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Translation Techniques for Academic Purposes. Definitions The use of translation techniques is limited to the classification of differences between language.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Translation Techniques for Academic Purposes. Definitions The use of translation techniques is limited to the classification of differences between language."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Translation Techniques for Academic Purposes

2 Definitions The use of translation techniques is limited to the classification of differences between language systems, not the textual solutions needed for translation. Translation techniques affect smaller sections of the translation. They affect the results and not the process, so they should be distinguished from strategies Examples will be taken from Journal of Modern Languages Vol.20 (2010)

3 Classification Adaptation. To replace a ST cultural element with one from the target culture example: ST: This research is a part of a study on Malay four-lined verse. TT: Penelitian ini adalah bagian dari sebuah penelitian mengenai pantun Malayu

4 Classification Amplification. To introduce details that are not formulated in the ST: information, explicative paraphrasing. example: ST: She maintains a strict regiment of producing lines with a perfect metre. TT: Dia menjaga keteraturan dengan menghasilkan baris-baris pantun dengan metrum irama dan tekanan yang sempurna.

5 Classification Borrowing. To take a word or expression straight from another language. example: Pure borrowing ST: Sim first arrived in Malaya from England as a young memsahib. TT: Sim tiba di Malaya dari Inggris sebagai seorang memsahib muda. Naturalized borrowing ST: By restricting the lines to eight syllables... TT: Dengan membatasi baris tersebut menjadi delapan silabel...

6 Classification Calque. Literal translation of a foreign word or phrase. example: ST: All poems overpower her persona with a death-like-swoon. TT: Semua puisi mengalahkan personanya dengan sebuah rasa tidak sadar-layaknya- kematian.

7 Classification Compensation. To introduce a ST element of information or stylistic effect in another place in the TT because it cannot be reflected in the same place as in the ST. example: ST:...when (?) she and Stuart retired prematurely. TT:...ketika perjalanan panjang dia dan Stuart telah berakhir. (?)

8 Classification Description. To replace a term or expression with a description of its form or/and function. example: ST: And in this heroic couplets, she again reflects... TT: Dan dalam bentuk puisi yang setiap barisnya berisi lima tekanan keras pada setiap suku kedua ini, dia kembali merefleksikan...

9 Classification Discursive creation. To establish a temporary equivalence that is totally unpredictable out of context example: ST:...her initial lack of understanding of the real pleasures of Flowers of the Sun poetry. TT:...ketidaktahuan dia tentang indahnya pantun Haturwangi.

10 Classification Established equivalent. To use a term or expression recognized (by dictionaries or language in use) as an equivalent in the TL. example: ST: Lewis’ Malay language texts are like the ‘basement of...’ TT: Teks bahasa karya Lewis seperti sebuah ‘rubanah...’

11 Classification Generalization. To use a more general or neutral term. example: ST:...in reflecting the character in the poem. TT:...dalam merefleksikan karakter di karya sastra.

12 Classification Linguistic amplification. To add linguistic elements. example: ST:...the styles are not (distinctly?) different with the poet at that time. TT:...gayanya tidak berbeda terlalu jauh dengan penulis puisi pada jamannya. √ x

13 Classification Linguistic compression. To synthesize linguistic elements in the TT. example: ST: She maintains a strict regiment of producing lines with a perfect metre. TT: Dia menjaga keteraturan (yang ketat?) dengan menghasilkan baris-baris pantun dengan metrum irama dan tekanan yang sempurna. x

14 Classification Literal translation. To translate a word or an expression word for word. example: ST: Both Lewis and Sim state an objective. TT: Baik Lewis dan Sim menyatakan sebuah tujuan.

15 Classification Modulation. To change the point of view, focus or cognitive category in relation to the ST. example: ST: The words of poems are usually simple, but they are seldom easy to translate. TT: Kesulitan penerjemahan puisi sangat tinggi, terlepas dari pilihan bahasanya yang sederhana WORDS POETRY TRANSLATION DIFFICULTIES

16 Classification Particularization. To use a more precise or concrete term. example: ST:...through the Malay’s use of figurative language. TT:...melalui penggunaan metafora dan idiom.

17 Classification Reduction. To suppress a ST information item in the TT. example: ST:...to make a tidy line of 8,7,8,7 syllables. TT:...untuk menghasilkan sebuah baris yang rapi. x Information

18 Classification Transposition. To change a grammatical category. example: ST: A tidy line should be available during this time. TT: Sebuah baris yang rapi sebaiknya digunakan saat ini. phrase → clauseadjective→ verb

19 Classification Variation. To change linguistic or paralinguistic elements (intonation, gestures) that affect aspects of linguistic variation: changes of textual tone, style, social dialect, geographical dialect, etc. example: Translating swearwords → to be accepted by norms Translating complex sentences → readable to children ST: To achieve the highest level of readability... TT: Untuk mencapai tingkat keterbacaan yang inggil...

20 Exception Substitution (paralinguistic). To change linguistic elements for paralinguistic elements (intonation, gestures) or vice versa.


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