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Structure 2 Pertemuan 1 : 4 September 2011 Ai Melani Universitas Terbuka Korea Selatan

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Presentasi berjudul: "Structure 2 Pertemuan 1 : 4 September 2011 Ai Melani Universitas Terbuka Korea Selatan"— Transcript presentasi:


2 Structure 2 Pertemuan 1 : 4 September 2011 Ai Melani Universitas Terbuka Korea Selatan

3 Perkenalan Tutor  Mahasiswa Ph.D Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)  Status Single/asli sukabumi Jawa Barat  Hobby Travelling dan Photography  Riset tentang Nuclear Safety  Info lebih lengkap add me on Facebook: Ai Melani add me on add me on Google+: ai melani

4 Perkenalan Matakuliah (1)  Buku Pegangan : Universitas Terbuka  Buku ini terdiri dari 12 modul, namun akan dibahas dalam 8 kali pertemuan  Pertemuan 1 : Sentences dan Clauses  Pertemuan 2 : Conjunctions  Pertemuan 3 : Questions  Pertemuan 4 : Passive Sentences

5 Perkenalan Matakuliah (2)  Pertemuan 5 : Infinitives dan Gerunds  Pertemuan 6 : Comparisons  Pertemuan 7 : Noun Clauses and Reported Speech  Pertemuan 8 : Adverbial Clauses  Metode Pembelajaran : Tutorial Online dan Tatap Muka

6 Perkenalan Matakuliah (3)  Komponen Penilaian  Tugas 1, Tugas 2 dan Tugas 3  Partisipasi (keaktifan)  Ujian Akhir  Materi Kuliah :


8 Introductions “Clauses (klausa): kelompok kata yang saling berhubungan yang mempunyai subjek dan predikat” A clause is a group of re lated words containing a subject and a verb. Clauses: Building Blocks for Sentences

9 Clauses Main clauses Induk kalimat Independent Clauses Subordinate clauses Anak kalimat Dependent Clauses

10 Independent Clauses  Independent: A clause that can stand by itself and still make sense. An independent clause could be its own sentence, but is often part of a larger structure, combined with other independent clauses and with dependent clauses. Independent clauses are sometimes called essential or restrictive clauses

11 Independent Clauses  Kelompok kata yang saling berhubungan yang mempunyai subjek dan predikat dan dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat lengkap dan utuh  simple sentences

12 Example of Independent Sentences  Rudy is my son  I know that boy  Martha is very happy  English is international language  I have been to Alaska  Ai is from Sukabumi  We went to supermarket yesterday

13 And here are some other examples of independent clauses Independent clauses: Glaciers often leave behind holes in the ground. These holes are called kettles, and they look just like scooped-out pots. Glaciers also leave behind enormous deposits of glacial “g arbage”; these deposits are called morains. Kettle holes result when a large block of ice is left behind t he glacier and then melts away, leaving a large depression. This last sentence deserves further attention....

14 Clauses: Building Blocks for Sentences Notice that this sentence consists of a very brief independent clause followed by a long and complex dependent clause. Kettle holes result when a large block of ice is left behind the glacier and then melts away, leaving a large depression. The dependent clause begins with what is called a subordinating conjunction. T his causes the clause to be dependent upon the rest of the sentence for its meani ng; it cannot stand by itself. More on dependent clauses in a moment....

15 dependent Clauses  Dependent: A clause that cannot stand by itself. It depends on something else, an independent clause, for its meaning. A dependent clause trying to stand by itself would be a sentence fragment. Dependent clauses are sometimes called subordinate, nonessential, or nonrestrictive clauses. We will review the different kinds of dependent clauses.sentence fragment

16 dependent Clauses  Disebut juga subordinate clauses/ Anak kalimat  mempunyai subjek dan predikat tetapi tidak bisa berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat yang lengkap karena tidak mengekspresikan pemikiran yang lengkap. Memerlukan independent clauses agar dapat memberikan informasi yang lengkap dan utuh.

17 dependent Clauses  Disebut juga subordinate clauses/ Anak kalimat  karena menggunakan subordinate conjunctions, seperti: That, if, when, until,after,although,because,since,whereas and before. Adjective clause menggunakan relative pronouns seperti that,which,who,whom and those.

18 Example of dependent clauses  That he is a banker.  Whether you go by bus or by train.  If you go with us.  Who is sitting alone.  Whose hair is long.  Because he did not have any money.  After you arrive in Bali.  Whereas anita is diligent.  Why he cried.  Wherever you go.

19 Type of dependent clauses Dependent clauses yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda Noun clauses Dependent clauses yang berfungsi sebagai adjektif (sifat) or menerangkan kata benda Adjective Clauses Dependent clauses yang berfungsi sebagai adverb Adverbial Clauses

20 Noun clauses  Noun clauses bisa digunakan sebagai subjek, sebagai objek kata kerja atau preposisi dan sebagai pelengkap. Noun clauses dapat menempati posisi kata benda dalam independent clause.  kata benda it.  Subordinate conjunction  that,whether if, what, dsb.

21 Examples Noun clauses as subject/subjek  How he gets the money is his own affair  What they did does not concern me.  That he is a liar is obvious  Where they work is not important to me.  Why you asked me that question matters to me.  IS his own affair  are…..

22 Examples Noun clauses sebagai objek kata kerja  He suggested that I continue my studies at the famous university.  She wanted to know whether I had some money.  I don’t know where he lives.  The teacher asked me what my name was.  He/she/I asked/suggested/wanted/…….

23 Examples Noun clauses sebagai complement/pelengkap  My question is why you did not come last night.  The main problem is they don’t have a car.  The most important point is how to increase the company product.  My concern is how to pay the workers.  THE MOST IMPORTANT IS……

24 Dependent clause as Noun Clause Independent clauseNoun Clause Is his own affairHow he gets the money He suggestedThat I continue my studies at the famous university She wanted to knowWhether I had some money I don’t knowWhere he lives

25 Adjective clauses  Adjective clauses yang berfungsi sebagai kata sifat atau menerangkan kata benda.  Biasanya menggunakan relative pronouns misalnya which, who,whom, whose dll.  Adjective clause bisa menempati posisi tengah atau posisi akhir kalimat.

26 Examples of adjective clause  The boy who/that gave me the book is Mr.Anwar Son.  The girl whose hair is braded is my daughter.  Anita, who lives next to my house, is very rich.  He gave the money to the man who had done the work.  Here is the book which/that describes animals.  I like the novel that he wrote.  ….IS MY SON  THE BOY…….IS MY SON  SP+ADJ CLAUSES

27 Dependent clause as of adjective clauses Independent clauseadjective Clause He gave the money to the man Who had done the work The boy is Mr. Anwar SonWho/that gave me the book Here is the bookWhich/that describes animals The girl is my daughterWhose hair is braded.

28 Adverbial clause  Berfungsi sebagai adverb  menjelaskan kata kerja, frasa kata kerja, kata sifat, kata keterangan atau menjelaskan seluruh kalimat.  Subordinate conjunctions (kata penghubung subordinasi), misalnya when, after, while,before,as soon as, as long as, whenever, every time, dan if akan dibahas detail di modul

29 Examples of adverbial clause  You may begin when you are ready.  Before you go to bed, you have to lock the doors.  You may play after you have finished doing your homework.

30 Dependent clause as of adverbial clauses Independent clauseadverbial Clause You may beginWhen you are ready You have to lock the doorsBefore you go to bed


32 Sentences  Frank (1972) kalimat /sentences adalah:  makna: suatu pemikiran yang utuh  fungsi: terdiri dari subjek dan predikat

33 Clause Vs Sentence  Clause: kelompok kata yang mempunyai subjek, predikat yang bisa mengekspresikan suatu informasi yang utuh dan bisa juga tidak. informasi yang utuh: independent clause, tidak mengekspresikan informasi yang utuh: dependent clause.  Sentences: kelompok kata yang mempunyai subjek, predikat dan mengekspresikan suatu informasi yang utuh.

34 Classifications of sentences  Classifications by types:  Declarative sentences (statement)  Interrogative sentences (questions)  Imperative sentences (commands and request)  Exclamatory sentences (exclamations)

35 Classifications of sentences  Classifications by number of full predications:  Simple sentences  Compound sentences  Complex sentences  Compound-complex sentences

36 Declarative sentences (statement)  Digunakan untuk memberi informasi atau pendapat.  Mempunyai subject dan predikat yang normal urutanya: S+P+0(pelengkap)  Diakhiri tanda titik.  Misal: Carol is happy. I have just bought my books.

37 Interrogative sentences (questions)  Kalimat tanya digunakan untuk menanyakan suatu informasi.  Pada kalimat tanya letak subjek dan kata bantu terjadi pembalikan.  Dalam statement subject terletak di awal kalimat, tapi disini kata kerja bantu mengawali kalimat  Intonasi  yes/no answer, intonasi naik. Question word intonasi turun.

38 Interrogative sentences (questions)  Yes-no question:  Did the child eat his dinner?  Is it your book?  Are you maya?  Question-word question  What is your name?  Where did you buy this?  How to go there?

39 Imperative sentences (commands and request)  Kalimat perintah atau kalimat permintaan digunakan untuk memberi informasi apa yang harus dilakukan oleh lawan bicara.  Beda command dan request adalah pada cara penyampaian. Request lebih sopan, menggunakan kata please.diakhiri tanda seru!  Example: Stop the bus, please! Eat your dinner! Or shorter : go!, stop! Help!

40 Exclamatory sentences (exclamations)  Kalimat yang digunakan untuk mengekspresikan emosi misalnya heran, gembira, atau emosi lainnya.  Dimulai dengan frasa exclamatory yang terdiri dari What, atau how dan bagian dari predikatnya.  Diikuti dengan subjek dan predikatnya. Diakhiri dengan tanda seru !  Example: What a good dinner that was! What a pretty dress you have! How beautiful she is! How far his house is!

41 Simple sentences  Kalimat sederhana hanya terdiri dari satu klausa saja, yaitu main independent clause, dan hanya punya satu subject dan satu predikat saja.  Examples: Tedi Bought a house. Ratih is happy. Ratih and rita swim every day. The boys and the girls are friendly.

42 Compound sentences  Kalimat majemuk merupakan gabungan dari dua kalimat sederhana atau dua klausa utama atau lebih.  Example: The rain fell, and the wind blew. Rani attended the concert, and Rini went to the dance.

43 Complex sentences  Terdiri dari satu main independent clause dan satu atau lebih dependent (subordinate) clause,  Example:  You should lock the doors before you leave the house.  Although john is a good athlete, he does not spend too much time in sports. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE+DEPENDENT CLAUSE=COMPLEX SENTENCES!!

44 Compound-complex sentences  Terdiri dari dua atau lebih main clause (klausa utama) dan satu atau lebih dependent clause (anak kalimat)  Example: Although the farmers always work long hours, they seem to enjoy their work, and they usually have a long time rest during the dry season.

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