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INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL.

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Presentasi berjudul: "INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL."— Transcript presentasi:

1 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL.

2 KELESTARIAN LIN GKUNGAN = ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 Environmental sustainability involves making decisions and taking action that are in the interests of protecting the natural world, with particular emphasis on preserving the capability of the environment to support human life. Environmental sustainability is about making responsible decisions that will reduce your business' negative impact on the environment. It is not simply about reducing the amount of waste you produce or using less energy, but is concerned with developing processes that will lead to businesses becoming completely sustainable in the future.

3 ISU-ISU PEMBANGUNAN BERKELAN JUTAN Diunduh dari: 00/bio_fuel_cells/groupproject/library/sustainableenergy/pageframe.htm……………… 7/12/ Ecological sustainability: Preventing damage to major biological life cycles, maintaining ecosystems and biodiversity; 2.Sustainable resource use: Resource use should not threaten ecological sustainability and should be within the renewable capacity; 3.Sustainable waste management and pollution prevention: Generation of waste and release of pollution should not threaten ecological sustainability and should be within the absorption capacity of the receiving environment; 4.Development of a sustainable society: This is concerned with social inclusion and economic development to improve the quality of life for all, both in the short and long term. Sustainable development and the "Triple bottom line"

4 PERLUNYA INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN 1.Counterpart to Competitiveness Index and other economic performance measures 2.Benchmark environmental performance 3.Better goals, programs, and policies 4.Clarify environment/econ omic tradeoffs Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012 Requirements for Environmental Impact Assessments Environmental impact assessments are required for any projects likely to have a significant effect on the environment, and are mandatory for large energy projects and wastewater treatment plants. Planning authorities require the developer to produce an Environmental Statement including: 1.A description of the development and data on the main impacts it is likely to have on the environment; 2.A description of the likely significant environmental impacts including direct and indirect impacts: 1.Impacts on human beings 2.Use of natural and material resources, air and water 3.Impacts on ecology 4.Emissions of pollutants and elimination of waste 5.Impacts on landscape and cultural heritage 3.Assessment and forecasts of the effects of the use of natural resources, emissions, and waste in the short to long term including indirect, cumulative, temporary, and permanent effects; 4.Measures envisaged to avoid, reduce, or remedy adverse effects; 5.An outline of alternative solutions which have been studied. Diunduh dari: 00/bio_fuel_cells/groupproject/library/environmental/pageframe.htm

5 Environmental Systems Urban Air Quality Water Quantity Water Quality Biodiversity Land Human Vulnerability Basic Sustenance Public Health Environmental Disasters Environmental Stresses Air Pollution Water Pollution/Use Ecosystem Stress Waste/Consumption Population Global Stewardship Contribution to International Cooperation Impact on Global Commons Social and Institutional Capacity Science/Technical Capacity Rigorous Policy Debate Environmental Regulation and Management Tracking Environmental Conditions Eco-efficiency Public Choice Failures Analytical Foundations Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

6 DATA EMPIRIKAL For each factor, we identified 1-6 variables to serve as quantitative measures (65 total) For this pilot, we weighted the factors equally in computing the Index 65 variables 21Factors Index 5 components Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

7 CONTOH: KAPASITAS SOSIAL & KELEMBAGAAN Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

8 CONTOH: KAPASITAS SOSIAL & KELEMBAGAAN

9 PENGGUNAAN INDEKS: Assessing Environment/Economic Tradeoffs Environmental sustainability does not appear to impose a constraint on economic growth As hypothesized by Michael Porter, there may be a connection between good economic performance and good environmental performance Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

10 Why does this matter? Four perspectives on the relationship between economic performance and environmental sustainability Difficult tradeoffs – policy dilemmas EconomicsEnvironment Good things go together – policy “free lunch” All combinations are possible – importance of responsible policy choices Good indicators are vital Environmental Kuznets: just be patient Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

11 (Does the world really need another environmental indicator?) Measuring environmental sustainability is possible and useful – This is a surprising, and encouraging, result Some aspects appear to be easier to quantify than others – Some surprises here (capacity v. stress) Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012 LIVING GREENER 1.Save energy and cost 2.Save and re-use water 3.Reduce wastes and recycle 4.Travel snarter (Sumber: Energy is connected to nearly every aspect of daily life. But the energy sources we rely on most - like coal, oil and natural gas - are being used up and can’t be replaced for millions of years. Producing energy from these sources also releases harmful greenhouse gases which impact our environment.

12 ESI DAPAT DISEMPURNAKAN TERUS – Investment in data creation Most global environmental monitoring programs are based on 19 th century models – time to move forward – Pluralistic, distributed networks (no central bottlenecks) – Greater use of civil society – Remote sensing and other advanced technologies – More sophisticated methods to weight factors and test validity, understand underlying assumptions and values Factor analysis, time series analysis, regression analysis – Interactive, open version Permit users to change factors and variables, change weights, add new variables – Scalable version Permit users to integrate global, national, regional and local indicators as appropriate to their needs Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

13 KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN Diunduh dari: Kelestarian lingkungan melibatkan pengambilan keputusan dan tindakan yang berada dalam lingkup kepentingan melindungi alam, dengan penekanan khusus pada pelestarian kemampuan lingkungan untuk mendukung kehidupan manusia. Hal ini merupakan isu penting pada saat ini, karena orang-orang menyadari dampak negatif lingkungan dapat terjadi pada individu manusia dan organisasi bisnis. Keberlanjutan lingkungan kerkaitan dnegan membuat keputusan bertanggung jawab yang akan mengurangi dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan. Hal ini tidak hanya berkenaan dengan mengurangi jumlah sampah yang dihasilkan atau menggunakan energi secara lebih sedikit dan lebih hemat, tetapi juga berkaitan dnegan upaya-upaya mengembangkan proses yang akan menyebabkan “biosfir” menjadi benar-benar berkelanjutan di masa depan.

14 ESI = ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY INDEX Diunduh dari: Indeks Kelestarian Lingkungan (ESI) adalah ukuran menyeluruh tentang perkembangan ke arah (menuju) kelestarian lingkungan. Indeks ini memberikan profil komposit penata-layanan lingkungan didasarkan pada penyusunan indikator yang berasal dari basis data yang mendasari. ESI adalah indeks komposit yang diterbitkan yang disusun berdasarkan 21 unsur kelestarian lingkungan hidup yang mencakup jasa-jasa sumberdaya alam, tingkat polusi masa lalu dan sekarang, upaya pengelolaan lingkungan, kontribusi untuk perlindungan global, dan kapasitas masyarakat untuk meningkatkan kinerja lingkungan dari waktu ke waktu.

15 Diunduh dari: sumber: ESI ini dipublikasikan antara oleh Yale University Center for Environmental Law and Policy, bekerja sama dengan Columbia University Center for International Earth Information Science Network (CIESIN), dan Forum Ekonomi Dunia. ESI dikembangkan untuk mengevaluasi kelestarian lingkungan di usatu negara dibandingkan dnegan negara lain. Dalam perkembangannya ditemukan indeks baru, yaitu Indeks Kinerja Lingkungan (EPI), yang menggunakan indikator- berorientasi pada hasil, kemudian dianalisis menjadi indeks yang dapat lebih mudah digunakan oleh para pembuat kebijakan, ilmuwan lingkungan, dan masyarakat umum. Environmental Performance Index = EPI ESI = ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY INDEX

16 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) Diunduh dari: The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically benchmarking the environmental performance of a state's policies. This index was developed from the Pilot Environmental Performance Index, first published in 2002, and designed to supplement the environmental targets set forth in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

17 Diunduh dari: The ESI was developed to evaluate environmental sustainability relative to the paths of other countries. EPI uses outcome-oriented indicators, then working as a benchmark index that can be more easily used by policy makers, environmental scientists, advocates and the general public. Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

18 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL KUALITAS UDARA KOTA

19 SISTEM LINGKUNGAN 1.Kualitas udara perkotaan 2.Kuantitas air 3.Kualitas air 4.Biodiversitas 5.Lahan Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

20 KUALITAS UDARA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Air quality is defined as a measure of the condition of air relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species or to any human need or purpose. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and is different in different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each range is assigned a descriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories are associated with each AQI range. The AQI can go up (meaning worse air quality) due to a lack of dilution of air pollutants. Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone, temperature inversion, or low wind speeds lets air pollution remain in a local area, leading to high concentrations of pollutants and hazy conditions. An agency might encourage members of the public to take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high.

21 INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air is currently or how polluted it is forecast to become. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. Different countries have their own air quality indices which are not all consistent. Different countries also use different names for their indices such as Air Quality Health Index, Air Pollution Index and Pollutant Standards Index.

22 KUALITAS UDARA DI KANADA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012. Air quality in Canada has been reported for many years with provincial Air Quality Indices (AQIs). Significantly, AQI values reflect air quality management objectives, which are based on the lowest achievable emissions rate, and not exclusively concern for human health. The Air Quality Health Index or (AQHI) is a scale designed to help understand the impact of air quality on health. It is a health protection tool used to make decisions to reduce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting activity levels during increased levels of air pollution. The Air Quality Health Index provides a number from 1 to 10+ to indicate the level of health risk associated with local air quality. On occasion, when the amount of air pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed 10. The AQHI provides a local air quality current value as well as a local air quality maximums forecast for today, tonight, and tomorrow, and provides associated health advice Risk:Low (1-3) Moderate (4- 6) High (7-10) Very high (above 10)

23 Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Health Risk Air Quality Health Index Health Messages At Risk population*General Population Low1-3 Enjoy your usual outdoor activities. Ideal air quality for outdoor activities Moderate4-6 Consider reducing or rescheduling strenuous activities outdoors if you are experiencing symptoms. No need to modify your usual outdoor activities unless you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation. High7-10 Reduce or reschedule strenuous activities outdoors. Children and the elderly should also take it easy. Consider reducing or rescheduling strenuous activities outdoors if you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation. Very highAbove 10 Avoid strenuous activities outdoors. Children and the elderly should also avoid outdoor physical exertion. Reduce or reschedule strenuous activities outdoors, especially if you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation. Air quality in Canada

24 INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA DI USA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed an index which they use to report daily air quality.United States Environmental Protection Agency This AQI is divided into six categories indicating increasing levels of health concern. An AQI value over 300 represents hazardous air quality whereas if it is below 50 the air quality is good Air Quality Index (AQI) Values Levels of Health Concern Colors 0 to 50GoodGreen 51 to 100ModerateYellow 101 to 150Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Orange 151 to 200UnhealthyRed 201 to 300Very UnhealthyPurple 301 to 500HazardousMaroon

25 INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 The AQI is based on the five pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. The EPA has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards for all of these pollutants to protect public health. An AQI value of 100 generally corresponds to the standard for the pollutant. The air quality index is a piecewise linear function of the pollutant concentration. At the boundary between AQI categories, there is a discontinuous jump of one AQI unit. To convert from concentration to AQI this equation is used: where: I = the (Air Quality) index, C = the pollutant concentration, Clow = the concentration breakpoint that is ≤, Chigh = the concentration breakpoint that is ≥, Ilow = the index breakpoint corresponding to, Ihigh = the index breakpoint corresponding to.

26 BAKU MUTU PM 2.5 DI USA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 EPA's table of breakpoints for PM 2.5 is: Category Good Moderate Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Hazardous Hazardous

27 KUALITAS UDARA DALAM RUANGAN INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) Diunduh dari: … …………… 28/11/2012 Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. IAQ can be affected by gases (including carbon monoxide, radon, volatile organic compounds), particulates, microbial contaminants (mould, bacteria) or any mass or energy stressor that can induce adverse health conditions. Source control, filtration and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. Determination of IAQ involves the collection of air samples, monitoring human exposure to pollutants, collection of samples on building surfaces and computer modelling of air flow inside buildings.

28 Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Common pollutants 1.1 Second-hand smoke 1.2 Radon 1.3 Moulds and other allergens 1.4 Carbon monoxide 1.5 Volatile organic compounds 1.6 Legionella 1.7 Other bacteria 1.8 Asbestos fibres 1.9 Carbon dioxide 1.10 Ozone INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) Second-hand smoke Second-hand smoke is tobacco smoke which affects other people other than the 'active' smoker. Second-hand tobacco smoke includes both a gaseous and a particulate phase, with particular hazards arising from levels of carbon monoxide (as indicated below) and very small particulates (at PM2.5 size) which get past the lung's natural defences. The only certain method to improve indoor air quality as regards second-hand smoke is the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws.

29 SENYAWA ORGANIK YANG MUDAH MENGUAP Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Volatile organic compounds Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors. VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions. Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Paints, varnishes, and wax all contain organic solvents, as do many cleaning, disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, and hobby products. Fuels are made up of organic chemicals. All of these products can release organic compounds during usage, and, to some degree, when they are stored.

30 INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ): Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012 For additional support visit our client service page.client service Before “indoor environmental quality” or “IEQ” has completely lost its meaning, we want to bring attention to its definition which is a comprehensive term from the field of indoor climate engineering representing the collective influence from the indoor environment on all the physiological sensory systems of the human body which can be represented by; IEQ = IAQ +ITQ + ILQ + ISQ + IOQ + IVQ where I = Indoor, Q = Quality and, A = Air T = Thermal L = Lighting S = Sound O = Odour (odor) V = Vibrations

31 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 A paint job that leaves you lightheaded, or new upholstery that has a funny scent- these are VOCs at work. These insidious chemicals are emitted, at room temperature, from many common household materials, paints, finishes, furnishings, and textiles. Examples of VOCs include benzene, formaldehyde, and methylene chloride. Some occur naturally in the materials; others are added during the manufacturing process.formaldehyde The offgassing of VOCs can have both short- and long-term adverse health effects, ranging from nausea and eye irritation to nervous system damage and cancer. These days, it's getting easier and easier to find no-VOC and low-VOC products such as paints, adhesives, and fabrics.offgassing Konsentrasi VOC di udara dalam ruangan biasanya lebih tinggi daripada udara luar, dan VOC di dalam bangunan berventilasi buruk seringkali menjadi penyebab utama dari sindrom gedung sakit (SBS). Carilah produk yang bebas dari bahan kimia ini jika memungkinkan, jika tidak, kalau menggunakan cat, pernis, larutan pembersih, atau produk lain yang mengandung VOC, maka ventilasi ruang kerja harus baik dan membuang sisa-sisa makanan dan limbah dengan baik.

32 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Pulau panas perkotaan adalah nama yang diberikan untuk menggambarkan karakteristik panasnya atmosfer dan permukaan di kota-kota (perkotaan) dibandingkan dengan lingkungan sekitarnya. The pulau panas adalah contoh modifikasi iklim yang tidak disengaja ketika urbanisasi mengubah karakteristik permukaan bumi dan atmosfer.

33 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Ada tiga tipe Pulau Panas: 1.Pulau Panas lapisan kanopi = canopy layer heat island (CLHI) 2.Pulau Panas Lapisan Batas = boundary layer heat island (BLHI) 3.Pulau Panas Permukaan = surface heat island (SHI)

34 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Dua tipe pulau panas yang pertama mengacu pada pemanasan atmosfer perkotaan. Tipe pulau panas yang ke tiga mengacu pada kehangatan relatif permukaan perkotaan. Lapisan kanopi perkotaan (UCL) adalah lapisan udara yang paling dekat dengan permukaan di kota-kota, memperluas ke atas kira-kira setinggi bangunan rata-rata. Di atas lapisan kanopi perkotaan terletak lapisan batas kota, yang tebalnya mencapai 1 kilometer (km) atau lebih pada siang hari, dan menyusut hingga ratusan meter atau kurang pada malam hari. Lapisan batas kota ini membentuk kubah udara hangat yang meluas melawan arah angin dari kota. Angin sering mengubah kubah menjadi bentuk yang bagus.

35 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Skema penggambaran komponen utama dari atmosfer perkotaan.

36 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Jenis pulau panas bervariasi bentuk spasialnya, sedangkan karakteristiknya dinamis (berhubungan dengan waktu), dan beberapa proses fisik yang berkontribusi dalam perkembangannya. Para ilmuwan mengukur suhu udara untuk CLHI atau BLHI langsung menggunakan termometer, sedangkan SHI diukur dengan sensor remote dipasang di satelit atau pesawat udara.

37 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Bentuk spatial Pulau Panas The isotherms, or lines of equal temperature, form a pattern that resembles an “island” loosely following the shape of the urbanized region, surrounded by cooler areas. There is often a sharp rise in the canopy-layer air temperature at the boundary of rural—suburban areas, followed by a slow and often variable increase towards the downtown core of the urban area where the warmest temperatures occur. The boundary layer heat island shows much less variability than the other heat island types and a cross-section shows its shape resembles a simple dome or plume with warmer air transported downwind of the city.

38 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Gambaran skematis komponen utama dari atmosfer perkotaan

39 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Intensitas pulau panas Intensitas pulau panas adalah ukuran kekuatan atau besarnya pulau panas. Pada malam hari, intensitas lapisan kanopi pulau panas biasanya 1 - 3° C, tetapi di pada kondisi optimum intensitas hingga 12°C. BLHI cenderung untuk mempertahankan pulau panas lebih konstan intensitasnya, siang dan malam (~ 1.5 ° - 2° C). SHI biasanya paling nyata pada siang hari, ketika pemanasan matahari yang kuat dapat menyebabkan perbedaan suhu yang signifikan antara permukaan kering dan basah, permukaan yang ternaungi (teduh), atau permukaan bervegetasi.

40 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Karakteristik permukaan & Pulau panas Sifat permukaan merupakan faktor yang sangat berpengaruh terhadap pola spasial suhu permukaan dan lapisan kanopi suhu udara kota. Suhu udara lebih tinggi di lokasi yang padat bangunannya, dan suhu udara lebih rendah di dekat taman kota atau di daerah yang terbuka. Suhu permukaan sangat sensitif terhadap kondisi permukaan: selama siang hari, kering, permukaan gelap yang sangat menyerap sinar matahari menjadi sangat panas; sedangkan permukaan yang warnanya terang dan / atau lembab, suhunya lebih dingin. Penaunganpermukaan juga membantu mengontrol suhu.

41 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Bentuk temporal pulau panas Semua pulau-pulau panas terbentuk karena perbedaan tingkat pemanasan dan pendinginan kawasan kota relatif terhadap lingkungan sekitarnya. Tingkat pemanasan dan pendinginan ini mempengaruhi pulau panas. 1.CLHI: intensitas pulau panas meningkat dengan waktu dari matahari terbenam hingga maksimum di suatu tempat, antara waktu beberapa jam setelah matahari terbenam hingga dini hari. Pada siang hari intensitas CLHI biasanya cukup lemah atau kadang negatif (sebuah pulau keren) di beberapa bagian kota di mana ada bayangan yang luas oleh gedung-gedung tinggi atau struktur lainnya dan adanya lag dalam pemanasan karena penyimpanan panas oleh bahan bangunan. 2.SHI: ini sangat positif, siang dan malam hari, karena permukaan perkotaan hangat. SHI siang-hari biasanya terbesar karena radiasi matahari mempengaruhi suhu permukaan. 3.BLHI: umumnya positif, siang dan malam hari, tetapi ukurannya jauh lebih kecil dibandingkan dnegan CLHI atau SHI.

42 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Bagaimana pulau panas terbentuk dan bagaimana mereka dikendalikan? Sejumlah faktor yang berkontribusi terhadap terjadinya dan intensitas pulau-pulau panas: 1.Cuaca 2.Lokasi geografis 3.Waktu hari dan musim 4.Bentuk kota 5.Fungsi kota

43 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Cuaca, khususnya angin dan awan, mempengaruhi pembentukan pulau-pulau panas. Pulau panas yang terbesar terbantuk pada kondisi cuaca tenang dan cerah. Semakin meningkat kecepatan angin mencampur udara, biasanya akan mengurangi pulau panas. Peningkatan awan mengurangi pendinginan radiasi di malam hari dan juga mengurangi pulau panas. Variasi musiman pola cuaca panas juga mempengaruhi frekuensi dan besarnya pulau.

44 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Fungsi kota menentukan output polutan ke atmosfer perkotaan, limbah panas dari penggunaan energi, dan penggunaan air irigasi. Panas antropogenik, atau panas yang dihasilkan dari aktivitas manusia, terutama pembakaran bahan bakar fosil, sangat penting dalam pembentukan pulau panas. Pemanasan antropogenik biasanya berdampak besar selama musim dingin di pusat kota di daerah iklim dingin. Dalam kasus tertentu, kota yang sangat padat mungkin memiliki pemanasan antropogenik yang sangat tinggi, dihasilkan dari penggunaan energi untuk fasilitas pendinginan.

45 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Bagaimana Pulau panas berdampak pada kota? Pulau-pulau panas memiliki berbagai dampak bagi penduduk kota, termasuk: 1.Kenyamanan manusia: positif (musim dingin), negatif (musim panas) 2.Penggunaan energi: positif (musim dingin), negatif (musim panas) 3.Polusi udara: Negatif 4.Penggunaan air: Negatif 5.Aktivitas biologis (misalnya, musim tanam panjang): positif 6.Es dan salju: positif

46 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Solusi biologis untuk mengurangi pulau panas perkotaan? Pemahaman mekanisme yang mendasari pembentukan pulau panas fisik menjadi landasan untuk mengembangkan sarana kontrol yang dapat meningkatkan atau mengurangi pulau panas. Misalnya, perubahan pola sebaran geometri permukaan perkotaan dengan mengubah jarak antar gedung-gedung biasanya tidak layak. Strategi lain adalahmenggunakan atap dan paving berwarna putih atau warna cerah lainnya.

47 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Sebuah solusi biologis adalah dengan menggunakan vegetasi untuk mengurangi panas perkotaan. Vegetasi memberikan efek naungan serta pendinginan melalui penguapan air (transpirasi). Penanaman pohon di sekitar individu bangunan untuk menaungi permukaan perkotaan mampu mengurangi suhu mereka, terutama atap dan dinding yang menghadap timur-, barat. Penurunan suhu permukaan juga menyebabkan pengurangan penggunaan energi untuk pendingin udara ruangan.

48 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Pohon juga dapat digunakan untuk peneduh jalan-jalan raya dan tempat parkir, yang tidak akan menjadi sangat panas siang hari dan yang menyimpan panas untuk rilis kemudian di malam hari. Penaungan kendaraan di tempat parkir dapat mengurangi emisi penguapan bensin, yang berkontribusi terhadap peningkatan ozon perkotaan.

49 UHI = URBAN HEAT ISLAND Diunduh dari: Penciptaan ruang terbuka hijau, seperti taman-taman kota, dapat digunakan untuk membantu pendinginan udara lingkungan kota; penghijauan kota dapat menyebabkan suasana perkotaan menjadi lebih dingin.

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