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VALUASI EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA LAHAN: PRODUKTIVITAS Diabstraksikan : soemarno, jtnh fpub 2014.

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Presentasi berjudul: "VALUASI EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA LAHAN: PRODUKTIVITAS Diabstraksikan : soemarno, jtnh fpub 2014."— Transcript presentasi:

1 VALUASI EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA LAHAN: PRODUKTIVITAS Diabstraksikan : soemarno, jtnh fpub 2014

2 SOIL Fertility is the inherent capacity of a soil to supply nutrients in adequate amounts and suitable proportions, whereas soil productivity is a wider term referring to the ability of a soil to yield crops (Brady, 1974). The chief factors in soil productivity are soil organic matter (including microbial biomass), soil texture, structure, depth, nutrient content, water-storage capacity, reaction and absence of toxic elements. The soil productivity depends on physical, hydric, chemical and biologic characteristics and their interaction. Brady, N.C The Nature and properties of soils. 8th Edition. Macmillan, New York. …PRODUKTIVITAS TANAH. Diunduh dari Sumber: 3/11/2012.

3 Land productivity measures the wealth generated on a piece of land. High land productivity translates into : 1.Lower resource wastage, 2.Improved production processes, 3.Shorter turn-around time and, 4.Greater cost-savings. PRODUKTIVITAS LAHAN Diunduh dari Sumber: 3/11/2012.

4 Soil quality is generally defined in terms of the capacity of a soil to perform specific functions in relation to human needs or purposes, including maintaining environmental quality and sustaining plant and animal production (Lal, 1998a). Soil quality, in turn, derives from a variety of particular physical, chemical, and biological properties that support these functions, including topsoil depth, texture, bulk density, and water-holding capacity; organic matter, pH level, and extractable nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; and microbial biomass (Mausbach and Seybold, 1998). Some of these properties (e.g., pH, N, P, and K) are characterized by optimum levels; departures from these optima (in either direction) are associated with reduced soil quality. Other properties (e.g., topsoil depth and microbial biomass) contribute positively to soil quality at all levels, while some (e.g., bulk density) are inversely related to soil quality. In addition to soil properties, other characteristics also play a critical role in determining land quality, including aspects of terrain (such as slope) and climate (such as temperature and precipitation, and thus the length of growing period). 1.Lal, R. 1998a. “Soil Erosion Impact on Agronomic Productivity and Environment Quality.” Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 17(4): Mausbach, M. J., and C. A. Seybold “Assessment of Soil Quality.” In Soil Quality and Agricultural Sustainability, edited by Rattan Lal. Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press. KUALITAS & SIFAT-CIRI, KARAKTERISTIK TANAH Diunduh dari Sumber: 3/11/2012.

5 Diunduh dari Sumber: 3/11/2012. The Storie index is a method of soil rating based on soil characteristics that govern the land's potential utilization and productivity capacity. It is independent of other physical or economic factors that might determine the desirability of growing certain plants in a given location. The evaluation is easy to be realized, being this an advantage of this method. A variety of categories are comprised in few categories. Four or five parameters are evaluated: A: Soil depth and texture;Soil depthtexture B: Soil permeability;Soil permeability C: Soil chemical characteristics;chemical characteristics D: Drainage, Surface runoff;DrainageSurface runoff E: Climate (only if it is not homogeneous, if so than it should not be included in the formula); The index is calculated from the multiplication of these parameters, that is: S index = A x B x C x D x E The disadvantage of this method is that if we have a value of zero in any category, than the result will be zero and won't be suitable for using. STORIE INDEX

6 STORIE INDEX RATING SYSTEM The Storie Index Rating system ranks soil characteristics according to their suitability for agriculture from Grade 1 soils (80 to 100 rating), which have few or no limitations for agricultural production to Grade 6 soils (less than 10), which are not suitable for agriculture. Under this system, soils deemed less than prime can function as prime soils when limitations such as poor drainage, slopes, or soil nutrient deficiencies are partially or entirely removed. The six grades, ranges in index rating, and definition of the grades, as defined by the NRCS, are provided below in Table Storie Index Rating System. Diunduh dari Sumber: nal.pdf /11/2011.

7 Storie Index Rating System … Diunduh dari Sumber: /11/2011.

8 Rating soils for agricultural, forest and grazing use. STORIE, R. E. Journal Transactions 4th Int. Cong. Soil Sci Vol. 1 pp …. The Storie Index, a general soil-rating system of particular use in evaluating soils from an agricultural standpoint for tax assessment, land appraisal and general land-use planning purposes, is obtained by the multiplication of the per cent ratings given to FACTORS: 1.A, the soil-profile depth and permeability; 2.B, texture; 3.C, slope and 4.X, factors modifiable by management, namely drainage, salinity or alkalinity, nutrient level, acidity, erosion and micro-relief. The crop-productivity rating of a soil type is based on its yield as compared with that of the soil types giving the highest yield under stated management practices and climatic conditions, and is expressed in ratios from 10 to 1 (that is 100% to 10% of highest yields). A given soil type may have one rating when undrained, another when drained and a third when d "a ned and fertilized and so on. Timber soil ratings are similarly handled but where production is unknown, they are worked out bλ multiplying the ratings for factors A, depth and texture; B, permeability; C, chemical properties such as salinity; D, drainage and runoff and E, climate, including rainfall, temperature, aspect. Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2011.

9 . Storie Index Rating System … The Storie Index Rating System ranks soil characteristics according to their suitability for agriculture from Grade 1 soils (80 to 100 rating), which have few or no limitations for agricultural production, to Grade 6 soils (rating of less than 10), which are not suitable for agriculture. Under this system, soils deemed less than prime can function as prime soils when limitations such as poor drainage, slopes, or soil nutrient deficiencies are partially or entirely removed. The six grades, ranges in index rating, and definition of the grades as defined by the Natural Resources Conservation Service are provided below in Table. Diunduh dari Sumber: ftp://ftp.co.imperial.ca.us/icpds/eir/east-brawley-geothermal/07ag-resources.pdf /11/2011.

10 STORIE INDEX RATING SYSTEM… GradreIndex RatingDefinition 1 – Excellent 80 through 100 Soils are well suited to intensive use for growing irrigated crops that are climatically suited to the region. 2 – Good60 through 79 Soils are good agricultural soils, although they may not be so desirable as Grade 1 because of moderately coarse, coarse, or gravelly surface soil texture; somewhat less permeable subsoil; lower plant available water holding capacity, fair fertility; less well drained conditions, or slight to moderate flood hazards, all acting separately or in combination. 3 – Fair40 through 59 Soils are only fairly well suited to general agricultural use and are limited in their use because of moderate slopes; moderate soil depths; less permeable subsoil; fine, moderately fine, or gravelly surface soil textures; poor drainage; moderate flood hazards; or fair to poor fertility levels, all acting alone or in combination. 4 - Poor Soils are poorly suited. They are severely limited in their agricultural potential because of shallow soil depths; less permeable subsoil; steeper slope; or more clayey or gravelly surface soil textures than Grade 3 soils, as well as poor drainage; greater flood hazards; hummocky micro-relief; salinity; or fair to poor fertility levels, all acting alone or in combination. 5- Very Poor Soils are very poorly suited for agriculture, are seldom cultivated and are more commonly used for range, pasture, or woodland. 6 – Non- agricultural less than 10Soils are not suited for agriculture at all due to very severe to extreme physical limitations, or because of urbanization. Source: USDA-NRCS 2010

11 SOIL RATING CHART.Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X Faktor A : Rating karakter fisik profil tanah I Tanah-tanah aluvial muda yang profilnya belum berkembang 100 % xFase dangkal (pada material bahan induk yang konsolidated) --- kedalaman 2 feet xFase dangkal (pada material bahan induk yang konsolidated) --- kedalaman 3 feet 70 gSubsoil sangat berkerikil80-95 sSubsoil liat terstrata80-95 II Tanah-tanah aluvial muda yang profilnya baru-sedikit berkembang % xFase dangkal (pada material bahan induk yang konsolidated) --- kedalaman 2 feet xFase dangkal (pada material bahan induk yang konsolidated) --- kedalaman 3 feet 70 gSubsoil sangat berkerikil80-95 sSubsoil liat terstrata80-95 Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univ oc California. 1978

12 SOIL RATING CHART.Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X Faktor A : Rating karakter fisik profil tanah III Tanah-tanah aluvial yang PERKEMBANGAN profilnya moderat (subsoilnya agak padat) % xFase dangkal (pada material bahan induk yang konsolidated) --- kedalaman 2 feet xFase dangkal (pada material bahan induk yang konsolidated) --- kedalaman 3 feet gSubsoil sangat berkerikil60-90 IV Tanah-tanah yang profilnya sudah berkembang (Subsoiolnya liat rapat /padat) % V Tanah-tanah yang profilnya mempunyai subsoil cadas (hardpan) pd kedalaman kurang dari 1 foot 5-20 % Pada kedalaman 1-2 feet20-30 Pada kedalaman 2-3 feet30-40 Pada kedalaman 3-4 feet40-50 Pada kedalaman 4-6 feet50-80 Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univ oc California. 1978

13 SOIL RATING CHART.Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X Faktor A : Rating karakter fisik profil tanah VI Tanah-tanah yang subsoilhya liat rapat terletak pada bahan induk yang konsolidated (moderat konsolidated) % VII Tanah-tanah pada dataran upland yang batuan induknya berupa batuan beku yang keras pada kedalaman kurang dari 1 foot % Pada kedalaman 1-2 feet30-50 Pada kedalaman 2-3 feet50-70 Pada kedalaman 3-4 feet70-80 Pada kedalaman 4-6 feet Pada kedalaman lebih dari 6 feet Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univ oc California. 1978

14 SOIL RATING CHART.Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X VIII Tanah-tanah pada dataran upland yang bahan induknya berupa batuan sedimen yang konsolidated pada kedalaman kurang dari 1 foot % Pada kedalaman 1-2 feet30-50 Pada kedalaman 2-3 feet50-70 Pada kedalaman 3-4 feet70-80 Pada kedalaman 4-6 feet Pada kedalaman lebih dari 6 feet IX Tanah-tanah pada dataran upland yang bahan induknya berupa material lunak yang konsolidated pada kedalaman kurang dari 1 foot % Pada kedalaman 1-2 feet40-60 Pada kedalaman 2-3 feet60-80 Pada kedalaman 3-4 feet80-90 Pada kedalaman 4-6 feet Pada kedalaman lebih dari 6 feet Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univ oc California. 1978

15 SOIL RATING CHART.Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X FAKTOR B. RATING BERDASARKAN TEKSTUR TANAH LAPISAN ATAS Tekstur Medium: Lempung berpasir halus100% Lempung100 Lempung debu100 Lempung berpasir95 Lempung liat berdebu, berkapur95 Lemp. Liat berdebu, non kapur90 Lemp. Liat berkapur95 Lemp. Liat tidak berkapur85-90 Tekstur halus atau berat Liat berdebu, sangat berkapur70-90 Liat berdebu, tidak berkapur60-70 Liat, sangat berkapur70-80 Liat tidak berkapur50-70 Tekstur Kasar atau ringan: Lempung berpasir kasar90 Pasir berlempung80 Pasir snagat halus80 Pasir halus65 Pasir60 Pasir kasar30-60 Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univ oc California. 1978

16 SOIL RATING CHART.Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X FAKTOR B. RATING BERDASARKAN TEKSTUR TANAH LAPISAN ATAS Berkerikil Lempung berpasir halus berkerikil Lempung berkerikil60-80 Lempung debu berkerikil60-80 Lempung perbasir berkerikil50-70 Lemp. Liat berkerikil60-80 Liat berkerikil40-70 Pasir berkerikil20-30 Berbatu Lempung berpasir halus berbatu70-80 Lempung berbatu60-80 Lempung debu berbatu60-80 Lempung perbasir berbatu50-70 Lemp. Liat berbatu50-80 Liat berbatu40-70 Pasir berbatu10-40 Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univ oc California. 1978

17 SOIL RATING CHART.Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X FAKTOR C. RATING BERDASARKAN KEMIRINGAN AHampir datar (kemiringan 0-2%)100% AAAgak berombak (kemiringan 0-2%) BAgak miring (kemiringan 3-8%) BBBerombak (kemiringan 3-8%) CMiring (kemiringan 9-15%)80-95 CCBergelombang (kemiringan 9-15%)80-95 DSangat miring (kemiringan 16-30%)70-80 DDBerbukit (kemiringan 16-30%)70-80 ECuram (kemiringan 30-45%)30-50 FSangat curam (kemiringan lebih dari 45%)5-80 Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univ oc California. 1978

18 SOIL RATING CHART.Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X FAKTOR X. RATING BERDASARKAN FAKTOR LAINNYA, SELAIN FAKTOR A, B, DAN C. Drainage Baik100% Cukup baik80-90 Tergenang moderat40-80 Tergenang parah10-40 Subyek banjirvariabel Alkali Bebas alkali100% Sedikit terpengaruh alkali60-95 Pengaruh moderat30-60 Pengaruh agak parah15-30 Pengaruh parah5-15 Unsur Hara (kesuburan) Tinggi (subur)100% Cukup Miskin80-95 Sangat miskin60-80 Kemasaman Sesuai dnegan pH80-95% Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univ oc California. 1978

19 SOIL RATING CHART.Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X FAKTOR X. RATING BERDASARKAN FAKTOR LAINNYA, SELAIN FAKTOR A, B, DAN C. Erosi tanah: Tidak ada – Ringan100% Deposisi berbahaya75-95 Erosi permukaan moderat80-95 Alur dangkal jarang70-90 Erosi permukaan moderat dg alur dangkal60-80 Alur dalam10-70 Erosi permukana moderat dg alur dalam10-60 Erosi permukaan parah50-80 Erosi permukaan parah dg alur dangkal40-50 Erosi permukaan parah dg alur dalam10-40 Erosi sangat parah10-40 Erosi angin moderat80-95 Erosi angin parah30-80 Relief mikro: Smooth 100% Channel60-95 Hogwallow60-95 Low hummock80-95 High hummock20-60 Dunes10-40 Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univ oc California. 1978

20 SOIL RATING CHART.Storie soil index rating = Faktor A x Faktor B x Faktor C x Faktor X SOIL GRADING GRADE 1 (Excelent) Tanah-tanah yang mempunyai rate % dan cocok untuk berbagai jenis tanaman, tanaman pangan, perkebunan dan hutan GRADE 2 (Good) Tanah-tanah yang mempunyai rate 60-79% dan cocok untuk banyak jenis tanaman. Hasil tanaman umumnya baik hingga sangat baik GRADE 3 (Fair) Tanah-tanah yang mempunyai rate 40-59% dan kualitasnya cukup baik, cocok bagi cukup banyak jenis tanaman, Hasil jenis tanaman tertentu cukup baik GRADE 4 (Poor) Tanah-tanah yang mempunyai rate 20-39% dan mempunyai peluang terbatas bagi pertanian, misalnya beberapa tanah cocok untuk sawah GRADE 5 (Very Poor) Tanah-tanah yang mempunyai rate 10-19% dan penggunaan pertanian snagat terbatas, kendala serius seperti solum dangkal, berbatu, atau alkalis GRADE 6 (Non- agriculture) Tanah-tanah yang mempunyai rate kurang dari 10% dan faktor pembatasnya snagat serius, seperti sangat curam, pasang-surut, lembah banjir. Sumber: Storie Index Soil Rating. R.E. Storie. Experiment Station Berkeley, Univ oc California. 1978


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