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Membedah cerpen "Kumo no Ito" karya Akutagawa Ryunosuke.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Membedah cerpen "Kumo no Ito" karya Akutagawa Ryunosuke."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Membedah cerpen "Kumo no Ito" karya Akutagawa Ryunosuke

2 Unsur Intrinsik Tema Tokoh Latar Alur Sudut Pandang Bahasa

3 Background Cerpen “Kumo no Ito” dipublikasikan di majalah sastra anak tahun 1918 yang disbeut akai tori. Banyak yang secara tidak sadar menikmati karya ini dengan melupakan tujuan penulis yang hanya ingin membuat cerita anak. Bahkan cerita banyak menjadi bahan perdebatan, diskusi dan kritik.

4 orisinalitas Karya Akutagawa banyak mendapat inspirasi dari karya lain sehingga kerap dijadikan bukti bahwa Akutagawa kurang orisinil. Menurut Donald Keene, (pemerhati sastra Jepang), Akutagawa disebut Mosaicist karena ia cenderung menggabungkan beberapa bahan untuk menjadi sebuah cerita. Meski begitu kritik seperti ini lepas dari kualitas karya Akutagawa. Untuk cerpen “Kumo no ito” ada 3 sumber yang menjadi inspirasi Akutagawa “: 1. kisah anak dalam buku The Brothers Karamazov 2. Sebuah ilustrasi yang tertangkap di buku The History of the Devil and the Idea of Evil from the Earliest Times to the Present Day 3. Sebuah kisah berjudul "The Spider's Web" in Karma: A Story of Early Buddhism

5 The Brothers Karamazov by the famous Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's ( ) in English translation during the period from October 1916 through July 1917 Once upon a time there was a woman, and she was wicked as wicked could be, and she died. And not one good deed was left behind her. The devils took her and threw her into the lake of fire. And her guardian angel stood thinking: what good deed of hers can I remember to tell God? Then he remembered and said to God: once she pulled up an onion and gave it to a beggar woman. And God said: now take that same onion, hold it out to her in the lake, let her take hold of it, and pull, and if you pull her out of the lake, she can go to paradise, but if the onion breaks, she can stay where she is. The angel ran to the woman and held out the onion to her: here, woman, he said, take hold of it and I'll pull. And he began pulling carefully, and had almost pulled her all the way out, when other sinners in the lake saw her being pulled out and all began holding on to her so as to be pulled out with her. But the woman was wicked as wicked could be, and she began to kick them with her feet: 'It's me who's getting pulled out, not you; it's my onion, not yours.' No sooner did she say it than the onion broke. And the woman fell back into the lake and is burning there to this day. The angel wept and went away

6 Inspirasi kedua dari buku The History of the Devil and the Idea of Evil from the Earliest Times to the Present D There is a Buddha extending his hand to a sinner in hell. The caption reads: The goodwill that a poor wretch had shown in his former life to a spider, his only good deed, serves him in hell as a means of escape. Ini adalah sebuah reproduksi dari kisah di buku Karma: A Story of Early Buddhism.

7 I will tell you the story of the great robber Kandata, who died without repentance and was reborn as a demon in Hell, where he suffered for his evil deeds the most terrible agonies and pains. He had been in Hell several Kalpas and was unable to rise out of his wretched condition, when Buddha appeared upon earth and attained to the blessed [state] of enlightenment. At that memorable moment a ray of light fell down into Hell quickening all the demons with life and hope and the robber Kandata cried aloud: "O blessed Buddha, have mercy upon me! I suffer greatly, and although I have done evil, I am anxious to walk in the noble path of righteousness. But I cannot extricate myself from the net of sorrow. Help me, O Lord; have mercy on me!" Now, it is the law of karma that evil deeds lead to destruction, for absolute evil is so bad that it cannot exist. But good deeds lead to life. Thus there is a final end to every deed that is done, but there is no end to the development of good deeds. The least act of goodness bears fruit containing new seeds of goodness, and they continue to grow, they nourish (the soul in its weary transmigrations) (the poor suffering creatures in their repeated wanderings in the eternal round of Samsâra) until (it reaches) (they reach) the final deliverance from all evil in Nirvâna. When Buddha, the Lord, heard the prayer of the demon suffering in Hell, he said, "Kandata, did you ever perform an act of kindness? It will now return to you and help you to rise again. But you cannot be rescued unless the intense sufferings which you endure as consequence of your evil deeds have dispelled all conceit of selfhood and have purified your soul of vanity, lust, and envy."

8 3. A Buddhist Story? Oshaka sama (Budha sakyamuni), Bunga teratai, Surga, sungai 3 cabang, gunung jarum dsbnya Pemikiran Budha bahwa reinkarnasi / kelahiran seseorang bisa terganggu oleh karma perbuatan jahatnya Dalam agama Budha ada 6 dunia (rokudo) yakni neraka (untuk iblis), dunia hantu kelaparan, hewan, asura (dunia roh), manusia dan dewa (surga). Setelah 7 hari setelah kematian seseorang ia akan dibawa melalui sungai 3 cabang ke tempat 3 tujuan takdir setan (san akushu), dimana jika seseorang ditakdirkan untuk terlahir kembali di sini maka itu benar-benar karma buruknya. 3 tempat tersebut adalah kazu (neraka api), tozu (neraka pedang, tempat hantu-hantu lapar dihukum dengan pedang), dan ketiga adalah kechizu (neraka darah) karena binatang yang terlahir kembali disini dengan saling mengganyang sesama mereka. Apakah ini cerita Budha, perlu diuji : 1. Apakah mungkin seseorang dari neraka tanpa dukungan bisa mencapai surga 2. Tradisi Budha seperti di kitab Mappo ( Hukum Akhir Zaman) pertolongan melalui 1 usaha sendiri (jiriki) tidak memungkinkan.

9 Perlunya Berpikir Kritis dan melihat segala sesuatu baik yang di atas permukaan ataupun di balik permukaan Melepaskan diri dari teori dan ketakutan akan bentuk analisis, yang perlu dilakukan adalah membongkar dan membedah karya tersebut dengan cara seluas-luasnya untuk mendapatkan satu kesimpulan (sementara) baru Kesimpulan (sementara) tersebut barulah diuji dengan pendekatan/teori/konsep yang digunakan Penelitian ala Jepang  Sankou kenkyuu (参考研究)  dari penelitian terdahulu didalami lagi

10 Pendekatan yang mungkin Pendekatan Biografis  Sebelum struktural muncul, ini memungkinkan tapi setelah strukturalisme muncul banyak yang menentang, seperti kata Barthes “kematian pengarang”. Pendekatan Mitopoik  Mitos = fabel & legenda, Teori Interteks : jaringan hubungan antara teks satu dan teks lain. Penelitian dengan menemukan hubungan bermakna antara 2 teks atau lebih. Interteks bisa lewat novel dan novel, novel dan puisi, novel dan mitos, hubungannya bisa persamaaan atau pertentangan atau parodi. Menurut Kristeva, setiap teks harus dibaca atas dasar latar belakang teks-teks lain.


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