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1 Striving For Excellence National Product and Its Fluctuation.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Striving For Excellence National Product and Its Fluctuation."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Striving For Excellence National Product and Its Fluctuation

2 2 Striving For Excellence NATIONAL INCOME National Income Accounting and Determination NATIONAL INCOME APPROACH 1.Production Approach = value added approach. Y = P1Q1 + P2Q PnQn. 2. Income Approach. Y = Yw + Yr + Yi + Yp) 3. Expenditure Approach. Y = C + I + G + (X-M) Warning: 1. Price 2. Underground Economy. 3. Intermediate Product (value Added System).

3 3 Striving For Excellence 1.PN RIIL  PN YG DIHIT ATAS DASAR HARGA KONSTAN 2.PN NOMINAL  YG YG DIHIT ATAS DASAR HARGA BERLAKU/HARGA PASAR PDB riil t= (PDB nominalt/IH)t x 100 Menghit pertumb ekonomi: (PDB t – PDB t-1)/ PDB) x 100 UNDERGROUND ECONOMY  DO IT YOUR SELF PRODUCTION, BARTER INTERMEDIATE PRODUCT (VALUE ADDED SYSTEM)  YG DIHIT ADL NILAI DARI FINAL PRODUCT

4 4 Striving For Excellence 1.PDB KONSTAN PDB HARGA BERLAKU IHK MENCARI KONSEP2 PENDAPATAN NASIONAL DAN KETERKAITANNYA 1.GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP} 2.GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT (GNP) 3.NET NATIONAL PRODUCT (NNP) 4.NATIONAL INCOME (NI) 5.PERSONAL INCOME (PI) 6.PERSONAL DISPOSABLE INCOME (DI)

5 5 OUTPUT PQPiQiPQ JERUK APEL TOTAL225500

6 6 FAKTOR PRODUKSI: 1.FP TENAGA KERJA  UPAH/GAJI (WAGE/w) 2.FP TANAH  SEWA (RENT/r) 3.FP MODAL/KAPITAL  BUNGA/INTEREST/i 4.FP KEWIRAUSAHAAN  LABA/PROFIT (  )

7 7 4 SEKTOR DALAM PEREKONOMIAN: 1.SEKTOR RUMAH TANGGA (HOUSEHOLD SECTOR)  PENGELUARAN KONSUMSI (C). 2.SEKTOR BISNIS/SWASTA (BUSINESS SECTOR)  PENGELUARAN INVESTASI (I). 3.SEKTOR PEMERINTAH (GOVERNMENT SECTOR)  PENGELUARAN PEMERINTAH (G) 4.SEKTOR LUAR NEGERI (FOREIGN SECTOR)  NET EXPORT (X-M)

8 8 Striving For Excellence NATIONAL INCOME ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION 1. Aggregate 2. Decision makers  sectors. -Household Sector. -Business Sector. -Government Sector. -Foreign Sector. 3. Every dollar spent by someone becomes revenue to anothers. 4. The flow of Monetary spending.

9 9 Striving For Excellence GNP EKSPANSI  UPPER TURNING POINT  KRIS IS  RESESI/ DEPRESI  L OWER TURNING POINT  REC OVERY/REVI VAL

10 10 NATIONAL INCOME ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION Agreggate Expenditure -Household Sector  CONSUMPTION (C) -Business Sector  INVESMENT (I) -Government Sector  GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE FOR GOODS AND SERVICES (G) -Foreign Sector  NET EXPORT (X-M)

11 11 CONSUMPTION (C) C = f (Y) C = Co + cY Y = Pendapatan C = Tingkat Konsumsi Co = Autonomos Consumption c = Kecenderungan konsumsi (mpc = marginal propensity to consume)  mpc=  C/  Y menunjukkan seberapa besar kenaikan konsumsi akibat kenaikan pendapatan sebesar 1 unit  terletak antara 0-1. NATIONAL INCOME ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION

12 12 NATIONAL INCOME ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION Co YY CC C = Co + cY C Y

13 13 NATIONAL INCOME ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION CONSUMPTION AND SAVING Y = C + S S = Y – C S = Y – (Co – cY) S = Y – Co – cY S = -Co + (1- c)Y S = -Co + sY.

14 14 NATIONAL INCOME ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION CONSUMPTION AND SAVING Y = Pendapatan S = Tingkat Tabungan -Co = So = Autonomos Saving 1-c = s = Kecenderungan menabung (mps = marginal propensity to save)  mpc=  S/  Y menunjukkan seberapa besar kenaikan tabungan akibat kenaikan pendapatan sebesar 1 unit  terletak antara 0-1.  MPC + MPS = 1

15 15 C = Y I = 50  Y KESEIMBANGAN? POSISI KESEIMBANGAN  Y = AE (AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE) Y = C + I Y = Y + 50 Y – 0.75Y = ( )Y = Y=100 Y= 400

16 16 C = Y I = 50  Y KESEIMBANGAN? POSISI KESEIMBANGAN  Y = AE (AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE) Y = C + I Y = Y + 50 Y – 0.75Y = ( )Y = Y=100 Y= 400

17 17 PEND SUNTIKAN DAN BOCORAN Y = C +I Y= C + S C+I = C+S  I=S C = Y  S= Y I = S 50 = Y 0.25Y=100 Y= 100/0.25=400

18 18 C = Y I = 50 G = 100 Tx=50+0.2Y Tr=20 dG=50 (tidak dibiayai dg pajak) dG=50 (yg dibiayai dg pajak lumpsum)

19 19 DUA SEKTOR Y = C + I TIGA SEKTOR Y = C + I + G EMPAT SEKTOR Y = C + I + G + (X – M)

20 20 CAMPUR TANGAN PEM 1. PAJAK  LUMPSUM:BESARNYA DITENTUKAN, MIS :50  PROPORSIONAL: PEM MENENTUKAN TARIF PAJAK PJK PROGRESIF: TARIF NAIK SERING DG KENAIKAN PEND PJK REGRESIF:TARIF PAJAK MENURUN SEIRINMG KENAIKAN PEND. PJK PROPORSIONAL: TARIF PAJAK SAMA UTK SEMUA TK PEND. 2. TRANSFER PAYMENT (Tr)  PENGALIHAN DAYA BELI DR PEM KPD MASY, CONTOH: BLT, BEASISWA


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