Presentasi berjudul: "Tips Menulis Skripsi menurut APA format"— Transcript presentasi:
1 Tips Menulis Skripsi menurut APA format Oleh:I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama, SE., MMA., MA.
2 Basics:A research paper (especially one that requires APA style) is different than a term paper, a creative writing paper, a composition-style paper, or a thought paper.Format Penulisan yang dianut oleh STIM Dhyana Pura
3 Tips Menulis SkripsiPada umumnya hampir semua tulisan ilmiah mempunyai banyak kesamaan, namun akan lebih baik jika anda mengikuti apa yang disarankan oleh pembimbing atau dosen anda!Tiap lembaga pendidikan mempunyai gaya dan style yang berbeda-beda dalam hal format penulisan, untuk itu anda disarankan membaca dan mengikuti buku panduan penulisan yang telah ada.Intinya: Ikutilah pedoman dan saran dari dosen pembimbing anda, Jangan mengikuti saran diluar itu walaupun anda anggap bagus, karena yang bagus belum tentu benar.
4 Tips Menulis SkripsiImpersonal style – as a guideline minimize using first person (e.g., “this study was conducted…” rather than “we conducted this study…”) although there are exceptions .Jangan menggunakan pengganti orang yang mengekpresikan pelaku orang. Misalnya: “penelitian ini telah dilakukan…….” daripada “kami telah melakukan penelitian ini……..” walaupun ada perkecualian.
5 Do not include any personal statements or anecdotes (e. g Do not include any personal statements or anecdotes (e.g., “I was interested in studying eating disorders because my sister was diagnosed with…” does not belong in a research paper!)Jangan mengungkap hal yang behubungan dengan pribadi anda! Misalnya “Saya tertarik untuk melakukan penelitian makanan yang dapat membahayakan karena kakak saya telah diduga…..” alasan ini bukan bagian dari penelitian.
6 Verb tense – as a guideline use past tense (e. g Verb tense – as a guideline use past tense (e.g., “the results indicated” rather than “the results indicate”) although there are exceptions.Pengungkapan fakta penelitian menggunakan kalimat lampau, misalnya “Hasil penelitian ini telah mengindikasikan” daripada “penelitian ini mengindikasikan” walaupun ada perkecualian.
7 Contractions – do not use contractions. (e. g Contractions – do not use contractions! (e.g., “it does not follow” rather than “it doesn’t follow”)Jangan menggunakan kata kata kontraksi!, misalnya “Hipotesis ditolak karena……” daripada “Hipotesis ditolak karna……”
8 Biased language– keep up to date with appropriate terms, especially if you are writing a paper that involves gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, etc.Jangan menggunakan istilah yang memiliki arti jamak atau yang bersinggungan dengan unsur SARA (Gender, Suku, Agama, Ras, atau yang berkonotasi sex atau porno (Grafi/aksi)), misalnya: ini kacangku…, itu burungmu…, buah dada….., dsb.
9 Citations – be sure to cite your sources Citations – be sure to cite your sources. Try to paraphrase as much as possible (as opposed to quoting)…a couple of ways to do this:Dalam mengutip Pustaka, hindari mengutip langsung, tapi lakukan kutipan tidak langsung
10 …a couple of ways to do this: State a fact or make a claim in the text; then cite your source in parentheses within the same sentence: “It has been demonstrated that immediate recall is extremely limited for 5-year-old children (Jones, 1998).” OR “Previous research has shown that response to an auditory stimulus is much faster than response to a visual stimulus (Smith & Jones, 2003).”Can use source as the subject of your sentence: “In a related study, Jones (2005) found that…” OR “In a similar study, Jones and Smith (1999) found that…”
11 Title PageShould include a running head, title, author name(s), and affiliation – all double-spaced (should not include instructor’s name, name of the course, etc.)Running Head – left aligned at top of page; keywords from title; all capsEx: “Running Head: USING APA FORMAT”Title – centered about half-way down pageEx: “Correctly Using APA Format in a Research Paper”Name – centered under titledEx: “Jane Smith”Affiliation – school you are attending; centered under name(s)Ex: “University of North Dakota”
12 AbstractShould include a basic description of the study in about one sentence per section of an APA paperShould be about 120 wordsShould look like:
14 Introduction – Should include: Clear and explicit introduction of the construct being investigatedAll constructs should be accurately and clearly definedLiterature review conveys what is known about the construct under investigationLiterature used in review is appropriate (i.e., from a professional journal)Literature used in review is accurate in ideasLogical presentation of ideas (i.e., no illogical jumps or omissions)Research proposed is discussed in the context of what is already knownHypotheses are statedShould look like:
16 Method Should provide sufficient information to allow reader to easily replicate study, including: ParticipantsDescribe how many (N=), gender, race/ethnicity, mean age, etc. (any demographic information that may be relevant to the study) as well as how participants were recruitedMaterialsDescribe measures or apparatus used, include information about the scale of any measures as well as validity and reliability if availableShould look like:
18 Method (continued)… Procedure Describe the process of conducting the study (e.g., signing of informed consent, the order of procedures – or questionnaires, if or how participants were compensated for their time, any debriefing procedure, etc.)Should look like:
20 Results - Should include: Appropriate statisticsThis will depend on the design of your study; see your instructor with questions pertaining to the appropriate statistical test to useAppropriate presentation of statisticsAn example of appropriate presentation for an ANOVA is given below; consult the APA Manual (or your instructor) regarding appropriate presentation for differing statistics (i.e., how to present a t-test vs. an ANOVA)Appropriate interpretation of statisticsBe sure you are interpreting the meaning of your results accurately (e.g., p< .05 = significant result); know what the numbers meanShould look like:
22 Discussion – Should include: A clear statement of support or nonsupport of the original hypothesesAn exploration of the similarities and differences between the present findings and the work of others, including relating findings to applicable theoryA description of limitations and alternative explanationsCommentary on the importance and implications of the findingsShould look like:
24 Conclusions Here you should describe the conclusions you reach (assuming you got the results described in the Results section above).relate these conclusions back to the level of the construct and the general problem area which you described in the Introduction section.also discuss the overall strength of the research proposed (e.g. general discussion of the strong and weak validity areas) and should present some suggestions for possible future research which would be sensible based on the results of this work.
25 ReferencesShould be in alphabetical order, see examples of different forms of references belowThe first three are examples of journal articlesThe next two (fourth and fifth listed) are examples of book referencesConsult the APA Manual for other forms of referencing (e.g., internet sources, edited books)Should look like:
27 Tables/GraphsAll tables and graphs should be labeled with a number, have a title, listed on its own page, and included in the appendicesThe example table below is a typical “APA-style” tableGraphs should be appropriate to the scale being used (e.g., nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio)Consult the APA Manual or your instructor for further information on other types of tables and graphs