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AUDIT SISTEM INFORMASI Standard Software. Information Architecture.

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Presentasi berjudul: "AUDIT SISTEM INFORMASI Standard Software. Information Architecture."— Transcript presentasi:

1 AUDIT SISTEM INFORMASI Standard Software

2 Information Architecture

3 Disiplin Web Science 1.Bukan tentang "WWW" SAJA 2.Tentang informasi terdistribusi dan saling terkait secara hyperlink 3.Interdisiplin

4 Trend yang ada 1.Web 0.0 (Era sebelum Web, radio, BBS dan lain sebagainya) 2.Web 1.0 (Universal akses, Konten yang portabel, dan hyperlink 3. Web 2.0 (Konten yang dihasilkan user,Social network, (coercive), Mobile access) 4.Web 3.0 (Fokus pada layanan universal, Berbasiskan semantik, Menunjang interoperabilitas)

5 Membuat aplikasi Web? Gampang 1.Berbasiskan web 2.Linux 3.Apache 4.MySQL 5.PHP PHPMySQL

6 Inovasi teknologi pendidikan N Keterbatasan jaringan Presentasi secara " REMOTE seperti streaming ATBC Bali oleh 150 peserta dari 20 negara

7 Portal pemerintah yg aman Content Management System yang dibangun dari scratch untuk kebutuhan pengguna non teknis (wartawan, pegawai pemerintah) Berita dapat dimasukkan dari semua satuan kerja, tetapi tetap dengan mekanisme persetujuan Ada fasilitas "preview" semua situs (bukan hanya 1 halaman) Mendukung tampilan mobile Tersedia untuk badan pemerintah melalui Univ. Putra Indonesia “YPTK” Padang

8 Trend yang ada 1.Web 0.0 (Era sebelum Web, radio, BBS dan lain sebagainya) 2.Web 1.0 (Universal akses, Konten yang portabel, dan hyperlink 3. Web 2.0 (Konten yang dihasilkan user,Social network, (coercive), Mobile access) 4.Web 3.0 (Fokus pada layanan universal, Berbasiskan semantik, Menunjang interoperabilitas)

9 Sistem Informasi Lanjut Manusia, organisasi SOP (Business Engineering) Cultur (index Hofstede) Pengguna (Ethnography, Activity Theory, Groupware Task Analysis) Menu/GUI ^ Concurs Task Tree (CTT), Predicate Action, Assurance ^ software verification,

10 Tingkat lanjut Requirement Analysis Requirement Engineering (Misuse, LWBA, I*) Specification Method (Formal, Z, VDM, TLA, Informal, Controlled Lang) Design Notation for Design (UML, SDL, IDEF), Workflow model (BPMN, swimlane, SOP_INFO) Paradigm of system (Language Oriented, Neural Network, Fuzzy etc) User Model (GOMS, Activity Theory etc) (CTT, GTA, HTA etc), Menu

11 Fungsi notasi SOP Penggunaan notasi ini berdasarkan beberapa alasan utama yaitu: Penjabaran dengan jelas siapa/organisasi mana yang bertanggung jawab untuk melaksanakan suatu akfitas. Penjabaran dengan jelas, alur dokumentasi yang ada. Sehingga dapat dilihat persyaratan dokumen yang dibutuhkan pada tiap aktifitas. Penjabaran dengan jelas alur koordinasi dan interaksi antar personal/orgranisasi yang terlibat. Penjelasan rentang waktu dilaksanakannya suatu

12 Cara membuat SOP 1.Bagi menjadi tugas-tugas (task) 2.Identifikasi "Aktor" (orang/organisasi) yang terlibat pada tugas tersebut 3.Identifikasi sub proses yang dilakukan oleh tiap aktor untuk mengerjakan task tersebut 4.Identifikasi informasi yang mengalir (yang dibutuhkan dan dihasilkan dari tiap sub proses)

13 Integrated view of BBSDM

14 Spesifikasi Sistem Untuk berkomunikasi dengan berbagai pihak dalam pengembangan, pengembang, pengguna, manajer proyek dsb. Digunakan dalam proses pengembangan (validasi, verifikasi, disain, implementasi, testing) Sebagai bagian dari kontrak (aspek legal)

15 Sumber kesalahan requirement 1.Kegagalan mengelola konflik secara efektif 2.Ketidak gamblangan pernyataan yang jelas tentang masalah disain yang harus dipecahkan 3.Terlalu banyak disambiguasi yang tak dideteksi 4.Tak mengetahui siapa yang bertanggung jawab untuk apa 5.Kurang peduli terhadap resiko requirement

16 Bahasa alami (Natural Language) Keuntungan: deklaratif luwes powerful diketahui, tak perlu belajar khusus berguna bagi pengguna biasa Kerugian : tidak jelas tidak presisi ambiguous bergantung pada pengguna dan konteks

17 Bahasa formal Keuntungan: sintaks dan semantik yang telah didefinisikan sebelumnya presisi unambiguous dapat diproses mesin Kerugian jarang dengan domain aplikasi memodelkan domain aplikasi notasi yang tidak biasa proses belajar khusus

18 Eksplisit vs Implisit Bahasa formal perlu menyatakan segalanya secara eksplisit Memproses bahasa alami harus mempertimbangkan elemen-elemen implisit Elemen implisit dapat menyambung kalimat membentuk teks yang koheren

19 Mengapa processable English Req. Informal : UNTUK BERKOMUNIKASI dengan pihak dalam pengembangna sistem Req. Formal requirement : UNTUK memverifikasi, validasi dan pengembangan lebih baik Ada gap antara informal dan formal.

20 Bhs. alami sebagai bhs. formal Awalnya digunakan diindustri untuk dokumentasi teknis Subsistem dan bahasa alami penuh dengan grammar yang terbatas dan gaya tertentu yang direkomendasikan Mereduksi ambiguitas dan meningkatkan komprehensibilitas Bisa dicheck menggunakan komputer Penterjemahan mesin Menggabungkan keuntungan dari bhs. formal dan informal.

21 Tahapan Development 1) Global Disain Use Case 2) Requirement Analysis ^ LWBA Features Organizational/Policy 3) Process Analysis Information Flow Standard Operating Procedure ^ SOP_INFO 4) Design dengan " PATTERN " Prototype dengan Wireframe tpool dan Report Tools 5) Evaluasi Prototype ^ Early Usability

22 Computer software is: – A group of programs that connects user with computer devices – Comprised of a sequence of instructions – Designed to instruct the computer to execute desired functions by the users Introduction

23 Introduction (cont’d) Software Layers

24 System Software What is system software? Programs that maintain operation of computer Operating Systems Utility Programs  Two categories

25 3.1 Operating System

26 – A group of programs that organize and manage the whole computer operations – OS is a set of instructions that coordinate all the internal activities among computer hardware, application programs and users Operating System  What is an operating system?

27 OS is controlled by the kernel. What is a kernel? – Kernel is the supervisor program that manage the memory and devices – Kernel is loaded into the memory from the hard disk (or other storage) during booting until computer is turned off – It is known as memory resident (because it resides in memory as long as the power is on. Non-resident are other programs that resides in hard disk at the same time) Operating System (cont’d)

28 The functions of an operating system administer security start the computer (Booting) manage memory monitor performance control a network provide a user interface manage programs provide file management and other utilities establish an Internet connection schedule jobs and configure devices Operating System (cont’d)

29 Booting  Cold boot Turning on computer that has been powered off  Warm boot Restarting computer that is powered on  Process of starting or restarting a computer Operating System (cont’d)

30 A personal computer boot up process Step 1. Power supply sends signal to com- ponents in system unit Step 4. Results of POST are compared with data in CMOS chip Step 2. Processor accesses BIOS to start computer Step 3. BIOS runs tests, called the POST, to check components such as mouse, keyboard, and adapter cards Step 5. BIOS looks for system files on a USB drive, in floppy disk drive or CD/DVD drive, and then hard disk Step 6. Kernel (core) of operating system loads into RAM Step 7. Operating system loads configuration information and displays desktop on screen Operating System (cont’d)

31 4 main functions of OS: – Manage computer programs – Manage computer hardware – Provides user interface – Support application software Operating System (cont’d)

32 Manage computer programs – Managing programs refers to how many users, and how many programs, an operating system can support at one time – An OS can be single tasking, multi-tasking, cooperative multi-tasking, preemptive multi- tasking, multithreading and multiprocessing – Single tasking Runs only one program at a time Operating System (cont’d)

33 – Multi-tasking Same concept as multiprogramming Allows 2 or more programs at the same time Divide the programs into active and inactive. Active application is called foreground application and inactive application is background application CPU does not run the programs simultaneously but manage the resources i.e. memory based on active/inactive applications Operating System (cont’d)

34 – Cooperative Multi-tasking Based on multi-tasking concept, whereby foreground application controls CPU until program ends But if program crashes/hang, OS needs to be rebooted – Preemptive Multi-tasking Based on multi-tasking concept But if program crashes/hang, OS is able to take over CPU so other programs can be maintained Operating System (cont’d)

35 – Multithreading One program may execute more than one task Example print and edit at the same time – Multiprocessing Use of 2 or more processor at the same time Programs run simultaneously Each processor manage own resources Hardware dependant esp. motherboard Operating System (cont’d)

36 Manage computer hardware – Memory Unit OS partitions the memory for each program. If memory is insufficient, OS may use virtual memory, which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM In virtual memory, programs/instructions are stored in fixed-sized unit called pages If memory if full, OS will copy pages into swap file in hard disk and reloaded into memory when needed Operating System (cont’d)

37 Step 1. The operating system transfers the least recently used data and program instructions to disk because RAM is needed for other functions. Step 2. The operating system transfers data and program instructions from hard disk to RAM when they are needed.  With virtual memory (VM), portion of hard disk is allocated to function as RAM Operating System (cont’d)

38 – Input/Output Devices OS provides interrupt handler, a mini program to handle interrupt from input/output devices. Examples of interrupt are mouse click/scroll/keyboard punch OS requires device driver to operates hardware devices. Drivers are loaded during booting Operating System (cont’d)

39 What is a device driver? Device Driver Program that tells operating system how to communicate with device With Plug and Play, operating system automatically configures new devices as you install them Also called driver Also called driver Operating System (cont’d)

40 Spooling  Sending print jobs to buffer instead of directly to printer  Print jobs line up in queue Operating System (cont’d)

41 Provides User Interface OS manages communication between the computers and users Users may login, run application programs, manage files (copy/save) and on/off computers using any type of interface There are 3 types of command instructions: i.Command line – Instructions to be typed in i.e. to save a file into diskette is C:\WINDOWS>copy C:myfile.doc a: – Users have to memorize instructions Operating System (cont’d)

42 ii.Menu-driven – User selects instruction from a text-based pull-down menu – Instructions are entered either via mouse click/ keyboard of arrow keys iii.Graphical user interface (GUI) – User selects instruction by mouse click or keyboard icons Operating System (cont’d)

43 User interface command-line interfacemenu-driven interface  Controls how you enter data and instructions and how information displays on screen Operating System (cont’d)

44 Graphical User Interface (GUI)  User interacts with menus and visual images such as icons and buttons Operating System (cont’d)

45 Device- dependent Runs only on specific type of computer Some characteristics of operating systems Downward compatible Works with application software written for earlier version of operating system Upward compatible Runs on new versions of operating system Proprietary software Privately owned and limited to specific vendor or computer model Device- independent Runs on many manufacturers’ computers

46 Stand-alone Three categories of operating systems Embedded Network

47  Stand-alone operating systems – Example: Windows Windows VersionYear Released Windows 3.x1990 Windows NT Windows Windows NT Workstation Windows Windows Millennium Edition 2000 Windows 2000 Professional2000 Windows XP2001 Windows XP SP22004 Windows Vista2006 Operating System (cont’d)

48  Fast, reliable Windows operating system Stand-Alone Operating Systems Windows XP  Available in five editions: Home Edition, Professional Edition, Tablet PC Edition, Media Center Edition, and 64-bit Edition

49  Successor to Windows XP, containing a new interface and new / enhanced features Stand-Alone Operating Systems Windows Vista  Available in several editions, grouped into Home and Business categories

50 Stand-Alone Operating Systems Mac OS X  Available only for computers manufactured by Apple  Macintosh operating system has been model for most GUIs

51 Stand-Alone Operating Systems UNIX  Used by power users because of its flexibility and power  Most versions offer GUI  Available for computers of all sizes

52 Stand-Alone Operating Systems Linux Red Hat provides a version of Linux called Red Hat Enterprise Linux.  Popular, free, multitasking UNIX-type operating system  Open-source software— code is available to public  Both a stand-alone and a network operating system

53 Network operating system  Allows users to share printer, Internet access, files, and programs on a network  Administers security by establishing user name and password for each user Operating System (cont’d)

54 Network Operating Systems Examples of network operating systems NetWare Designed for client/server networks Windows Server 2003 Upgrade to Windows 2000 Server UNIX / Linux Multi-purpose operating system Solaris  Version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems  Specifically for e-commerce applications

55 Embedded Operating Systems Embedded operating system  Found on most mobile computers, PDAs, and other small devices  Windows CE is scaled-down version of Windows

56 Embedded Operating Systems Operating systems for PDAs  Windows Mobile for Pocket PC  Palm OS for Palm

57 Embedded Operating Systems Embedded Linux  Scaled-down Linux operating system designed for PDAs, smart phones, smart watches, set-top boxes, Internet telephones, and other devices

58 Embedded Operating Systems Symbian OS  Open-source, multitasking operating system designed for smart phones  Make telephone calls, save appointments, browse Web, send and receive and faxes, and more

59 3.2 Utility Program

60 A small program that provides an addition to the capabilities provided by the operating system Performs maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs. Utility program

61 File manager  Performs functions such as copying, renaming, deleting, and moving files  Image viewer displays contents of graphics file when you double click on it OS Utility Program

62 Personal firewall  Detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions  The latest update to Windows XP automatically enables the built-in personal firewall upon installation OS Utility Program

63 Uninstaller In Windows XP, uninstaller is in Add/Remove Programs in Control Panel Removes a program and all associated files OS Utility Program

64 Disk scanner  Detects and corrects problems on hard disk  Searches for and removes unnecessary files OS Utility Program

65 Disk defragmenter  Reorganizes files and unused space on hard disk so programs run faster fragmented disk disk after defragmentation process OS Utility Program

66 Diagnostic utility  Compiles technical information about hardware and some software  Prepares report outlining problems OS Utility Program

67 Backup utility  Copies selected files or entire hard disk onto another storage medium  Most compress files during backup to require less storage space OS Utility Program

68 Screen saver  Causes monitor’s screen to display moving image or blank screen if there is no activity for a specified time  To secure computer, user configures screen saver to require password to deactivate OS Utility Program

69 Stand-Alone Utility Programs Antivirus program  Identifies and removes viruses in memory, storage media, and incoming files  Must be updated frequently

70 Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is a virus?  Potentially damaging computer program  Affects computer without user’s knowledge SIGNS OF VIRUS INFECTION An unusual message or image is displayed on the computer screen An unusual sound or music plays randomly The available memory is less than what should be available A program or file suddenly is missing An unknown program or file mysteriously appears The size of a file changes without explanation A file becomes corrupted A program or file does not work properly System properties change

71 Stand-Alone Utility Programs Spyware  Program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user  Often enters a computer as a result of a user installing a new program  A spyware remover is a program that detects and deletes spyware

72  Programs that remove or block certain items from being displayed Pop-up Blockers Stand-Alone Utility Programs Internet filters Anti-Spam Programs Web Filters

73 Stand-Alone Utility Programs File compression utility  Shrinks size of files to free up room and improve performance  Compressed files are sometimes called zipped files  Two popular utilities: Winrar and WinZip

74 Stand-Alone Utility Programs CD/DVD burning software  Writes text, graphics, audio, and video files to a recordable or rewriteable CD or DVD

75 Stand-Alone Utility Programs Personal computer maintenance utility  Identifies and fixes operating system problems and disk problems  Some continuously monitor computer to identify problems before they occur


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