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Sistem Informasi Sistem Informasi IX Data Resource Information System Materi IX Data Resource Information System.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Sistem Informasi Sistem Informasi IX Data Resource Information System Materi IX Data Resource Information System."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Sistem Informasi Sistem Informasi IX Data Resource Information System Materi IX Data Resource Information System

2 Data Resource Information System Management Definition: A managerial activity that applies information systems technologies to the task of managing an organization’s data resources to meet the information needs of their business stakeholders A managerial activity that applies information systems technologies to the task of managing an organization’s data resources to meet the information needs of their business stakeholders

3 Foundation Data Concepts Konsep Data Dasar Character – single alphabetic, numeric or other symbol Character – single alphabetic, numeric or other symbol Field – group of related characters Field – group of related characters Entity – person, place, object or event Entity – person, place, object or event Attribute – characteristic of an entity Attribute – characteristic of an entity

4 Foundation Data Concepts Konsep Data Dasar Record – collection of attributes that describe an entity Record – collection of attributes that describe an entity File – group of related records File – group of related records Database – integrated collection of logically related data elements Database – integrated collection of logically related data elements

5 Logical Data Elements Elemen Data Secara Logikal

6 Entities and Relationships

7 Types of Databases

8 Operational – store detailed data needed to support the business processes and operations of a company Operational – store detailed data needed to support the business processes and operations of a company Distributed – databases that are replicated and distributed in whole or in part to network servers at a variety of sites Distributed – databases that are replicated and distributed in whole or in part to network servers at a variety of sites

9 Types of Databases External – contain a wealth of information available from commercial online services and from many sources on the World Wide Web External – contain a wealth of information available from commercial online services and from many sources on the World Wide Web Hypermedia – consist of hyperlinked pages of multimedia Hypermedia – consist of hyperlinked pages of multimedia

10 Hypermedia Database

11 Data Warehouse Definition: Large database that stores data that have been extracted from the various operational, external, and other databases of an organization Large database that stores data that have been extracted from the various operational, external, and other databases of an organization

12 Data Warehouse System

13 Data Mart Definition: Databases that hold subsets of data from a data warehouse that focus on specific aspects of a company, such as a department or a business process Databases that hold subsets of data from a data warehouse that focus on specific aspects of a company, such as a department or a business process

14 Data Warehouse & Data Marts

15 Data Mining Definition: Analyzing the data in a data warehouse to reveal hidden patterns and trends in historical business activity Analyzing the data in a data warehouse to reveal hidden patterns and trends in historical business activity

16 Data Mining

17 Data Mining Uses Perform “market-basket analysis” to identify new product bundles. Perform “market-basket analysis” to identify new product bundles. Find root causes to quality or manufacturing problems. Find root causes to quality or manufacturing problems. Prevent customer attrition and acquire new customers. Prevent customer attrition and acquire new customers. Cross-sell to existing customers. Cross-sell to existing customers. Profile customers with more accuracy. Profile customers with more accuracy.

18 DBMS Software

19 Fundamental Database Structures

20 Database Structures Hierarchical – relationships between records form a hierarchy or treelike structure Hierarchical – relationships between records form a hierarchy or treelike structure Network – data can be accessed by one of several paths because any data element or record can be related to any number of other data elements Network – data can be accessed by one of several paths because any data element or record can be related to any number of other data elements

21 Database Development Enterprise-wide database development is usually controlled by database administrators (DBA) Enterprise-wide database development is usually controlled by database administrators (DBA) Data dictionary – catalog or directory containing metadata Data dictionary – catalog or directory containing metadata Metadata – data about data Metadata – data about data

22 Database Development Process

23 Knowledge Management

24 Hakikat Sistem Informasi Knowledge Management Manajemen Pengetahuan atau Knowledge Management (KM) merupakan suatu pendekatan yang terencana dan sistematis untuk menjamin penggunaan penuh dasar pengetahuan organisasi, ditambah keahlian, kompetensi, pemikiran, inovasi, dan ide individual potensial untuk menciptakan organisasi yang lebih efisien dan efektif

25 Pengetahuan / Knowledge Pengetahuan dipandang sebagai sebuah komoditi atau sebuah aset intelektual Pengetahuan dipandang sebagai sebuah komoditi atau sebuah aset intelektual Karakteristik pengetahuan: Karakteristik pengetahuan: 1.Penggunaan pengetahuan tidak akan menghabiskannya 2.Perpindahan pengetahuan tidak akan menghilangkannya 3.Pengetahuan itu berlimpah, tetapi kemampuan terbatas untuk menggunakannya 4.Banyak pengetahuan berharga hilang begitu saja

26 Dari Data Menjadi Pengetahuan Data  hal yang langsung dapat diamati dan diverifikasi Informasi  hal yang dapat mewakili data yang telah dianalisis Pengetahuan  hal yang didasarkan atas pengalaman, persepsi, dan pendapat individual

27 Jenis dan Bentuk Pengetahuan Tacit knowledge Pengetahuan yang sulit diartikulasikan, dituliskan dalam kata-kata, teks, maupun gambar Pengetahuan yang sulit diartikulasikan, dituliskan dalam kata-kata, teks, maupun gambar Berada di dalam benak orang yang mengetahui Berada di dalam benak orang yang mengetahui Explicit knowledge Pengetahuan yang telah ditangkap dan dinyatakan dalam kata-kata, teks, maupun gambar Pengetahuan yang telah ditangkap dan dinyatakan dalam kata-kata, teks, maupun gambar Telah ada dalam bentuk konkrit/nyata Telah ada dalam bentuk konkrit/nyata  Semakin tacit sebuah pengetahuan, maka semakin berharga pengetahuan tersebut

28 Beberapa proses yang digunakan untuk merubah informasi ke knowledge Perbandingan (How) yang sudah diketahui – belum diketahui Perbandingan (How) yang sudah diketahui – belum diketahui Konsekuensi (What) yang seharusnya dikerjakan Konsekuensi (What) yang seharusnya dikerjakan Koneksi/Hubungan (How) dengan yang lain Koneksi/Hubungan (How) dengan yang lain Diskusi/conversation (What) lain orang berpikir mengenai informasi tersebut. Diskusi/conversation (What) lain orang berpikir mengenai informasi tersebut.

29 What is Knowledge Management “ Systems ” ? Social/Structural mechanisms (e.g., mentoring and retreats, etc.) for promoting knowledge sharing. Social/Structural mechanisms (e.g., mentoring and retreats, etc.) for promoting knowledge sharing. Leading-edge information technologies (e.g., Web- based conferencing) to support KM mechanisms. Leading-edge information technologies (e.g., Web- based conferencing) to support KM mechanisms. Knowledge management systems (KMS): the synergy between social/structural mechanisms and latest technologies. Knowledge management systems (KMS): the synergy between social/structural mechanisms and latest technologies.

30 Classification of Knowledge Management Systems –Knowledge Discovery Systems –Knowledge Capture Systems –Knowledge Sharing Systems –Knowledge Application Systems

31 SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE CONTINUOUS INNOVATION NEW KNOWLEDGE - Resident largely in intangible social structures, and this imperfecly imitable and non-substitutable - Generates rents and value-added; valuable. Difficult to replicate; hence is rare. - Emerges from a sustainable continuous process (organizational learning); hence meets the ex-ante and ex-post limits to competition Knowledge Technology infrastructure ( Group-ware, messaging, Visualization, web browsers, data mining, search & retrieval, push, intelligent agents, collaborative group work, document management) Organizational infrastructure ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - Know – what - Know – why - Know - how Regulatory assets (copyright, patents, trade remarks - Personal tacit - Care - Why - Cultural tacit - organizational tacit Human Resources (employees and other stakeholder) Culture ORGANIZATION LEARNING EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE Articulationinternalization KNOWLEDGE WORK (using, finding, packaging & creating knowledge) TACIT KNOWLEDGE Knowledge Management System Development

32 Sistem Informasi dengan Suatu Knowledge Management

33 Content Creation Tools Dikaitkan dengan CMS Dikaitkan dengan CMS CMS akan menjadi “komoditi” masa depan CMS akan menjadi “komoditi” masa depan Perlu adanya standar implementasi dan pemahaman isu usability Perlu adanya standar implementasi dan pemahaman isu usability

34 Contoh Software untuk CMS

35 Blogs Kependekan dari web log Kependekan dari web log Merupakan bentuk konten personal di Internet Merupakan bentuk konten personal di Internet Semacam diari terbuka Semacam diari terbuka Secara periodik diupdate dan dapat diakses bebas Secara periodik diupdate dan dapat diakses bebas Kini tidak hanya bersifat personal, tetapi lebih luas Kini tidak hanya bersifat personal, tetapi lebih luas

36 Contoh Blog

37 Groupware & Collaboration Tools Groupware mewakili software yang membantu kelompok kerja/kolega terhubung ke jaringan komunikasi untuk mengelola aktifitas mereka Groupware mewakili software yang membantu kelompok kerja/kolega terhubung ke jaringan komunikasi untuk mengelola aktifitas mereka Operasi yang didukung antara lain: Operasi yang didukung antara lain: –Penjadwalan rapat dan alokasi sumberdaya – –Perlindungan password untuk dokumen –Enewsletter –Distribusi file

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39 Wikis Software berbasis web yang mendukung konsep pengeditan terbuka, yang memungkinkan banyak user untuk membuat dan mengedit konten melalui website Software berbasis web yang mendukung konsep pengeditan terbuka, yang memungkinkan banyak user untuk membuat dan mengedit konten melalui website Contoh: Wikipedia Contoh: Wikipedia

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41 Knowledge Repository Gudang berbasis komputer yang bersifat online untuk menyimpan kepakaran, pengetahuan, pengalaman, dan dokumentasi tentang suatu domain kepakaran tertentu Gudang berbasis komputer yang bersifat online untuk menyimpan kepakaran, pengetahuan, pengalaman, dan dokumentasi tentang suatu domain kepakaran tertentu Disebut juga experience bases atau corporate memories Disebut juga experience bases atau corporate memories Berisi koleksi pasif () maupun koleksi aktif () Berisi koleksi pasif () maupun koleksi aktif ()

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43 43 Sistem Pakar dan Knowledge The Expert System Knowledge Base User Workstation Expert Advice User Interface Programs User Interface Programs Inference Engine Program Inference Engine Program Expert System Development Workstation Knowledge Engineering Knowledge Acquisition Program Knowledge Acquisition Program Expert and/or Knowledge Engineer

44 PROBLEM DOMAIN MODEL SISTEM PAKAR PROBLEM DOMAIN PEMAKAI DEVELOPMENT ENGINE DEVELOPMENT ENGINE EXPERT & KNOWLEDGE ENGINEER EXPERT & KNOWLEDGE ENGINEER INFERENCE ENGINE INFERENCE ENGINE USER INTERFACE USER INTERFACE KNOWLEDGE BASE


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