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ANALISIS POLUTAN DI LINGKUNGAN Oleh Sudrajat FMIPA_UNMUL 2010.

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Presentasi berjudul: "ANALISIS POLUTAN DI LINGKUNGAN Oleh Sudrajat FMIPA_UNMUL 2010."— Transcript presentasi:

1 ANALISIS POLUTAN DI LINGKUNGAN Oleh Sudrajat FMIPA_UNMUL 2010

2 Di dalam melakukan analisis terhadap pengaruh pencemar pada biota di dalam ekosistem alamiah, perlu memperhatikan respon lingkungan tersebut terhadap jenis zat pencemarnya. - Studi hubungan respon organisme terhadap kadar polutan ( studi lapangan/ di lab) - Studi ambang batas zat/polutan yang dapat ditoleransi suatu organisme di lingkungan - Studi tingkat mortalitas organisme akibat polutan

3 - Uji respon genetis suatu organisme thdp polutan - Analisis akumulasi polutan di dalam organisme yang diduga terpapar - Uji morbidity - Evaluasi dampak terhadap kesehatan masyarakat - Analisis respon komunitas terhadap hadirnya polutan di dalam lingkungan

4 Kerangka Umum Penilaian Risiko Lingkungan

5 Desain Program Analisis Pencemaran Lingkungan TUJUAN SAMPEL KAPAN DAN DIMANA BAGAIMANA ANALISIS DATA

6 PELAKSANAAN PENILAIAN PAPARAN Penerapan penilaian paparan di lapangan antara lain : 1.Pemantauan rutin terhadap paparan Industri 2.Penelitian hubungan antara paparan kimia dan efeknya terhadap kesehatan 3.Hubungan dosis – respon 4. Mengidentifikasi golongan masyarakat yang mempunyai risiko 5. Studi Toksikokinetik pada manusia 6. Mengidentifikasi perjalanan bahan kimia polutan setelah diserap manusia

7 Keuntungan monitoring menggunakan evaluasi biologis. 1. Merupakan prioritas utama pengelolaan lingkungan hidup 2. Menggambarkan respon nyata terhadap zat pencemar 3. Dalam kasus tertentu, merupakan indikator peka terjadinya pencemaran lingkungan

8 Kerugian monitoring menggunakan evaluasi biologis. (1). Mahal dan memakan waktu (2). Terdapat kekurangan kriteria kuantitatif (3). Adanya variabilitas respon organisme terhadap kehadiran zat polutan yg dapat dipengaruhi oleh iklim, kedalaman air, jenis tanah, kualitas udara, waktu, dll (4). Kurangnya pengetahuan taksonomis thdp organisme yang dijumpai dan terlibat dalam respon thdp polutan (5).Tidak mencirikan sifat zat yang menyebabkan terjadinya pencemaran (6). Penggunaannya terbatas untuk kasus-kasus tertentu yg telah divalidasi

9 Environmental Indicators are attributes associated with specific ecosystem elements (e.g., water, plants, animals and people) that are used to characterize and communicate the condition of the ecosystem. INDICATOR: SALMON The 2006 Partnership has defined an environmental indicator as a physical, biological, or chemical measurement, statistic or value that provides a proximate gauge or evidence of, the state of the condition of Puget Sound (ESSB 5372) may inform about the current or evolving state of key ecosystem elements, or may inform processes or mechanisms that drive ecosystem health

10 Good environmental indicators are tools to manage ecosystems To supply information on environmental problems, in order to enable policy-makers to enable their seriousness. To support policy development and priority setting by identifying key factors that cause pressure on the environment To assess the effects of policy responses Environmental indicators may be used as a powerful tool to raise public awareness on environmental issues to strengthen public support for policy measures In addition In relation to policy-making environmental indicators are used for three major purposes:

11 “Good” indicators based on clearly defined goals and objectives and important elements in conceptual models that define key ecosystem structures and functions developed and selected in a logical, structured selection process that is scientifically rigorous and transparent must have broad regional agreement on the indicator selection criteria/framework

12 “Good” indicators based on clearly defined goals and objectives and important elements in conceptual models that define key ecosystem structures and functions developed and selected in a logical, structured selection process that is scientifically rigorous and transparent must have broad regional agreement on the indicator selection criteria/framework

13 … must be understood and of interest to lots of people. They must tell a story that resonates with the public and policy makers!

14 Evolution of a PSAMP Indicator 1987 PCBs detected in Puget Sound Salmon No decline in PCBs for last 20 years DOH Report: only 1 meal Puget Sound Chinook per week Puget Sound Chinook 3 to 5 times more contaminated 2008 Hickie et al.Report: PCB levels in Puget Sound salmon are not protective of health of killer whales

15 Example of how environmental indicators are used in an adaptive management framework To supply information on environmental problems, in order to enable policy-makers to value their seriousness. To support policy, development and priority setting by identifying key factors that cause pressure on the environment. (May require additional research). To assess the effects of policy responses no decline in PCB levels in 20 years elevated PCB levels in herring, harbor seals, Chinook salmon, and orca whales consumption advisories for Puget Sound Chinook salmon 2006 Partnership requests toxic loading study… identifies run off as major source Management actions to reduce loadings in runoff ??

16 How do we go about selecting indicators? need specific goals and objectives need conceptual models to build a common knowledge base and identify key functions/ processes must develop criteria and framework for indicator selection


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