2 Pengujian Hipotesis Penelitian (Pengumpulandan Analisis Data) Identifikasi, Pemilihan, Perumusan MasalahDEDUKSILandasan Teori (Kajian Teori dan Penelitian yang Relevan)Penyusunan Kerangka BerpikirThe role of statisticsPerumusan Hipotesis PenelitianINDUKSIPengujian Hipotesis Penelitian (Pengumpulandan Analisis Data)yatidakHipotesis Diterima?SCIENTIFIC METHOD CYCLE
3 StatisticsStatistics is the science of collecting, organizing, and drawing conclusion about a universe (population) based on a subset of the universe (sample)Descriptive statistics: collecting and presenting dataInferential statistics: drawing conclusion about population based on sample data
4 We do some calculations on sample data (data analysing) Population and sampleWe do some calculations on sample data (data analysing)samplesampleThe results of sample data calculations are brought back to the populationPOPULATIONPopulation is a set of units that we are interested in studyingSample is a subset of a populationMake an inference(generalization)
5 VariableVariable: a property whereby the members of a group differ one from anotherConstant: a property whereby the members of a group does not vary one to another
6 Type of variable Nominal variable (classification) Ordinal variable (classification, ordering)Interval variable (classification, ordering, unit of measurement)Ratio variable (classification, ordering, unit of measurement, an absolute zero)
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