya untuk menemukan hubungan antara variabel yang tidak dimanipulasi 3.Penelitian yang menjelaskan dan mendeskripsikan secara akurat karakteristik tertentu individu, situasi, atau kelompok 4.Digunakan sebagai sarana menemukan makna baru, menggambarkan apa yang dihaislkan, menentukan frekuensi kejadian sesuatu, dan kategorisasi informasi 5.Penyelidikan sistematis tentang hubungan antara dua variabel atau lebih, tanpa menentukan atau menafsirkan sebab dan akibatnya. Penelitian Deskriptif

9 Mendeskripsikan “apa yang akan terjadi” kalau variabel tertentu dikendalikan atau dimanipulasi secara hati-hati objective, systematic, controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and examining probability and causality among selected variables. Penelitian Eksperimen

10 Penelitian Historis Involves investigating, recording, analyzing, and interpreting the events of the past for the purpose of discovering generalizations that are helpful in understanding the past and the present, and, to a limited extent, in anticipating the future * Penelitian yang menganalisis kejadian yang terjadi di masa lalu (masa lampau)

11 a.experimental b.descriptive c.historical What do students think are the least popular courses in the high school curriculum, and why? Tipe-tipe Penelitian

12 Type of Research Design n How do parents feel about the elementary school counseling program? n a.experimental n b.descriptive n c.historical

13 Do students who have high scores on reading tests also have high scores on writing tests? a.experimental b.descriptive c.historical Tipe-tipe Disain Penelitian

14 Does team teaching help or hinder student learning? a.experimental b.descriptive c.historical

15 What sorts of activities are of most interest to slow learners? a.experimental b.descriptive c.historical Tipe-tipe Disain Penelitian

16 What effect does the gender of a counselor have on how he or she is received by counselees? a.experimental b.descriptive c.historical Tipe-tipe Disain Penelitian

17 Research Hypothesis & Types of Variables

18 Null Hypothesis and Research Hypothesis UJI HIPOTESIS ?

19 Hipotesis Null (H o ) n The null hypothesis – relates to a statistical method of interpreting conclusions about population characteristics that are inferred from observations made with a sample – asserts that observed differences or relationships merely result from chance errors inherent in the sampling process n If the researcher rejects the null hypothesis – she accepts the research hypothesis – concluding that the magnitude of difference between observed and anticipated is too great to attribute to sampling error

20 n Operational Definition: – MATH KNOWLEDGE è score obtained on the Stanford Diagnostic Test - Level - Brown – MATH SKILLS PRACTICE è number of problems completed on drill-and- practice work sheets n H0 – There will be no difference in Math Knowledge scores for students who practice and students that do not practice Hipotesis Null (H o )

21 n The research hypothesis – is a formal affirmative statement predicting a single research outcome – a tentative explanation of the relationship between two or more variables – is directional n In behavioral sciences – the variables may be abstractions that cannot be directly observed – these variables must be defined operationally by describing some sample of actual behaviors that are concrete enough to be observed directly Hipotesis Riset (H1)

22 n Operational Definition: – MATH KNOWLEDGE è score obtained on the Stanford Diagnostic Test - Level - Brown – MATH SKILLS PRACTICE è number of problems completed on drill-and- practice work sheets n H1 – Math Knowledge scores will be higher for students that practice Hipotesis Riset (H1)

23 Kemungkinan hasil Uji Hipotesis BenarSalah Terima Tolak Correct Error

24 TrueFalse Accept Reject Correct Decision Correct Decision Error Type I Error Type II Error Kesalahan Tipe I : Menolak Hipotesis yang BENAR Kesalahan Tipe II: Menerima Hippotesis yang SALAH Kemungkinan hasil Uji Hipotesis


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