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Bangun Tubuh Bakteri Primer (utama, setiap bakteri memiliki) Sekunder (tidak setiap bakteri memiliki)

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Presentasi berjudul: "Bangun Tubuh Bakteri Primer (utama, setiap bakteri memiliki) Sekunder (tidak setiap bakteri memiliki)"— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Bangun Tubuh Bakteri Primer (utama, setiap bakteri memiliki) Sekunder (tidak setiap bakteri memiliki)

3 Primer Dinding sel Membran plasma Sitoplasma Ribosom DNA Granula penyimpana n

4 Some prokaryotes – Do have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions (a) Aerobic prokaryote(b) Photosynthetic prokaryote 0.2  m1  m Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membranes Figure 27.7a, b

5 Many prokaryotes form endospores – Which can remain viable in harsh conditions for centuries Endospore 0.3  m Figure 27.9

6 Sekunder kapsul atau lapisan lendir flagellum pilus fimbria klorosom vakuola gas endospora

7 Dinding sel Bakteri GRAM POSITIVE peptidoglikan tebal dan asam teichoic GRAM NEGATIVE lipopolysacarida yang tersusun dari peptidoglikan tipis

8 Peptidoglikan

9 Spesifikasi Bakteri menurut Gram Gracilicutes - Gram negative dengan sel membran sekunder Mollicutes - Gram negative tanpa sel membran sekunder Firmicutes - Gram positive dengan peptidoglikan tebal Mendosicutes – bakteri jenis Archaea

10 Bergerak dengan flagela Tipe letak flagela A.Monotrichous B.Lophotrichous C.Amphitrichous D.Peritrichous

11 Cara Memperoleh Makanan BAKTERI HETEROTROF Makanan berupa senyawa organik dari organisme lain 1.Bakteri saprofit : mengurai sisa organisme atau produk organisme lainnya 2.Bakteri parasit : dari inangnya (manusia, hewan, tumbuhan). 3.Bakteri patogen BAKTERI AUTOTROF Mampu membuat makanannya sendiri 1.Bakteri fotoautotrof 2.Bakteri kemoautotrof

12 Bakteri berdasar Kebutuhan Oksigen BAKTERI AEROB, membutuhkan oksigen Proses oksidasi amonia NH 3 2 NH O 2  2 HNO H 2 O + energi Proses oksidasi ion nitrit HNO 3 2 HNO 2 + O 2  2 HNO 3 BAKTERI ANAEROB, tidak membutuhkan oksigen, prosesnya disebut fermentasi. 1.Bakteri anaerob obligat 2.Bakteri anaerob fakultatif

13 In the cyanobacterium Anabaena – Photosynthetic cells and nitrogen-fixing cells exchange metabolic products Photosynthetic cells Heterocyst 20  m Figure 27.10

14 In some prokaryotic species – Metabolic cooperation occurs in surface-coating colonies called biofilms Figure  m

15 Obligate aerobes – Require oxygen Facultative anaerobes – Can survive with or without oxygen Obligate anaerobes – Are poisoned by oxygen

16 Macam-macam penyakit oleh bakteri Tetanus Typhoid fever Diphtheria Syphilis Tuberculosis Pneumonia Meningitis Cholera Food-borne illness Leprosy

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18 Reproduksi bakteri Aseksual : pembelahan biner Seksual : a.Transformasi b.Transduksi: menggunakan virus to help c.konjugasi

19 Konjugasi

20 Jenis Jenis bakteri

21 Proteobacteria Chromatium; the small globules are sulfur wastes (LM) Fruiting bodies of Chondromyces crocatus, a myxobacterium (SEM) Bdellovibrio bacteriophorus Attacking a larger bacterium (colorized TEM) 2.5  m 1  m 0.5  m 10  m 5  m 2  m Figure Rhizobium (arrows) inside a root cell of a legume (TEM) Nitrosomonas (colorized TEM) Chromatium; the small globules are sulfur wastes (LM) Fruiting bodies of Chondromyces crocatus, a myxobacterium (SEM) Bdellovibrio bacteriophorus Attacking a larger bacterium (colorized TEM) Helicobacter pylori (colorized TEM).

22 Chlamydias, spirochetes, Gram-positive bacteria, and cyanobacteria Chlamydia (arrows) inside an animal cell (colorized TEM) Leptospira, a spirochete (colorized TEM) Streptomyces, the source of many antibiotics (colorized SEM) Two species of Oscillatoria, filamentous cyanobacteria (LM) Hundreds of mycoplasmas covering a human fibroblast cell (colorized SEM) 2.5  m 5  m 50  m 1  m Figure 27.13

23 Peranan Bakteri Bifidobacterium lactobacillus plantarum (L.plantarum) yang bisa mengusir gas dalam perut dan ketidaknyamanan yang terkait dengan gangguan BAB.

24 Antibiotik

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27 Mocaf Biogas

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30 2. Bioteknologi Modern Rekayasa genetik pada sel bakteri mampu menambah diversifikasi dan kuantitas produk bioteknologi. Pengembangan dan produksi hormon manusia, protein darah, interferon, dan protein untuk vaksin sekarang dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan bakteri yang sudah termodifikasi. 3. Perombakan Material (Biodeterioration) Thiobacillus ferooxidans

31 Prokaryotes are the principal agents in bioremediation – The use of organisms to remove pollutants from the environment Figure 27.17

32 Tetracyclines: Streptomyces side effects include yellowing of developing teeth Hillary Clinton has yellow teeth. The original, completely unedited picture

33 Prokaryotes are also major tools in – Mining – The synthesis of vitamins – Production of antibiotics, hormones, and other products

34 Penemuan di bidang Mikrobiologi

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36 Dihasilkan : Bacillus sp, Clostridium sp Bacillus stearothermophilus – spora - indikator alat sterilisasi Bacillus anthracis - spores - “biological warfare”

37 Questions?

38 Applications – Ekstraksi carotene dari halobacteria sebagai penambah cita rasa makanan dan sebagai zat pewarna pangan – Untuk fermentasi kecap asin dan saus ikan Thai

39 BIOINSEKTISIDA - Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) BAKTERI GRAM POSITIF, BERSPORA CIRI KHAS PROTEIN KRISTAL (PROTEIN CRY) TOKSIN INSEKTISIDAL SUMBER Bt : TANAH SERANGGA SAKIT AIR

40 The world’s toughest bacterium pigmen karotenoid  pembersih molekul radikal bebas  meningkatkan sifat resisten DNA-nya terhadap molekul radikal Bioremediasi limbah B3 yang terkontaminasi radioaktif  “SUPERBUG”

41 Streptomyces coelicolor colonies The wild-type colonies are covered with grey aerial mycelium and spores; the reddish mutant colonies are not forming aerial mycelium. The red mycelium colour and the dark background is from the antibiotics produced by Streptomyces coelicolor Antibiotic production Geosmin : produced by filamentous actinomycetes gives soils characteristic earthy odor

42 Agrobacterium tumefaciens

43 Archaebacter/bakteri kuno

44 Archaea Archaea share certain traits with bacteria – And other traits with eukaryotes Table 27.2

45 Some archaea – Live in extreme environments Extreme thermophiles – Thrive in very hot environments

46 Extreme halophiles – Live in high saline environments Figure 27.14

47 Methanogens – Live in swamps and marshes – Produce methane as a waste product

48 Concept 27.4: Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere Prokaryotes are so important to the biosphere that if they were to disappear – The prospects for any other life surviving would be dim

49 Chemical Recycling Prokaryotes play a major role – In the continual recycling of chemical elements between the living and nonliving components of the environment in ecosystems

50 Chemoheterotrophic prokaryotes function as decomposers – Breaking down corpses, dead vegetation, and waste products Nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes – Add usable nitrogen to the environment

51 Pathogenic Prokaryotes Prokaryotes cause about half of all human diseases – Lyme disease is an example 5 µm Figure 27.16

52 Pathogenic prokaryotes typically cause disease – By releasing exotoxins or endotoxins Many pathogenic bacteria – Are potential weapons of bioterrorism


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