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1 Survei, kewaspadaan dan pengawasan (survey, surveillance and vigilance)

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Survei, kewaspadaan dan pengawasan (survey, surveillance and vigilance)"— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Survei, kewaspadaan dan pengawasan (survey, surveillance and vigilance)

2 2 Pengamatan (survey) digambarkan sebagai pengawasan, untuk mendapatkan suatu pandangan menyeluruh atas pemeriksaan, pengujian dan identifikasi. Survei dapat dilakukan ketika insiden penyakit telah terjadi. Dilaksanakan untuk menemukan luas dan penyebab kerusakan panen.

3 3 Survei dapat juga diakukan untuk menetapkan besarnya kerugian yang disebabkan oleh suatu penyakit. Survei dapat dilakukan secara berulang-kali untuk memonitor insidensi penyakit dengan suatu penekanan untuk meminimalkan kerugian, kemudian hal itu menjadi pengawasan.

4 4 Pengawasan dapat digambarkan sebagai suatu pengamatan tetap untuk menahan laju perkembangan penyakit. Kewaspadaan dapat digambarkan sebagai suatu survei untuk memonitor penyebaran dan perkembangan suatu patogen dengan tujuan untuk pengendalian.

5 5 Monitoring penyakit  Survei Aerobiologi  Aerobiology adalah kajian terhadap mikroorganisme yang berada di atmosfer dan interaksi antaranya dengan lingkungan, tumbuhan, binatang dan manusia.

6 6  Ada suatu hubungan langsung dan linier antara spora yang ditangkap dengan insidensi penyakit di tanah.

7 7  Survey klimatologi  Parameter fisik mempunyai pengaruh dalam perkembangan penyakit.  Tiap-tiap penyakit tumbuhan memerlukan kondisi cuaca yang berbeda dan ideal untuk perkembangannya.

8 8  Sehingga terjadinya epidemi dapat diprediksi melalui studi mengenai cuaca.  Munculnya penyakit hawar daun kentang atau karat gandum dapat ditentukan dengan menggunakan tabel cuaca.  Dengan demikian, climatological survey membantu dalam dilakukannya peramalan kejadian penyakit.

9 9  Remote Sensing  Penglihatan manusia merupakan alat remote sensing yang paling baik.  Tetapi mata manusia mempunyai batasan pandangan dan waktu untuk meneliti, alat mekanik telah dikembangkan untuk melakukan pekerjaan ini.  Untuk meneliti suatu obyek yang menggunakan gambaran mekanis sensor ini menggunakan cahaya spektrum elektromagnetik.  Remote sensing menggunakan satelit sehingga manusia dapat melakukan pengamatan dengan jarak ± 900 km, dengan menggunakan perbedaan suhu atau infra merah.

10 10

11 11 Untuk memonitor phytoepidemics, terdapat dua satelit yang dapat diikuti yaitu : 1) Menggunakan satelit cuaca untuk memonitor cuaca yang mendukung epidemi. 2) Menggunakan Sumber Daya Bumi Satelite ( Earth Resources Satelite = ERS/ Earth Resources Technology Satelite =ERTS= Landsat).

12 12 Landsat  Earth Resources Technology Satelite (ERTS, sekarang disebut Landsat) buatan USA pada tahun  Landsat menutupi keseluruhan bola bumi tiap 18 hari yang memotret area yang sama pada waktu yang tetap atau pada cakupan yang bisa diterima.

13 13  Ini memungkinkan bingkai berbeda dapat diperbandingkan. Landsat membawa Multispectral Scanner ( MSS), sistem sensor utama dari satelit dan meliputi area 185x185 km setiap meneliti.  Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE), yang diselenggarakan oleh NASA dengan suatu tujuan untuk menyediakan peramalan tahunan pada tanaman serealia yang dipanen, pada basis global didasarkan pada remote sensing dari satelit.

14 14 Processing data  Dari hasil survei atau penelitian holistik maka akan diperoleh informasi dalam jumlah yang besar.  Informasi ini harus diteliti dengan baik untuk mendapatkan penafsiran yang tepat.  Dengan adanya komputer maka dapat digunakan untuk menangani data lapangan, sehingga dapat data dapat dianalisis dengan baik dan diambil kesimpulan yang tepat.

15 15  Di dalam eksperimen lapangan, pengamatan pada fenologi tanaman, cuaca dan perkembangan penyakit dicatat secara terus-menerus dengan maksud untuk mengembangkan model yang bersifat prediksi.  Karenanya, ketelitian harus dari awal di dalam perekaman data ini.

16 16 Prosedur Percobaan Lapangan dan Hal – Hal yang Diperhatikan  Rumah kaca yang digunakan untuk pengujian dan evaluasi resistensi kadang- kadang tidak sesuai dengan pengamatan pada kondisi lapangan.  Diperlukan eksperimen lapangan secara holistik, dengan penyakit, fenologi tanaman dan berhubungan dengan parameter cuaca.

17 17  Laboratorium ini mempunyai fungsi untuk memonitoring cuaca secara berkelanjutan  Informasi ini kemudian digunakan dalam analisis epidemiologi secara terperinci dengan mengunakan komputer.

18 18 The Cryptic Error  Di dalam suatu percobaan lapangan, disain blok acak yang berulang diikuti tujuan analisa statistik.  Hal tersebut dapat dilakukan asalkan patogen atau bahan kimia tidak mengumpul pada tumbuhan yang ditengah.

19 19  Tetapi sering, spora jamur tersebar oleh angin dan menghasilkan suatu gradien.  Secara alami spora jamur jatuh pada perlakuan yang berbeda yang dapat memberikan kesalahan/ eror.

20 20  Kesalahan cryptic adalah kesalahan yang tak terlihat yang muncul dalam kaitan dengan percobaan yang salah/cacat.  Kesalahan cryptic dapat juga terjadi ketika tidak ada pembatas (borders) pada baris antar perlakuan dengan maksud untuk mencegah penyebaran penyakit.  Propagul patogen pindah dengan bebas ke plot tanaman yang lain dan mempengaruhi perkembangan penyakit.

21 pest and disease surveillance and the role of new technology Dr Mike Robson, Plant Protection Service, FAO Kampala, 28 March 2008

22 outline of presentation 1. what is surveillance 2. improving national surveillance 3. technology to support surveillance 4. a cell-phone based surveillance pilot in S.W. Uganda

23 1. what is surveillance? “ The ongoing systematic collection and analysis of data and the provision of information which leads to action being taken to prevent and control a (pest or) disease”...

24 applied to plant pests & diseases... According to the international standard, “ISPM 6: Guidelines on Surveillance”

25 ...official surveys are for 3 purposes:  detection – establish the baseline (what pests are present – emphasis on identification) – drawing up pest list)  delimiting - how far has a problem spread (quantification, mapping) – establishing pest free areas for bactrocera invadens  monitoring – repeated to identify trends [from ISPM 6]

26 ...but, why DO surveillance? [ this is a REAL question – will it actually help?; surveillance is not an end in itself!] survey in order to: recognise new problems early and ‘nip in the bud’ monitor pest or disease free status to be able to trade provide early warning to others who may be affected, particularly if pests or diseases are avoidable understand patterns and trends (research) to counter in longer term

27 in most countries, common problems with surveillance are to:  reinforce partnerships between the different agencies involved  provide adequate people, equipment, funds for data collection; standardise methods, data collection formats  improve technical capacity to analyse, map data  develop communications to issue timely warning messages at right level

28 stages in surveillance – and technology Data capture =>Analysis =>Warning =>Monitoring trends over time [technology can help at each stage – focusing on data capture]

29 comparing technologies for data capture MethodForAgainst Paper- cheap, accessible - minimal training needed - gets lost or “filed” - data cannot be used for multiple purposes Cell phone- widely used already (minimal equipment costs) - data in digital form - running costs - no standard format PDA or other customised handheld device - designed for field conditions - allows roving survey - data standardised - more expensive - cost to implement laptop- maximum flexibility - not designed for field use - expensive

30 Digital Pen – used in a pilot for livestock surveillance in Namibia used by vet inspectors based on a standard form printed on special paper a pen with built-in camera to record and transmit image hard copy can also be retained technically complex (pen, communications, handwriting recognition software, database) - proprietary (SA company), expensive

31 P.D.A. - c rop surveillance project in India, to quantify pest and disease outbreaks handheld device used by district research station scientists touch screen, protected against water & dust; daylight viewing screen, long battery life has GPS and sensors for humidity, temperature allows surveyors to return to precise spot and monitor equipment can prove device was taken to field but not accuracy of what was recorded still requires trained surveyors

32

33 …scale of P.D.A. exercise  after initial test, running in 9 districts – both rain- fed and irrigated - in Andhra Pradesh (total area covered approx 100,000 sq km) for March- October, 2008  equipment set up for cotton, rice, groundnut, pulses  180 devices to be deployed  Essentially for use by trained surveyors  Initially 20/ district (need to train new surveyors)

34 4. a cell-phone based surveillance pilot in S.W. Uganda crop and disease surveillance – a small scale FAO pilot run in association with Kachwekano research station, based on cell phone text messaging (SMS) for data (Nov 2007-March 2008) [funded by Government of Norway, through FAO]

35 Banana xanthomonas wilt (BXW)

36 transport – mobility and communications difficult in fieldtransport – mobility and communications difficult in field availability of trained human resourceavailability of trained human resource inspection tools and technical facilitiesinspection tools and technical facilities surveillance and reporting procedures not always effectivesurveillance and reporting procedures not always effective There are technical constraints to surveillance

37 farmers unwilling to provide information, fear of blame and punishmentfarmers unwilling to provide information, fear of blame and punishment Adopt ‘wait and see’ approachAdopt ‘wait and see’ approach Whether farmers report also depends on relationship with extension worker and perception of anticipated assistanceWhether farmers report also depends on relationship with extension worker and perception of anticipated assistance ‘Social’ constraints to surveillance

38 Addressing these constraints could: help improve pest and disease surveillance,help improve pest and disease surveillance, assist control and eradication efforts, andassist control and eradication efforts, and potentially provide early warning of new outbreakspotentially provide early warning of new outbreaks

39 Visual representation of data (graphs, maps)Visual representation of data (graphs, maps) Better feedback to interested parties (bulletins, messages via cell, radio)Better feedback to interested parties (bulletins, messages via cell, radio) an analytical database on confirmed pest and disease outbreak for decision makers, extension workersan analytical database on confirmed pest and disease outbreak for decision makers, extension workers Improved information sharing among subject expertsImproved information sharing among subject experts And choice of data capture technology ? How could surveillance improve?-

40 SMS may have advantages in this area High existing mobile phone ownershipHigh existing mobile phone ownership Ease of reporting (limited technical skills required), can accommodate local languagesEase of reporting (limited technical skills required), can accommodate local languages Mobile phones already being used to share information among farmers, extension workersMobile phones already being used to share information among farmers, extension workers Lowest cost optionLowest cost option

41 Participants were selected based on … resident of particular village resident of particular village owned mobile phone owned mobile phone able to read and write able to read and write able to use SMS function able to use SMS function approachable and respected approachable and respected farmer or livestock keeper farmer or livestock keeper interest in the pilot project interest in the pilot project

42 SMS-based system model Field worker Sub-county extension (DVO, DAO, NAADS Coordinators) District Production Office (DVO, DAO, NAADS) System monitor warnings verified Research (NARO, universities) Field workers in surrounding areas confirmed data Donors (Project funding) Decision-makers (LC5 council, DPO budget) Decision-makers (Central government, conditional grants)

43 SMS reports include … Name of LocationName of Location Crop or livestock affectedCrop or livestock affected Suspected pest or diseaseSuspected pest or disease Urgent attention requiredUrgent attention required Incidence (number of farm households affected)Incidence (number of farm households affected)

44 - operational test the system worksthe system works around observations/week, across the districtsaround observations/week, across the districts mix of animal disease and plant pests/diseases were reportedmix of animal disease and plant pests/diseases were reported fewer problems on message content than expectedfewer problems on message content than expected extension workers need a ‘roving’ facilityextension workers need a ‘roving’ facility

45 - information management SMS should link to existing system of reporting Important to have data ownership at district/ research station level, then aggregate

46 - acceptance Users accept but need to understand purpose and broader context of the workunderstand purpose and broader context of the work have pest and disease identification skillshave pest and disease identification skills have some limited skills (literacy, SMS familiarity)have some limited skills (literacy, SMS familiarity) financial / logistical support will be needed to facilitate reporters Real motivation will come when reporters see follow up of reports (feedback to communities)

47 concluding remarks SMS based reporting looks promising for local early warning Maybe other technologies for detailed validation/ confirmation Database and mapping skills needed if such a scheme is to be implemented If decision to try something in this area, procedures must be integrated properly with existing animal and plant reporting


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