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1 DATA STRUCTURE “ STACK” SHINTA P STMIK MDP APRIL 2011.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 DATA STRUCTURE “ STACK” SHINTA P STMIK MDP APRIL 2011."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 DATA STRUCTURE “ STACK” SHINTA P STMIK MDP APRIL 2011

2 2 Characteristics of a Stack A stack is a collection of elements, which can be stored and retrieved one at a time. Elements are retrieved in reverse order of their time of storage, i.e. the latest element stored is the next element to be retrieved. A stack is sometimes referred to as a Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) or First-In-Last-Out (FILO) structure. Elements previously stored cannot be retrieved until the latest element (usually referred to as the 'top' element) has been retrieved.

3 3 Characteristics of a Stack (Cont.) New nodes can only be added to the top of the stack Nodes may only be removed from the top of the stack The depth of a stack is the number of elements it contains It is therefore a last-in, first-out structure (LIFO)

4 4 Typical Operations on Stack : OPERATIONPRE-CONDITIONPOST-CONDITION push (Object item)stack not fullstack +1, item on top of stack pop()stack not emptystack –1, top item removed empty()nonestack same full() nonestack same

5 5 Manipulation of a Stack one two three fourfive one two three four one two three one two three top Stack with depth of 4 push(one) push(two) push(three) push(four) pop( ) Stack with depth of 3Stack with depth of 4 push(five)

6 6 Stack Application Reverse the line order of a text file Check to see if brackets match Evaluation of complex expressions (intermediate values stored) Activation stack (method calls) Recursion

7 7 Stack Applications (Cont.) When analyzing arithmetic expressions, it is important to determine whether an expression is balanced with respect to parentheses – (a+b*(c/(d-e)))+(d/e) => Infix Problem is further complicated if braces or brackets are used in conjunction with parenthesis Solution is to use stacks! => Postfix

8 8 Additional Stack Applications Consider two case studies that relate to evaluating arithmetic expressions – Postfix and infix notation Expressions normally written in infix form – Binary operations inserted between their operands A computer normally scans an expression string in the order that it is input; easier to evaluate an expression in postfix form

9 9 Additional Stack Applications (continued)

10 10 Additional Stack Applications (continued) Advantage of postfix form is that there is no need to group subexpressions in parentheses No need to consider operator precedence

11 11 Aplikasi Stack Notasi POSTFIX: Ekspresi penulisan matematis dimana operator berada disamping nilai data/elemen/variabel penampung data. Contoh : A + B * C = A B C * + notasi infix notasi postfix (Cont.)

12 12 Aplikasi Stack Algoritma Konversi INFIX ke POSTFIX 1. Jika simbol adalah ‘(‘, maka simbol tersebut kita push ke dalam stack. Level Operator : Level tertinggi : pangkat (^) Level menengah : kali (*) dan bagi (/) Level terendah : tambah (+) dan kurang (-) (Cont.)

13 13 Aplikasi Stack 2. Jika simbol adalah ‘)’, maka pop semua elemen stack sampai terakhir kali simbol ‘(‘ di push. Semua elemen tersebut menjadi output kecuali tanda kurung. 3. Jika simbol adalah operand, maka simbol tersebut langsung menjadi output. (Cont.)

14 14 Aplikasi Stack 4. Jika simbol adalah sebuah operator, maka : 1). Jika level operator TOP stack >= level operator simbol, maka elemen TOP stack kita pop. 2). Jika level operator TOP stack < operator simbol, maka operator simbol di push ke dalam stack. (Cont.)

15 15 Aplikasi Stack (Cont.) Simbol yang diproses((A+B)*C/D+E^F)/G; > TOP STACK > (((++(**//++^^ // (((( ((((((++ (( (( OUTPUT A B+ C*D/E F^+ G/

16 16 Aplikasi Stack Ubah notasi infix berikut menjadi notasi postfix. 1. ((P+Q^(R-S))/(T*(U+V)/W)) 2. (P-Q+(R/S^T)*(U-V+W)/X)*Y) Latihan : (Cont.)

17 17 NEXT LECTURE CLASS “QUEUE” 


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