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Presentasi berjudul: "PENTINGNYA Mg BAGI TANAMAN TEBU Disbatraksikan oleh Smno.jursntnhfpub.2012."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PENTINGNYA Mg BAGI TANAMAN TEBU Disbatraksikan oleh Smno.jursntnhfpub.2012

2 FUNGSI Mg DALAM TANAMAN TEBU Photosynthesis: Mg merupakan atom sentral dalam molekul klorofil. Carrier Phosphorus dalam tanaman Mg aktivator ensim dan komponen dari beberapa ensim Terlibat dalam Sintesis gula Terlibat dalam translokasi pati Pembentukan minyak dan lemak tanaman Mengendalikan penyerapan hara Meningkatkan pemanfaatan hara besi Proses dan reaksi metabolis yg dipengaruhi Mg: 1) Foto-fosforilasi (mis. Pembentukan ATP di kloroplast), 2) Fiksasi fotosintetis CO2), 3) Sintesis protein, 4) Pembentukan Chlorophyll, 5) Phloem loading, 6) Pembagian dan pemanfaatan hasil fotosintesis, 7) Generation spesies oksigen yang reaktif, 8) Foto-oksidasi dalam jaringan daun.

3 KETERSEDIAAN Mg-TANAH Tanah mengandung mineral pembawa Mg pH tanah yang rendah membatasi ketersediaan Mg, dan pH tinggi meningkatkan ketersediaan Mg Rasio Mg:Mn dalam tanah: Tingginya Mn tersedia dapat menghambat serapan Mg. Tanah dengan KTK rendah mampu menahan sedikit Mg, sedangkan KTK tinggi mampu menahan banyak Mg Kompetisi kation: Tanah-tanah yang kaya K atau Ca akan cenderung kekurangan Mg. Suhu tanah yang rendah (dingin) menghambat ketersediaan Mg

4 Chloroplasts merupakan organele yang berisi thylakoids, Kompartemen yang mengandung Mg dimana energi cahaya dikonversi menjadi energi kimia melalui proses fotosintesis.

5 DEFISIENSI Mg TANAMAN TEBU Gejala defisiensi Mg pertama kali muncul pada daun-daun tua. Lesi nekrosis warna merah menghasilkan penampilan wujud seperti “karat”. Wujud seperti “karat" dapat menyebar ke seluruh daun dan mengakibatkan daun-daun tua mati premature dan gugur. Defisiensi Mg yang parah, batang tebu menjadi kerdil dengan penampilan wujud “karat” dan coklat. Internal browning juga dapat terjadi pada batang tebu.

6 Mg TANAMAN TEBU Mg berperanan vital dalam sintesis klorofil, kontrol pH sel dalam sintesis protein dan transfer fosfat (phosphates dan ATPases) dalam metabolisme energi tanaman tebu. Pertumbuhan akar tanaman tebu dan transpor hasil fotosintesis dari daun ke batang juga terganggu kalau tanaman kekurangan Mg. Respon tabnaman etebu terhadap aplikasi Mg sangat nyata, terutama pada tanah-tanah masam yang kandungan Mg-tukar nya rendah. Sumber: Pakistan Sugar Journal April-June 2009 Contents Vol. XXIV, No.02

7 Mg dan S TANAMAN TEBU Aplikasi Pupuk Mg dengan dosis 60 kg Mg/ha meningkatkan hasil tebu sebesar 11.7 t/ha atau 8%. Aplikasi dosis yang sama untuk pupuk S dapat meningkatkan hasil tebu 14.6 t/ha atau 10.1%. Terbukti bahwa Mg dan S sangat penting dalam produksi tebu. Sumber: International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI, 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550, Norcross, GA USA | T | F Dosis rekomendasi Mg MetodeDosis Sebar di tanah22 to 66 lb./A Dalam larikan tanaman11 to 33 lb./A Aplikasi lewat daun0.5 To 2 lb./A (from MgSO4) Foliar: per Manufacturer Recommendation

8 KETERSEDIAAN Mg-TANAH BAGI TEBU Ketersediaan Mg dalam tanah seringkali membatasi produksi tebu pada lahan-lahan mineral. Hasil gula pada tanah-tanah berpasir masam ternyata dapat ditingkatkan pada ratoon tebu yang diberi pupuk dolomit. Liming acidic soil has been found to be important in maintaining productivity over a multi-year growth cycle. Maintaining adequate levels of soil Mg has also been shown to be critical for optimum sugarcane production. Dolomit merupakan bahan PEMBENAH- TANAH yang sangat bagus, terutama untuk tanah-tanah berpasir masam, karena kemampuannya meningkatkan pH tanah dan kandungan hara Mg nya.

9 Mg dan ATPase TANAMAN TEBU Aktivitas ensim ATPase meningkat dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi Mg hingga 1–3 mM dan kemudian aktivitas ensim menurun dengan a konsentrasi Mg yang elbih tinggi. Kinetika seperti ini dapat dijelaskan dengan asumsi bahwa MgATP2- merupakan substrat dari ensim ATPase. Konsentrasi MgATP2- meningkat dengan peningkatan konsentrasi Mg hingga, pada konsentrasi Mg yang tinggi terbentuklah Mg2ATP. Belum ada bukti kuat apakah peranan langsung Mg2+ sebagai activator atau inhibitor. Hal yang diketahui ialah bahwa MgATP2- merupakan substrat bagi ATPase di vakuole tebu. Sumber: PLANTA Volume 161, Number 4,

10 K, Mg, S TANAMAN TEBU Aplikasi K, Mg dan S dapat meningkatkan hasil tebu dan kadar sukrose (rendemen). Produksi biomasa tebu sebesar tons per ha. JUmlah kalium yang diserap tanaman mencapai kg K2O per ha. Ada korelasi positif nyata antara hasil tebu dengan jumlah kalium yang diserap. Fungsi yang menghubungkan antara hasil tebu (y) dengan serapan kalium (x) adalah y= x. Dengan aplikasi kalium 150 dan 450 kg/ha, hasil tebu meningkat sekitar 4.75% dan 23.78%. Sumber: Tropics VOL.14;NO.4;PAGE (2005)

11 Mg and KLOROFIL Dalam molekul klorofil, Mg merupakan baguian sentral, dan molekul organik yang besar yaitu porphyrin. Molekul porphyrin mengandung empat atom nitrogen yang membentuk ikatan dengan magnesium dengan tatanan planar persegi. Struktur molekul klorofil a adalah:

12 PUPUK LENGKAP Mg Aplikasi magnesium dengan dosis ( & 60kg ha-1) bersama dengan pupuk NPKS dapat meningkatkan produksi tebu. Aplikasi magnesium 40 kg Mg ha-1 dapat meningkatkan jumlah batang tebu yang dapat digiling, total hasil tebu dan brix percentage. Hasil-hasil ini adalah millable cane (88.15 x l03 ha-1) dan brix % (22.87) Sumber: Pakistan Sugar Journal April-June 2009 Contents Vol. XXIV, No.02

13 STATUS HARA TANAMAN TEBU

14 KOREKSI DEFISIENSI Mg Beberapa kriteria hasil uji tanah untuk rekomendasi aplikasi Mg adalah: (1) Kalau kandungan Mg-tukar dalam tanah kurang dari 100 pounds per acre untuk tanah-tanah mineral ; (2) if the equivalents of potassium exceed magnesium (on a weight basis, this is about 3 parts of potassium to 1 part magnesium); (3) Kalau kandungan Mg tanah (sebagai persen dari total basa) kurang dari 3% ; atau (4) if the equivalent ratio of calcium to magnesium is greater than 10. Similar criteria have been adopted by other North Central states. Sumber: Michigan State University Extension Soils & Soil Management - Fertilizer /10/97

15 DOLOMIT UNTUK TEBU Aplikasi dolomit (dosis 2 ton/ha) atau Mg- sulfat plus kapur (1.2 ton/ha) dapat memperbaiki rendemen tebu dan hasil gula. Efek ini lebih nyata pada tanah-tanah yang kandungan Mg nya rendah. Berdasarkan analisis ekonomis, tampaknya aplikasi dolomit lebih menguntungkan dibandingkan dengan Mg-sulfat plus kapur. Beberapa pupuk Mg NamaFormula%Mg Epsom saltsMgSO 4 ·7H 2 O10 Potassium- Magnesium Sulfate K 2 SO 4 ·2MgSO 4 11 Magnesium Oxide/Magnesia* MgO55 Mg ChelatesVarious3 to 5.5

16 DOLOMIT UNTUK TEBU Tiller number and plant height at three months after planting and ratooning did not significantly differ between plots treated with two tons dolomite per hectare and those with varying rates of magnesium sulfate + lime (1.2 T/Ha). The soil has a CEC of 17 m.e./100 gm of soil and magnesium analysis of 89 ppm. Mean number of millable stalks and stalk length at harvest in both crops did not significantly differ among treatments. The number of millable stalks however generally increased with lime alone and varying rates of magnesium sulfate as compared with the control. Higher cane tonnage rendement and sugar yield were observed from dolomite and magnesium sulfate + lime applications compared with the control in both plant and ratoon crops.

17 Magnesium EDTA 10 Magnesium - 10% Mg merupakan komponen penting dari molekul klorofil, sehingga sangat vital bagi proses fotosintesis. Bahan pupuk ini mampu mengaktifkan banyak ensim yang terlibat dalam proses pertumbuhan tanaman. Pupuk ini dapat membantu translokasi P dan K dalam tubuh tanaman, membantu meningkatkan kadar gula. Aplikasinya dapat lewat daun dan lewat tanah. Aplikasi lewat daun: kali semprot selama pertumbuhan vegetatif dengan dosis 1 g / liter air. Aplikasi lewat tanah: Kg/Acre aplikasi bertahap selama pertumbuhan vegetatif tanaman.

18 MAKNA PRAKTIKAL DEFISIENSI Mg Defisiensi Mg menghambat transpor karbohidrat dari daun ke sel-sel jaringan yang sedang tumbuh; akan terjadi akumulasi karbohidrat di daun dan menghambat eksport sukrose dari daun. Kecukupan Mg diperlukan untuk memaksimumkan transpor karbohidrat menuju organ simpanan karbohidrat. Menjaga kecukupan Mg pada akhir fase pertumbuhan tanaman sangat diperlukan untuk meminimumkan generation spsies oksigen reaktif yang berbahaya dan kerusakan foto-oksidatif kloroplast. Gangguan pertumbuhan akar akibat defisiensi Mg dapat mengganggu penyerapan hara dan air oleh akar tanaman.

19 APLIKASI PUPUK BERIMBANG + Mg Penelitian di kebun tebu di Propinsi Guangdong menunjukkan pentingnya pemupukan berimbang P, K, S dan Mg. Hasil ekonomis terbaik dapat dicapai dengan aplikasi 450 kg K2O/ha, 202 kg P2O5/ha, 60 kg S/ha dan 60 kg Mg/ha. Besarnya kontribusi peningkatan hasil adalah: % peningkatan hasil akibat P2O5, % akibat aplikasi K2O, % akibat aplikasi S % akibat aplikasi Mg. Hal ini membuktikan pentingnya program pemupukan berimbang untuk memperbaiki produksi tanaman tebu. Sumber: Copyright © 2011 International Plant Nutrition Institute.

20 Parameter kualitas tebu yang dipengaruhi oleh pemupukan berimbang CCS = commercial cane sugar N200 = aplikasi urea (46%N) dosis 200 kg N/ha P100 = aplikasi diammonium fosfat K150 = aplikasi KCl dosis 150 kg K2O/ha S40 = aplikasi unsur belerang dosis 40 kg S/ha Mg30 = aplikasi Mg-sulfat 30 kg/ha

21 APLIKASI Mg LEWAT DAUN Magnesium dapat DIAPLIKASIKAN LEWAT DAUN sebagai larutan magnesium sulfate (Garam Epsom). Aplikasi cara ini banyak dilakukan untuk mengoreksi defisiensi / kekurangan Mg secara cepat, semprotan daun ini diharapkan efektif dalam periode waktu beberapa hari untuk mengoreksi kekurangan Mg tanaman tebu. Aplikasi lewat daun larutan 2% MgSO 4 dapat mengoreksi defisiensi Mg tanaman tomatoes, oranges, dan dan dapat memperbaiki hasil tanaman. Sumber: Flora Hydroponics

22 ZAMBROSI, Fernando César BachiegaZAMBROSI, Fernando César Bachiega. Phosphorus fertilization in sugarcane ratoon and its interaction with magnesium. Bragantia [online]. 2012, vol.71, n.3, pp There are still doubts with regard to the efficiency of P fertilization in the sugarcane ratoon and the interaction between P and other nutrients that could affect the responses to P reapplication. An experiment was set up to evaluate the effects of P rates (45 and 90 kg ha -1 of P 2 O 5 ) applied either in the absence or presence of Mg fertilizer (50 kg ha -1 of Mg) on the stalk yield, of sugarcane ratoon. P fertilization increased stalk yield in 17% compared to the control treatment (no P fertilizer). However, such response did not depend on Mg fertilization, suggesting that Mg was not critical to the occurrence of P response. The P nutritional status of sugarcane was not also affected by Mg application, being altered exclusively by P fertilization. P content in the leaves varied significantly (p<0.05) from 1.4 g kg -1 in the control to 1.7 g kg-1 and 1.9 g kg -1 in the treatments with application of 45 and 90 kg ha-1 of P 2 O 5, respectively. P fertilization increased in 21% and 16%, the efficiency in the use of N and K fertilizers, respectively, compared to the control. The results suggest that increases in the yield of sugarcane ratoon cultivated in a low-P soil can be obtained with P reapplication, what might be related to the improvements on the P nutritional status of the plants. DIUNDUH DARI: … &script=sci_abstract.

23 ALVAREZ, R.ALVAREZ, R. and WUTKE, A. C. P..WUTKE, A. C. P. Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements. Bragantia [online]. 1963, vol.22, n.unico, pp ISSN In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra- roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replications, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1) NPK (control), 2) NPK + Fe, 3) NPK + B, 4) NPK + Cu, 5) NPK + Mn, 6) NPK + Zn, 7) NPK + Mo, 8) NPK + Mg and 9) NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo). The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P 2 O 5 and 150 kgK 2 O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant. DIUNDUH DARI: … &script=sci_abstract.

24 PlantaPlanta. June 1984, Volume 161, Issue 4, pp Issue 4 Effect of magnesium and ATP on ATPase of sugarcane vacuoles Margaret Thom, Ewald Komor Kinetic analysis of the Mg 2+ -dependence of tonoplast ATPase from suspension-cultured cells of sugarcane showed that the enzyme activity increased with increasing magnesium concentrations till 1–3 mM and then decreased consideably for higher concentrations. This kinetic could be explained by the assumption that MgATP 2- is the substrate of ATPase: MgATP 2- concentration increases with increasing concentration of magnesium till, at high concentrations of magnesium, Mg 2 ATP is formed. No evidence for a direct role of Mg 2+ as activator or inhibitor was found. These data corroborate previous findings that MgATP 2- is the sole substrate of the vacuolar ATPase of sugarcane (Thom and Komor 1984). High concentrations of ATP seemed to inhibit the ATPase. This result, however, could be traced back to interference of ATP with the Fiske-Subbarow method of phosphate determination. After adjustment of the test conditions, inhibition by ATP was no longer found. Reported data for ATPases of other plant materials, showing inhibition of enzyme activity with high magnesium or ATP concentrations, might be explicable in a similar way. DIUNDUH DARI: …..

25 Studies on the effects of silicon,magnesium,boron fertilizer on yield and sugar yield of sugarcane Wei Xianghua, Lu Shennian Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science [2004, 23(3): ] After the fertilizers of silicon, magnesium, boron were applied in the soil with lower level of available silicon, magnesium and boron, the results indicated there were obvious different effects of silicon, magnesium, boron fertilizer and their different amount on height, diameter, brix, yield and sugar yield of sugarcane. boron Compared with CK, the brix was increased from 0.42 to 1.11, the yield was increased from t/hm~(2) to 14.96t/hm~(2) and the theoretical sugar yield was increased from 1.84 t/hm~(2) to 2.10 t/hm~(2) by the silicon fertilizer; the brix was increased from 0.93 to 1.26, the yield was increased from 4.02 t/hm~(2) to 9.55 t/hm~(2) and the theoretical sugar yield was increased from 0.99 t/hm~(2) to 1.53 t/hm~(2) by the magnesium fertilizer; the brix was increased from 0.41 to 1.20,brix the yield was increased from 5.00 t/hm~(2) to t/hm~(2) and the theoretical sugar yield was increased from 0.80 t/hm~(2) to 1.82 t/hm~(2) by the boron fertilizer.boron DIUNDUH DARI: …..

26 Effect of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium on yield and quality of sugarcane. Jayabal, V.; Chockalingam, S. Journal Indian Sugar 1990 Vol. 40 No. 3 pp Field experiments ( ) were conducted in the clay loam soils of Melalathur (India) to assess the effect of N, P and Mg on the yield and quality of sugarcane (early season variety CoC 772). Nitrogen was applied at 0, 125, 250 or 375 kg/ha, P at 0, 16, 32 or 48 kg/ha and Mg at 0, 20, 40 or 60 kg/ha. A significant increase in cane yield was observed with 250 kg N, 32 kg P 2 O 5 and 20 kg MgSO 4 /ha. N, P, and Mg applications above this level did not give any beneficial effects. The application of P at 32 kg/ha significantly improved the quality of juice. DIUNDUH DARI: …..

27 Doherty, William O.S.Doherty, William O.S. (2005) Effect of Calcium and Magnesium Ions on Calcium Oxalate Formation in Sugar Solutions. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 45(2), pp During the concentration of sugarcane juice, there is continuous deposition of nonsugar impurities on the surface of evaporator units. Because the scale deposit has a low thermal conductivity, its accumulation impairs heat transfer and eventually renders the process uneconomical owing to reduced throughput. Calcium oxalate is the main intractable scale formed in factories that process sugarcane. It is not removed by conventional chemical cleaning methods. This paper describes studies on the apparent solubility product of calcium oxalate in the presence of sugar and calcium and magnesium ions at different temperatures and pH's. A solubility product model was obtained that states that the apparent solubility product of calcium oxalate decreases with increasing temperature and sugar concentration, but increases with increasing pH. The model was able to predict calcium oxalate solubility changes in raw sugarcane factory processes, indicating that the apparent solubility product of calcium oxalate declines rapidly through the evaporator set. The results also indicated that calcium oxalate solubility is increased in the presence of calcium and, in particular, magnesium ions. DIUNDUH DARI: …..

28 Nutritional Requirements for Florida Sugarcane R. W. Rice, R. A. Gilbert and J. M. McCray The Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium deficiency is sometimes seen in sugarcane grown on acidic sandy soils and organic soils. Magnesium is a component of the chlorophyll molecule and therefore is essential for photosynthesis. High K fertilization can promote Mg-deficiency symptoms. Although Mg is not routinely recommended for application on organic soils, leaf analysis can be used to determine if Mg application is needed. For sands and mucky sands, a 6-lb Mg/A application is recommended when the acetic acid extractable soil test value is less than 100 lb (soil-test Mg)/A. Because Mg was determined to be a major limiting factor on sandy mineral soils in a recent leaf nutrient survey of commercial sugarcane fields in Florida, a Mg amendment such as dolomite (or calcium silicate containing Mg) should also be considered at planting for fields with low soil-test Mg or for fields with plants exhibiting low leaf tissue Mg concentrations in the previous season's crop. Magnesium deficiency is distinguished by intense "rust-like" red freckling that is especially prevalent on older leaves. Severe Mg deficiency may cause the stalk to become stunted and severely "rusted" and brown. Magnesium is considered a mobile plant element. DIUNDUH DARI: …..

29 Review of Current Sugarcane Fertilizer Recommendations: A Report from the UF/IFAS Sugarcane Fertilizer Standards Task Force K.T. Morgan, J.M. McCray, R.W. Rice, R.A. Gilbert, and L.E. Baucum The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Magnesium Magnesium availability in organic soils of the EAA is generally considered to be adequate for sugarcane production. The Everglades Soil Testing Laboratory does not recommend Mg fertilizer for sugarcane grown on organic soils. A survey of commercial sugarcane fields in south Florida in 2004 found few muck fields with leaf Mg concentration less than optimum %, but there were a substantial number of fields with negative Mg Diagnostic and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) indices suggesting possible imbalance of Mg uptake relative to other nutrients in some situations on organic soils. Current IFAS recommendations call for adding 6 pounds per acre when the acetic acid soil test Mg value is less than 100 pounds per acre. This recommendation may be outdated at this point and may not be adequate. There is current research examining Mg nutrition on mineral soils. Based on available information at this time regarding sugarcane production on sands, growers should supply Mg by using dolomite to maintain soil pH at 5.5 or higher. DIUNDUH DARI: …..

30 EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM ON SUGARCANE IN PIEDMONT PLAIN SOILS OF BANGLADESH S.C. Saha & S.R. Ghosh Pak. J. Agri. Sci. Vo!. 34 (1-41, 1997 Field experiments were conducted on the old Himalayan piedmont plain region of non-calcareous brown flood plain soils (Typic Haplaquept) at two sites, such as Kanta Farm of Shetabgong Sugar Mills, Dinajpur, and North Regional Station (NRS) Farm of Sugarcane Research and Training Institute, Thakurgaon, Bangladesh during two cropping seasons and to study the effect of magnesium on sugarcane. Sugarcane tillering progressively increased under different magnesium levels and attained the highest in May, thereafter gradual reduction occurred due to tiller mortality. The crop responded significantly to magnesium application at both the sites. Percentage increase in cane yield in magnesium treated plots over control ranged from 3.7 to 10.9 at Kanta, and 4.4 to 11.7 at NRS, which was more appreciable at 10 kg Mg /ha. The maximum response dose calculated from cubic equation was 9.5 kg Mg ha" for both the soils. DIUNDUH DARI: …. https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:ORbkauDaETsJ:pakjas.com.pk /upload/

31 Effect of Application of Potassium, Magnesium and Sulphur Fertilizers for Yield and Quality on Sugarcane Production in an Acid Red Soil Area. Hongwei Tan, Liuqiang Zhou, Rulin Xie, and Meifu Huang. Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Soil and Fertilizer, Nanning, China 18th World Congress of Soil Science. July 9-15, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Sugarcane is a perennial member of the Graminae family. The biomass production amounts to 80 to 140 tonnes per hectare. The growth of sugarcane is divided into four stages, seedling, tillering, stretching and maturity. During the tillering and stretching periods the crop grows quickly, the sugarcane biomass production increases and more nutrients are absorbed. In this work, it was found that the amount of potassium taken up by sugarcane was greater than the amounts of other nutrients that were absorbed. At each period of development, the potassium content of the sugarcane plant was higher than the content of any other nutrient element apart from nitrogen. The amounts of potassium absorbed varied from to kg K 2 O per hectare. According to the statistical results of 82 field experiments, there was a very positive correlation between the yield of sugarcane and the amount of potassium absorbed. The correlation coefficient was r=0.979**. The function relating the sugarcane yield (y) with the amount of potassium absorbed (x) was y= x. With application rates of potassium between 150 and 450 kg/ha, the sugarcane yield increased by between 4.75% and 23.78%. DIUNDUH DARI: …..

32 Gypsum and compost effects on sugarcane root growth, yield, and plant nutrients Viator, R.P.Viator, R.P., Kovar, J.L., Hallmark, W.B.Kovar, J.L.Hallmark, W.B. Agronomy journal Nov/Dec v. 94 (6) Louisiana sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is produced mainly on heavy-textured soils that offer less than ideal conditions for growth and function of the root system. Cultural practices that improve the soil environment could benefit sugarcane production by increasing root growth and reducing the incidence of ratoon decline. The objective of our research was to determine the effect of gypsum and composted, municipal-biosolids application on root growth, crop yields, and leaf nutrient concentrations of sugarcane grown on a silty clay loam soil. Gypsum mixed into the rows at 2.24, 4.48, and 8.96 Mg ha(-1) did not affect (P > 0.05) root growth or cane and sugar yields. Likewise, both subsoil-and within-row applied compost at a rate of 44.8 Mg ha(-1) did not affect cane or sugar yields compared with the control. Gypsum increased Ca, S, Mn, and Zn leaf concentrations, but had no effect on N, P, K, Mg, Cu, and Fe concentrations. Subsoil and within-row compost increased leaf S concentration; within-row compost increased leaf K; and subsoil compost increased leaf Zn, but reduced leaf Mn compared with the control. Compost application did not increase Mn, Cu, Fe, or Zn concentrations in sugarcane leaf tissue beyond acceptable limits. Within-row applied compost reduced (P < 0.05) root surface area compared with the control, and reduced sugar yields compared with the subsoil compost treatment. This suggests that, at the compost rate used in our study, subsoil rather than within-row application of compost, is the preferred practice for sugarcane grown on this soil. DIUNDUH DARI: ….

33 PERFORMANCES OF DOLOCHUN AS A SOURCE OF MAGNESIUM FOR SUGARCANE AT FARMERS FIELD UNDER OLD HIMALAYAN PIEDMONT PLAIN R. C. Kabiraj, M. K. Basher, G.C. Paul, Kuasha Mahmud and M.M.Hossain Pakistan Sugar Journal. April-June Vol. XXIV, No.02 A Verification trial was conducted in cropping season at farmers field of Thakurgaon and Panchagar districts to evaluate the performances of dolochun as a source of magnesium on sugarcane production. Four levels of magnesium ( & 60kg ha-1) fromdolochun with recommended dose of NPKS were applied equally to all the treatments. Application of 40 kg Mg ha-1 significantly increased the number of millable canes, cane yield and brix percentage. The minimum number of tiller, number of millable cane and cane yield were produced in control plot with recommended NPKS fertilizers where no magnesium was applied. Results revealed that the application of dolochun at 40 kg Mg ha - 1 with recommended fertilizers (N12, P35, K100, S25 & Zn2 kg ha-1 ) produced significantly higher sugarcane yield (91.37 that millable cane (88.15 x l0 3 ha-1 ) and brix % (22.87) among all other treatments under study. DIUNDUH DARI: … shakarganj.com.pk/research/.../April-June09.p.....

34 Sugar Tech. December 2003, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp Issue 4 Effect of nutrient combinations on sugarcane productivity Aneg SinghAneg Singh, R. N. Srivastava, S. B. SinghR. N. Srivastava A field experiment was conducted on an alluvial ENTISOL soil to assess the effect of nutrients on the yield and quality of sugarcane. The result indicated that the application of nitrogen 150kg ha -1 did not show significant effect on improving the yield and quality of sugarcane, but the addition of 60 kg ha -1, 50 kg ha -1 and 30 kg ha --1 increased the productivity of sugarcane. The application of NPK and S along with Zn significantly improved the yield and quality of sugarcane. Addition of Fe and 20 kg ha -1 each and 25 kg ha -1 did not show any effect on the yield attributes over the sulphur application. DIUNDUH DARI: …. access=true.

35 Effect of potassium and magnesium on sugarcane yield and quality in Yunnan province, 1998 Hong Lifang Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xiama Village, Kunming, Yunnan, Yunnan has traditionally been an important sugarcane production area in China. Despite the region's favorable climate, imbalanced fertilization is severely reducing yield potential and cane sugar content. In Baoshan county, the combination of 525 kg K2O/ha with kg N-P2O5-S-Mg/ha (i.e., -K treatment) increased yields from 108 to 167 t/ha and sugar content from 11.9 to 13.9 percent. Net income for the balanced fertilization and -K treatments were US$8,520 and US$4,504/ha, respectively. Compared to the -Mg treatment, the +Mg treatment increased yield from 138 to 158 t/ha. Sugarcane crops in Wenshan and Mile counties responded similarly to K and Mg fertilization. Transfer of the research to local leaders and farmers will play an important role in the improvement of crop yield, quality, and farmer income. DIUNDUH DARI: …http://www.ipni.net/far/farguide.nsf/$webindex/article=E43F A5A CF2BFCAFBF?opendocument..

36 Magnesium dalam khlorofil a DIUNDUH DARI: …..

37 Mg dan khlorofil Chlorophyll contains oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and magnesium, whilst haemoglobin from the blood contains iron at the place of magnesium, see figure above. Both iron and magnesium are metallic atoms. DIUNDUH DARI: …. similarity-between-blood-and-chlorophyll/.

38 CHLOROPHYL and HEMOGLOBIN ARE ALMOST IDENTICAL MOLECULES IF THE CENTRAL MAGNESIUM AND IRON ATOMS ARE TRANSPOSED DIUNDUH DARI: ….. fiction-touching-real.html

39 EFFECT OF MGH' AND MN++ IONS ON SUCROSE SYNTHETASE IN SUGARCANE LEAVES B. A. PATIL and G. V. JOSHI Department of Botany, Shivaji University, 6004 (Communicated by B. M. Johri. F.N.A.) (Received I6 October 1970; after 20 October' 1971) Sucrose synthetase is a major enzyme responsible for sucrose synthesis in sugarcane leaves. The enzyme is stimulated by Mg++ and Mn++, the former one being the major stimulator. In the present investigation it has been observed that under natural conditions highest sucrose synthetase activity is found when both and Mn++ are present in the metabolic environment. Eventhough is a major co-factor, it gives highest activity when accompanied by small amounts of Mn++. DIUNDUH DARI: …https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:uP6hGep37CAJ:www.dli.gov.in/ra wdataupload/upload/insa/

40 EFFECT OF MGH' AND MN++ IONS ON SUCROSE SYNTHETASE IN SUGARCANE LEAVES B. A. PATIL and G. V. JOSHI Department of Botany, Shivaji University, 6004 (Communicated by B. M. Johri. F.N.A.) (Received I6 October 1970; after 20 October' 1971) Sugarcane is an important plant in which sucrose synthesis is a major metabolic process. Leloir and co-workers (1953 and 1955) showed that in plants sucrose is synthesised by sucrose synthetase as Well as sucrose phosphate synthetase. Pandya and Rarnkrishnan (1956), Ramkrishnan (1958), and Shukla and Prabhu (1959) reported the presence of an enzyme~sucrose phosphorylase in sugarcane leaves, which catalyses the synthesis of sucrose from glucose-l-phosphate and fructose, However, Frydman and Hassid (1963) showed evidence for the synthesis of sucrose from UDPG and D­fructose in the sugarcane leaves. The results of earlier workers indicate that both the enzymes can synthesisc sucrose in sugarcane leaves. However, the studies of Haq and Hassid (1965) indicated that small amount of sucrose is synthesised when acts as a glucosyl acceptor in place of fructose. This indicates that sucrose synthetase is the major enzyme system responsible for the synthesis of sucrose in sugarcane leaves. 1.Frydman, R. B., and Hassid, W. Z. (1963). Biosynthesis of sucrose with sugarcane leaf preparations. Nature, Lond., 199, Leloir, L. F., and Cardini, C, E. (1953). The biosynthesis of sucrose. J. Am. chem. Soc., 75, Leloir, L. F., and Cardini, C, E. (1955). The biosynthesis of sucrose phosphate. J. bia/ Chem,214, DIUNDUH DARI: …https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:uP6hGep37CAJ:www.dli.gov.in/ra wdataupload/upload/insa/

41 EFFECT OF MGH' AND MN++ IONS ON SUCROSE SYNTHETASE IN SUGARCANE LEAVES B. A. PATIL and G. V. JOSHI Department of Botany, Shivaji University, 6004 (Communicated by B. M. Johri. F.N.A.) (Received I6 October 1970; after 20 October' 1971) Bean and Hassid (1955), while working with pea preparations, observed that MgtI+ has a stimulatory eiïect on sucrose synthetase. Rorem et al. (1960), as Well as Haq and Hassid (1965) used MnC12 assayìng the enzyme system. Pressey (1969) observed that Mn++ acts as an activator of sucrose synthetase in potato tuber. The main object of this investigation is to study the eiïect of Mg++ and MIPL+ ions on sucrose synthetase in sugarcane leaves. It has been observed that the soils in Kolhapur region contain appreciable amounts of Mn++ and sucrose content of sugarcane is quite high as compared to sugarcane grown in rest of the country. The eifect of these ions was studied by adding them at reaction level after extracting the enzyme, as well as supplying to plants as nutrients and as foliar sprays. 1.Bean, R. C., and Hassid, W. Z. (1955). Synthesis of disaccharides with pea preparations. J. Am. chem. Sac., 77, Haq, S., and Hassid, W. Z. (1965). Biosynthesis of sucrose phosphate with sugarcane leaf Chloroplasts. Pl. Physiol., 40, (1963). 3.Pressey, R. (1969). Potato sucrose synthetase : puriñcation, properties, and changes in activity associated with maturation. Pl. Physiol., 44, Rorem, E. S., Walker, H. G. Jr., and McGready, R. M. (1960). Biosynthesis of sucrose and sucrose phosphate by sugar­beel leaf extracts. Pl. Physiol., 35, DIUNDUH DARI: …https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:uP6hGep37CAJ:www.dli.gov.in/ra wdataupload/upload/insa/

42 EFFECT OF MGH' AND MN++ IONS ON SUCROSE SYNTHETASE IN SUGARCANE LEAVES B. A. PATIL and G. V. JOSHI Department of Botany, Shivaji University, 6004 (Communicated by B. M. Johri. F.N.A.) (Received I6 October 1970; after 20 October' 1971) It is obvious that both the ions when in Contact in individual capacity show stimulation in synthesis of sucrose. When the concentration of MgCl2 increases there is a rapid increase in the enzyme activity and the peak is obtained at the concentration of 4 µg/ml and the enzyme activity falls down when the concentration increases to 8 µg/ml onwards. lt is interesting to record that when MnCl2 is added to the enzyme system the activity reaches its maximum at 8 after which a sharp fall has been recorded in further concentrations. The work of Pressey (1969) on the effect of Mn++ in stimulation of sucrose synthetase indicates that when alone is present as an activator it is required in high amounts. Eventhough both the ions activate the enzyme system the maximum activity is more with MgCl2 than with MnCl2. It is obvious that both these ions show stimulation in the enzyme activity at particular concentration above which they have inhibitory effect. These results indicate that Mg++ is possibly the main co-factor of the enzyme sucrose synthetase and cannot be completely replaced by Mn++. 1.Pressey, R. (1969). Potato sucrose synthetase : puriñcation, properties, and changes in activity associated with maturation. Pl. Physiol., 44, 759. DIUNDUH DARI: …https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:uP6hGep37CAJ:www.dli.gov.in/ra wdataupload/upload/insa/

43 EFFECT OF MGH' AND MN++ IONS ON SUCROSE SYNTHETASE IN SUGARCANE LEAVES B. A. PATIL and G. V. JOSHI Department of Botany, Shivaji University, 6004 (Communicated by B. M. Johri. F.N.A.) (Received I6 October 1970; after 20 October' 1971) Humbert (1963) reported about 0.1 per cent of Mn and per cent of Mg in sugarcane leaves on dry­weight basis. It is interesting to observe that both the ions show more accumulation when supplied as foliar spray than as a nutrient in soil. It was recorded earlier (Humbert, 1963) that Mg levels increase with the increasing Mg applications. In the present investigation it has been found that even in MnCl2­treated plants Mg accumulation is more than that in control plants which is to explain. Mn++ is one of the essential nutrients for the healthy growth and development of sugarcane (Davis, 1931). The highest Mn value is recorded in the leaves of the plants sprayed with MnCl2. There is no remarkable difference in the Mn content of other treated plants. The values obtained in the present investigation for Mg and Mn are higher than those obtained by Humbert (1963). 1.Davis, L. E. (1931). Manganese as an essential element in the growth of sugarcane. Hawaii. Plrs’ Rec., 35, Humbert, R. P. (1963). The Growing of Sugarcane. Elsevier Publishing Company, New York. DIUNDUH DARI: …https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:uP6hGep37CAJ:www.dli.gov.in/ra wdataupload/upload/insa/

44 EFFECT OF MGH' AND MN++ IONS ON SUCROSE SYNTHETASE IN SUGARCANE LEAVES B. A. PATIL and G. V. JOSHI Department of Botany, Shivaji University, 6004 (Communicated by B. M. Johri. F.N.A.) (Received I6 October 1970; after 20 October' 1971) The effect of Mg++ and concentrations on sucrose synthetase system in the treated plants is significant. It is clear that the maximum sucrose synthetase activity occurs when Mg++ ions are accompanied by good amount of Mn++. The results indicate that Mg++ alone is not enough to achieve highest sucrose synthetase activity. This can happen even with less Mg++ if Mn++ is more. It is possible that under natural conditions these two ions with interaction produce a stimulatory range of sucrose synthetase. The range for this is nearly 1:40 ratio of Mn++ to Mg++. This can only be provided if isolated enzyme preparation is tested for the effect of these two ions when present together. However, our observations as well as those of other workers indicate that sucrose synthetase under isolated condition behaves differently than when present in cellular environment. Investigations to test the eiïect of Mg++ and Mn++ ions together are in progress and will be published elsewhere. The main finding of the present investigation is that Mn-rich soil may produce better sucrose yield than Mn-deficient soil. DIUNDUH DARI: …https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:uP6hGep37CAJ:www.dli.gov.in/ra wdataupload/upload/insa/

45 Effect of fertilizer application and the main nutrient limiting factors for yield and quality of sugarcane production in Guangxi red soil TAN HONGWEI, ZHOU LIUQIANG, XIE RULIN Tropics. VOL.14;NO.4;PAGE (2005) The two tested soils were poor in nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium and sulphur. Application of potassium, magnesium and sulphur, increased the sugarcane yield significantly. Treatments with potassium, magnesium and sulphur fertilizer increased sucrose content markedly. Increased use of potassium, magnesium and sulphur fertilizer increased sugarcane's fiber content. The biomass production is tons per hectare. Sugarcane growth is divided into four stages: seedling, tiller, stretching, and mature. Sugarcane grows quickly during tillering and stretching periods, also during these stages sugarcane biomass production is greater and more minerals are absorbed, especially potassium, than at other stages. In every development stage of sugarcane, the potassium content of a sugarcane plant is higher than other nutrient elements, except for nitrogen. Generally, sugarcane yield is kg per hectare. The absorbable potassium (K2O) amount of sugarcane was kg per hectare. According to the statistical results of 82 field experiments in Nanning and Laibin, sugarcane yield and the amount of potassium sugarcane absorbed was significantly and positively correlated. The correlation coefficient was r=0.979'**'. The function of the sugarcane yield (y) with the amount of potassium sugarcane absorbs (x) was y= x. DIUNDUH DARI: …http://sciencelinks.jp/j- east/article/200613/ A php..

46 Sugarcane Plant Nutrient Diagnosis J. Mabry McCray, Ronald W. Rice, Ike V. Ezenwa, Timothy A. Lang, and Les Baucum The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Sugarcane leaf nutrient critical values and optimum ranges. DIUNDUH DARI: …http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sc075.. NutrientCritical ValueOptimum Range % Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Sulfur (S) Silicon (Si)0.50>0.70 mg/kg Iron (Fe) Manganese (Mn) Zinc (Zn) Copper (Cu)34-8 Boron (B) Molybdenum From Anderson and Bowen (1990), except for Si values (J. M. McCray, unpublished data). All values are from Florida except S and Mo, which are from Louisiana.

47 Effects of Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, and Magnesium on Sugar Cane Yield and Quality in Yunnan Hong Lifang, Su.an,.u Libo, and Zhao Zongsheng Better Crops International. Vol. 15, No.1, May 2001 Effects of P, K, S and Mg on Sugar Content Percent sugar content was most affected by applied K when other plant nutrients were adequate, increasing 2.0, 1.8 and 1.7 percent at Baoshan, Wenshan and Mile, respectively, when the highest sugar content with K2O application was compared to no K application. These experiments show that sugar cane yield, sugar content, and total sugar production per hectare can be increased by application of P, K, and Mg. Among these plant nutrients, K has the dominant effect. Both correlation coefficients for K and sugar cane yield and K and sugar content were very high at the three locations. However, at Baoshan and Mile, higher rates of all plant nutrients should be tested since response to the highest rate of K was still positive and may have been even greater had some of the other nutrients not been limiting to yield. The optimum rates for high yields and profits are recommended as N 375, P2O5 203, K2O 375, and Mg 60 kg/ha. Results indicate that these rates of plant nutrients will also produce higher sugar content and, therefore, higher total sugar production. DIUNDUH DARI: ….. https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IO22LPtzRIoJ:www.ipni.net/ppiweb/bcr opint.nsf/%24webindex/

48 ………. Dst……… DIUNDUH DARI: …..


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