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3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fourth Edition.

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1 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fourth Edition

2 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 2 Learning Objectives u Menjelaskan unsur-unsur manajemen proyek dan tanggung jawab seorang manajer proyek u Menjelaskan Inisiasi dan aktivitas project dalam fase SDLC u Mendeskripsikan bagaimana lingkup sistem yang baru ditentukan.

3 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 3 Learning Objectives ( continued ) u Membuat jadwal proyek menggunakan PERT dan Gantt chart u Membuat analisis biaya manfaat dan menilai kelayakan proyek yang diusulkan u Discuss how to staff and launch a project

4 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 4 Overview u Prinsip dasar manajemen proyek l Faktor keberhasilan proyek l Peran manajer proyek l Pengetahuan manajemen proyek u How information system projects initiated l Part of overall strategic plan l Merespon kebutuhan bisnis secara langsung u The project planning phase of SDLC u Project planning examples for RMO

5 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 5 Faktor Keberhasilan Proyek u Project management important for success of system development project u 2000 Standish Group Study l Only 28% of system development projects successful l 72% of projects canceled, completed late, completed over budget, and/or limited in functionality u Thus, project requires careful planning, control, and execution

6 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 6 Alasan Kegagalan Proyek u Persyaratan tidak lengkap / berubah u Keterlibatan pengguna terbatas u Kurangnya dukungan eksekutif u Kurangnya dukungan teknis u Perencanaan proyek yang jelek u tujuan yang tidak jelas u Kurangnya sumber daya yang dibutuhkan

7 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 7 Alasan Keberhasilan Proyek u Kejelasan tentang definisi sistem u Besarnya keterlibatan pengguna u Dukungan penuh dari pihak menejemen u Perencaan proyek yang detail dan terperinci u Jadwal kerja yang realistis

8 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 8 Role of the Project Manager u Project management – organizing and directing people to achieve a planned result within budget and on schedule u Success or failure of project depends on skills of the project manager l Beginning of project – plan and organize l During project – monitor and control u Responsibilities are both internal and external

9 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 9 Tanggung Jawab Internal u Mengidentifikasi tugas tugas proyek dan membangun struktur pekerjaan. u Membuat jadwal proyek u Merekrut dan melatih anggota tim u Menugaskan anggota tim u Mengkoordinasikan tugas anggota tim dan sub tim u Menilai risiki kegagalan u Monev dan control proyek u Verify the quality of project deliverables

10 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 10 Tanggung Jawab Eksternal u Melaporkan status dan kemajuan proyek u Membangun hubungan kerja dengan orang yang dibutuhkan dalam persyaraktan sistem l The people who will use the system u Bekerja secara langsung dengan klien (sponsor proyek) dan pemangku kepentingan lainnya u Mengidentifikasi kebutuhan sumber daya dan mendapatkan sumber daya

11 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 11 Peran Manajer Proyek (Figure 3-1)

12 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 12 Participants in a System Development Project (Figure 3-2)

13 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 13 Project Management Tasks u Beginning of project l Perencanaan proyek secara keseluruhan u During project l Project execution management l Project control management l Project closeout u Project management approach differs for l Predictive SDLC l Adaptive SDLC

14 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 14 Project Management and SDLC Tasks for a Predictive Project (Figure 3-3)

15 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 15 Project Management and SDLC Tasks for an Adaptive Project (Figure 3-4)

16 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 16 Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) u Scope management l Control functions included in system l Control scope of work done by team u Time management l Build detailed schedule of all project tasks l Monitor progress of project against milestones u Cost management l Calculate initial cost/benefit analysis l Monitor expenses

17 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 17 Project Management Body of Knowledge ( continued ) u Quality management l Establish quality plan and control activities for each project phase u Human resource management l Recruit and hire project team members l Train, motivate, team build u Communications management l Identify stakeholders and their communications l Establish team communications

18 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 18 Project Management Body of Knowledge ( continued ) u Risk management l Identify and review risks for failure l Develop plans to reduce these risks u Procurement management l Develop requests for proposals (RFPs) l Evaluate bids, write contracts, monitor performance u Integration management

19 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 19 Project Initiation and the Project Planning Phase u Driving forces to start project l Respond to opportunity l Resolve problem l Conform to directive u Project initiation comes from l Long-term IS strategic plan (top-down) prioritized by weighted scoring l Department managers or process managers (bottom-up) l Response to outside forces (HIPAA)

20 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 20 Initiating Customer Support System RMO u Strategic IS plan directs IS development’s project priorities u Customer support system (CSS) selected l John MacMurty – creates project charter l Barbara Halifax – project manager l Steven Deerfield – senior systems analyst l Goal is to support multiple types of customer services (ordering, returns, online catalogs) u Project charter describes key participants

21 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 21 RMO Project Charter (Figure 3-5)

22 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 22 Activities of the Project Planning Phase

23 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 23 Activities of the Project Planning Phase and Their Key Questions (Figure 3-7)

24 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 24 Defining the Problem u Review business needs l Use strategic plan documents l Consult key users l Develop list of expected business benefits u Identify expected system capabilities l Define scope in terms of requirements u Create system scope document u Build proof of concept prototype u Create context diagram

25 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 25 Context Diagram for Customer Support

26 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 26 Defining the Problem at RMO u Barbara – Completed problem definition statement u Steve – Conducted preliminary research on alternative solutions u Barbara, Steve, and William McDougal – Proceeded with analysis before making solution decisions u Barbara and Steve – Began schedule, budget, feasibility statement for new system

27 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 27 Producing the Project Schedule u Develop work breakdown structure (WBS) l List of tasks and duration required for project l Similar to outline for research paper l WBS is foundation for project schedule u Build a PERT/CPM chart l Assists in assigning tasks l Critical path method l Gantt chart and tracking GANTT chart

28 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 28 Partial PERT/CPM Chart

29 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 29 Gantt Chart for Entire Project (with overlapping phases)

30 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 30 Gantt Chart for Iterative Project (Figure 3-14)

31 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 31 Confirming Project Feasibility u Risk management u Economic feasibility l Cost/benefit analysis l Sources of funds (cash flow, long-term capital) u Organizational and cultural feasibility u Technological feasibility u Schedule feasibility u Resource feasibility

32 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 32 Risk Management

33 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 33 Economic Feasibility u Cost/benefit analysis l Estimate project development costs l Estimate operational costs after project l Estimate financial benefits based on annual savings and increased revenues l Calculate using table of costs and benefits u Uses net present value (NPV), payback period, return on investment (ROI) techniques

34 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 34 Supporting Detail for Salaries and Wages for RMO (Figure 3-16)

35 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 35 Summary of Development Costs for RMO (Figure 3-17)

36 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 36 Summary of Annual Operating Costs for RMO (Figure 3-18)

37 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 37 Sample Benefits for RMO (Figure 3-19)

38 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 38 RMO Cost Benefit Analysis (Figure 3-20)

39 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 39 Intangibles in Economic Feasibility u Intangible benefits cannot be measured in dollars l Increased levels of service l Customer satisfaction l Survival l Need to develop in-house expertise u Intangible costs cannot be measured in dollars l Reduced employee morale l Lost productivity l Lost customers or sales

40 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 40 Organizational and Cultural Feasibility u Each company has own culture l New system must fit into culture u Evaluate related issues for potential risks l Low level of computer competency l Computer phobia l Perceived loss of control l Shift in power l Fear of job change or employment loss l Reversal of established work procedures

41 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 41 Technological Feasibility u Does system stretch state-of-the-art technology? u Does in-house expertise presently exist for development? u Does an outside vendor need to be involved? u Solutions include l Training or hiring more experienced employees l Hiring consultants l Changing scope and project approach

42 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 42 Schedule Feasibility u Estimates needed without complete information u Management deadlines may not be realistic u Project managers l Drive realistic assumptions and estimates l Recommend completion date flexibility l Assign interim milestones to periodically reassess completion dates l Involve experienced personnel l Manage proper allocation of resources

43 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 43 Resource Feasibility u Team member availability u Team skill levels u Computers, equipment, and supplies u Support staff time and availability u Physical facilities

44 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 44 Staffing and Launching the Project u Develop resource plan for the project u Identify and request specific technical staff u Identify and request specific user staff u Organize the project team into workgroups u Conduct preliminary training and team building exercises u Key staffing question: “Are the resources available, trained, and ready to start?”

45 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 45 Launching Project u Scope defined, risks identified, project is feasible, schedule developed, team members identified and ready u Oversight committee finalized, meet to give go- ahead, and release funds u Formal announcement made to all involved parties within organization u Key launch question: “Are we ready to start?”

46 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 46 Recap of Project Planning for RMO u Created schedule and plans for CSS u Addressed all aspects of project management (project planning and scope) u Included project communication and quality u Identified desired team members l Refined internal working procedures l Taught tools and techniques used on project u Planned kickoff meeting to officially launch

47 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 47 Kesimpulan u Tugas manajemen proyek l Memulai tahapan SDLC Perencanaan Proyek l Melanjutkan fase SDLC u Mengorganisasikan dan mengarahkan l Pencapaian hasil yang direncanakan l Gunakan jadwal dan anggaran yang telah ditetapkan u Bidang Pengetahuan yang dibutuhkan l Ruang lingkup, waktu, biaya, kualitas, sumber daya manusia, komunikasi, risiko, pengadaan

48 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 48 Summary ( continued ) u Inisiasi Proyek l Kebutuhan sistem informasi diidentifikasi dan diprioritaskan dalam rencana strategis u Fase Perencaaan l Mendefinisikan masalah ( l Menghasilkan jadwal proyek (WBS) l Mengevaluasi resiko l Tenaga ahli proyek (know people’s skills) l Launch project (executive formal approval)


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