3Nutrisi & Tipe Nutrisi Mikrobia Nutrien: sumber energi & komponen selNutrisi Mikrobia:Tipe nutrisi mikrobiaTransportasi nutrientPertumbuhan populasi mikrobia:Batch culture: fase pertumbuhanContinuous culture: chemostatMetode pengukuran pertumbuhan
4ConceptsMicroorganisms require about 10 elements in large quantities, in part because they are used to construct carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Several other elements are needed in very small amount and are parts of enzymes and cofactors.All microorganisms can be placed in one of a few nutritional categories on the bases of their requirements for carbon, energy and hydrogen atoms or electrons.Nutrient molecules frequently cannot cross selectively permeable plasma membranes through passive diffusion. They must be transported by one of three major mechanisms involving the use of membrane carrier proteins.
5Nutrient requirements Concepts:Microorganisms require about ten elements in large quantities, because they are used to construct carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Several other elements are needed in very small amounts and are parts of enzymes and cofactors.
6Macronutrients95% or more of cell dry weight is made up of a few major elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron.The first six ( C, H, O, N, P and S) are components of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
7Nutrisi Mikrobia: komponen nutrien Makroelemen:C, H, O, N, S, P: (gr/l)karbohidrat,lipid,proteinasam nukleatKebutuhan N, S dan PN: sintesis asam aminoS: asam amino sistein dan metionin, vitamin (biotin dan tiamin)P: asam nukleat, fosfolipid dan nukleotida (ATP)
8Makroelemen K, Ca, Mg dan Fe: (mg/l) K: aktivitas enzim dalam sintesis proteinCa: resistensi panas pada endosporaMg: ko-faktor berbagai enzimFe: penyusun sitokhrom dalam rantai respirasi
9Nutrisi Mikrobia: komponen nutrien Mikroelemen (Trace elements): (μg/l)Mn, Zn, Co, Mo, Ni dan CuMn: membantu enzim dalam transfer gugus PZn: berperan dalam sisi aktif enzim pada E. coliMo: berperan dalam fiksasi NCo: komponen Vitamin B12
10Trace ElementsMicrobes require very small amounts of other mineral elements, such as iron, copper, molybdenum, and zinc; these are referred to as trace elements. Most are essential for activity of certain enzymes, usually as cofactors.
11Growth Factors (2) Purines and pyrimidines, (3) Vitamins (1)Amino acids(2) Purines and pyrimidines,(3) VitaminsAmino acids for protein synthesisPurines and pyrimidines for nucleic acid synthesis.Vitamins are small organic molecules that usually make up all or part enzyme cofactors, and only very small amounts are required for growth.
12Growth factorGrowth factor: Senyawa organik yang diperlukan karena tidak dapat disintesis oleh selContoh:Asam aminoPurin dan PirimidinVitamin: kofaktor bagi enzim
13Major nutritional type Nutritional types of microorganismsMajor nutritional typeSources of energy,hydrogen/electrons,and carbonRepresentative microorganismsPhotoautotroph(Photolithotroph)Light energy, inorganic hydrogen/electron(H/e-) donor, CO2 carbon sourceAlgae, Purple and green bacteria, CyanobacteriaPhotoheterotroph(Photoorganotroph)Light energy, inorganic H/e- donor,Organic carbon sourcePurple nonsulfur bacteria,Green sulfur bacteriaChemoautotroph(Chemolithotroph)Chemical energy source (inorganic), Inorganic H/e- donor, CO2 carbon sourceSulfur-oxdizing bacteria, Hydrogen bacteria,Nitrifying bacteriaChemoheterotroph(Chenoorganotroph)Chemical energy source (organic), Organic H/e- donor, Organic carbon sourceMost bacteria, fungi, protozoa
15Properties of microbial photosynthetic systems PropertyCyanobacteriaGreen and purple bacteriaPurple nonsulfur bacteriaPhoto - pigmentChlorophyllBcteriochlorophyllO2 productionYesNoElectron donorsH2OH2, H2S, SCarbon sourceCO2Organic / CO2Primary products of energy conversionATP + NADPHATP
16Nutrisi Mikrobia: Tipe nutrisi mikrobia Berdasarkan sumber karbon:Heterotrof: organik, e.g. glukosaAutotrof: anorganik, e.g. CO2Berdasarkan sumber Energi:Fototrof: cahaya, e.g. cahaya matahariKhemotrof: reaksi kimiawi,e.g. biooksidasi-reduksi (org & anorg)Berdasarkan sumber donor elektron:Litotrof: anorganik e.g. H2O, H2SOrganotrof: organik, e.g. glukosa
21Uptake of nutrientsNutrient molecules frequently cannot cross selectively permeable plasma membranes through passive diffusion and must be transported by one of three major mechanisms involving the use of membrane carrier proteins.
24Transportasi Nutrien 1. Passive diffusion 2. Transport protein (uniport, simport, antiport)3. Facilitated diffusionActive transportGroup translocationChelating transport
251. Phagocytosis – Protozoa 2. Permeability absorption – Most microorganismsPassive transport simple diffusionFacilitated diffusionActive transportGroup translocation
26Passive diffusionPassive diffusion is the process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration as a result of random thermal agitation. A few substances, such as glycerol, can cross the plasma membrane by passive diffusion.
28Facilitated diffusion The rate of diffusion across selectively permeable membranes is greatly increased by the use of carrier proteins, sometimes called permeases, which are embedded in the plasina membrane. Since the diffusion process is aided by a carrier, it is called facilitated diffusion. The rate of facilitated diffusion increases with the concentratioti gradient much more rapidly and at lower concentrations of the diffusing molecule than that of passive diffusion
29A model of facilitated diffusion The membrane carrier can change conformation after binding an external molecule and subsequently release the molecule on the cell interior. It then returns to the outward oriented position and is ready to bind another solute molecule.Because there is no energy input, molecules will continue to enter only as long as their concentration is greater on the outside.
36Group translocationThe best-known group translocation system is the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), which transports a variety of sugars into procaryotic cells while Simultaneously phosphorylating them using phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) as the phosphate donor.PEP + sugar (outside) pyruvate + sugar-P (inside)
37The phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system of E. coli The phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system of E. coli. The following components are involved in the system: phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP; enzyme 1, E I; the low molecular weight heat-stable protein, HPr; enzyme 11, E II,- and enzyme III, E III.
38Simple comparison of transport systems ItemsPassive diffusionFacilitated diffusionActive transportGroup translocationcarrier proteinsNonYestransport speedSlowRapidagainst gradienttransport moleculesNo specificitySpecificitymetabolic energyNo needNeedSolutes moleculesNot changedChanged