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YEAST OVERVIEW Mostly from Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Deuteromycetes Yeasts make two types of respiration: Obligate Aerobic:Using oxigen,

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Presentasi berjudul: "YEAST OVERVIEW Mostly from Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Deuteromycetes Yeasts make two types of respiration: Obligate Aerobic:Using oxigen,"— Transcript presentasi:

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3 YEAST OVERVIEW Mostly from Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Deuteromycetes Yeasts make two types of respiration: Obligate Aerobic:Using oxigen, Facultative Anaerobic:Also using oxigen, budding Binary fission

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6 Phylogenetic tree based on 18S rDNA

7 Saccharomycopsidaceae
> Overview Classification of Yeast > Saccharomycopsidaceae Schizosaccharomycetaceae Ascomycota Saccharomycopsidaceae Dikarya Fungi Basidiomycota Sporobolomycetaceae Fungi imperfectii Cryptococacceae

8 Ascosporogenous Yeast

9 Ascomycota Yeast Characteristics
Schizosaccharromyces Pachysolen Citeromyces Dekkera Pichia Fission cell + - Budding cell Bentuk Ascospore bulat atau oval seperti sabit bulat,oval, bentuk seperti topi, sabit atau saturnus seperti topi Bulat, seperti topi, sabit atau saturnus Fermentasi +/- Asimilasi nitrat

10 - + bulat atau oval oval +/- + (lambat) Debaryomyces Kluyveromyces
Saccharomyces Saccharomycopsis Fission cell - Budding cell + Bentuk Ascospore bulat atau oval oval Fermentasi +/- + (lambat) Asimilasi nitrat

11 - + oval bulat Bulat, seperti topi + (lambat) Lodderomyces Lipomyces
Nadsonia Saccharomycodes Hanseniaspora Fission cell - Budding cell + Bentuk Ascospore oval bulat Bulat, seperti topi Fermentasi + (lambat) Asimilasi nitrat

12 - + Seperti topi Seperti spindle Seperti jarum Wickerhamia Nematospora
Metschnikowia coccidiascus Fission cell - Budding cell + Bentuk Ascospore Seperti topi Seperti spindle Seperti jarum Fermentasi Asimilasi nitrat

13 Familie : Schizosaccharomycetaceae

14 Schizosaccharomyces Terdapat spesies yang dibagi berdasarkan bentuk spora, jumlah spora per ascus, keberadaan miselium dan fermentasi dari gula Diisolasi dari anggur, wine, gula, air tebu S. pombe Sebagai protein sel tunggal untuk biomassa Sebagai model sistem untuk pembelajaran sel eukariot Divisio : Ascomycota  Subdivision : Taphrinomycotina    Class : Schizosaccharomycetes Order : Schizosaccharomycetales Family : Schizosaccharomycetaceae Spesies : Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. versalitisdan S. kombucha

15 Familie : Saccharomycetaceae

16 Pachysolen Divisio : Ascomycota Subdivision : Saccharomycotina
Class : Saccharomycetes Order : Saccharomycetales Family : Saccharomycetaceae Spesies :  Pachysolen tannophilus Baru diketahui 1 spesies : Pachysolen tannophilus diisolasi dari liquor memfermentasi D-xylose sehingga menghasilkan etanol

17 Citeromyces Divisio : Ascomycota Subdivision : Saccharomycotina
Class : Saccharomycetes Order : Saccharomycetales Family : Saccharomycetaceae Spesies :  Citeromyces matritensis dan C. siamensis Citeromyces matriensis diisolasi dari gula dan cairan yang kandungan gulanya tinggi memfermentasi D-xylose sehingga menghasilkan etanol

18 Dekkera Genus Dekkera tumbuh di barrel wine yang akan mempengaruhi dari cita rasa wine tersebut Biasanya tumbuh pada barrel wine yang pHnya tinggi (3,6), sulfur rendah, dan kandungan residu gula tinggi Divisio : Ascomycota  Subdivision : Saccharomycotina    Class : Saccharomycetes Order : Saccharomycetales Family : Saccharomycetaceae Dekkera bruxellensis diisolasi dari bir hitam Dekkera intermedia diisolasi dari bir, wine dan ‘tea beer fungus’ Spesies :  Dekkera bruxellensis, D. intermedia, D. anomala

19 Pichia Lebih dari 70 spesies Sebagai fermenter
Digunakan untuk ekspresi protein menggunakan teknik rekombinan DNA Patogen oportunistik yang menyerang saat imun tubuh rendah Antifungi yang dapat digunakan Amphotericin B Divisio : Ascomycota  Subdivision : Saccharomycotina    Class : Saccharomycetes Order : Saccharomycetales Family : Saccharomycetaceae Pichia farinosa Diisolasi dari kecap dan pasta miso. Menghasilkan xylitol dan heoitls Pichia pastoris Untuk ekspresi protein Spesies :  P. membranaefaciens, P. ohmeri, P.fluxuum, P. terricola, P. bovis, P. farinosa, P. pastoris

20 Debaryomyces Divisio : Ascomycota Subdivision : Saccharomycotina
Class : Saccharomycetes Order : Saccharomycetales Family : Saccharomycetaceae Terdapat lebih dari 22 spesies Spesies dibagi menjadi berdasarkan ukuran sel dan kemampuan fermentasi Spesies :  D. hansenii, D. castelli, D. phaffii, D. vanriji D. Hansenii Diisolasi dari daging asin dan ikan yang busuk Memproduksi polihidroksi alkohol Dapat tumbuh pada kondisi yang tekanan osmotiknya tinggi

21 Kluyveromyces Divisio : Ascomycota Subdivision : Saccharomycotina
Class : Saccharomycetes Order : Saccharomycetales Family : Saccharomycetaceae Terdapat 13 spesies Spesies dibagi berdasarkan bentuk spora, jumlah spora per ascus, reaksi asimilasinya Spesies :  K. polyporus, K. africanus, K. lactis, K.arxianus, K. marxianus K. Laktis Memiliki kemampuan mengasimilasi laktosa menjadi asam laktat Memproduksi chymosin yang digunkan pada produksi keju K. marxianus  Merupakan yeast bernutrisi untuk makanan ternak Sumber asam ribonukleat di industri farmasi

22 Saccharomyces Divisio : Ascomycota Subdivision : Saccharomycotina
Class : Saccharomycetes Order : Saccharomycetales Family : Saccharomycetaceae Terdapat lebih dari 28 spesies Sangat penting dalam produksi makanan Digunakan dalam produksi bir Menyebabkan kerusakan pada makanan kaya gula Spesies :  S. cerevisiae, S. uvarum, S. fermentii, S. florentinus, S. rosei, S. steineri S. Cerevisiae memiliki kemampuan dalam memfermentasi glukosa  menjadi ethanol digunakan dalam  industri alkohol dan minuman beralkohol

23 S. Cerevisiae as organism model
On April 24, 1996, S. cerevisiae was announced to be the first eukaryote to have its genome, consisting of 12 million base pairs, fully sequenced as part of the Genome project (Williams 1996). At the time, it was the most complex organism to have its full genome sequenced; the project took seven years and the involvement of over 100 laboratories to accomplish (Henahan 1996).

24 Lodderomyces Divisio : Ascomycota Subdivision : Saccharomycotina
Class : Saccharomycetes Order : Saccharomycetales Family : Saccharomycetaceae Spesies :  L. elongisporus L. elongisporus diasosiasikan sebagai yeast penginfeksi di dalam darah Sering disamakan dengan Candida parapsilosis

25 Familie : Saccharomycopsidaceae

26 Saccharomycopsis Divisio : Ascomycota Subdivision : Saccharomycotina
Class : Saccharomycetes Order : Saccharomycetales Family :Saccharomycopsidaceae S. Fibuligera digunakan dalam produksi wine S. lipolytica memproduksi lipase S. guttulata tumbuh pada temperatur 35o – 40o dan pH 2 - 6,5 diisolasi dari perut kelinci Spesies :  S. fibuligera, S. guttulata, S. capsularis, S.fibuligera, S. javanensis, S. lipolytica

27 nadsonia Budding cells. Melakukan konjugasi.
Ascospores berbentuk bulat. Positif melakukan fermentasi. Spesies baru, Nadsonia clovaca diisolasi di Slovakia, ditemukan di permukaan buah Cornus mas dan di permukaan tubhu buah Armanita muscaria. Spora nya besar, berbentuk bulat, berwarna putih dengan inti berwarna coklat kemerahan terang di tengah.

28 Saccharomycodes Membentuk budding cells. Melakukan konjugasi pada spora yang telah berkembang pada ascus, positif melakukan fermentasi. Mempunyai bentuk sel besar, diploid dan berbentuk seperti lemon (lemon-shaped). Salah satu contohnya adalah Saccharomycodes ludwigii.

29 Nineteen Saccharomycodes ludwigii strains were tested for the production of secondary products in grape must fermentation. A predominant metabolic pattern characterized by high production of isobutyl alcohol, acetoin and ethyl acetate was obtained The sample fermented by S'codes ludwigii was characterized by a fresh odour with a fruity flavour, identified as flavour of apple and kiwi-fruit. Despite the high concentrations of acetic acid, this beverage might be considered a potential summer refreshing drink, addressed to a target of consumers who prefer fruit drinks that leave a slightly acid and little sugary taste in the mouth.

30 Hanseniaspora Budding cells, Ascospora berbentuk bulat. Positif melakukan fermentasi. Spesies baru: Hanseniaspora meyeri sp. nov. Hanseniaspora clermontiae sp. nov. Hanseniaspora lachancei sp. nov. Hanseniaspora opuntiae sp. nov., novel apiculate yeast species

31 Spermophthoraceae Nematospora Contoh: N. gossypii
Membentuk budding (budding cell), mempunyai miselium. Asci besar, berbentuk silindris. Ascospores berbentuk spindle. Positif melakukan fermentasi. Contoh: N. gossypii Nama lain: Ashbya gossypii, Eremothecium gossypii (Ashby et Nowell) Kurtzman, Nemastospora gossipii Eremothecium gossypii is a pathogen that attacks cotton and some citrus fruits but also produces vitamin B-2.

32 Basidiospore Yeast

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34 Sporobolomycetaceae Genus
Budding Nitrate Assimilation Fermentation Sporidiobolus + (true mycel) Sporobolomyces +/- Bullera Rhodosporidium - Leucosporidium (pseudomycel)

35 Ballistosporogenous Yeast Sporobolomycetaceae
Genus-genus nya: Sporodiobolus Sporobolomyces Bullera

36 Sporobolomyces Sporobolomyces roseus
This rust fungus is “the causal agent of stem rust, has caused serious disease of small cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, and rye) worldwide.” Bisa mendegradasi tyrosine dan phenylalanine Bisa menginfeksi daun citrus, masuk dari stomata. Memperbanyak diri di permukaan daun dan sebagian masuk ke ruang intraselular. Merusak plasamlemma, tonoplast dan kloroplas

37 Bullera B.cuulongensis B.haininnensis B. Hoabinhensis sp. nov
B. nhoquanica B. Ninbinhensis sp. nov

38 Contoh lainnya adalah:
Bullera crocea dan Bullera armeniaca. 11 strain dari B.crocea diisolasi dari sayur kol (cauliflowers), tumbuh di Norfolk. Dua strain B.armeniaca diisolasi dari kol lain dan juga kubis (cabbage).

39 Sporidiobolus Sporidiobolus longiusculus
diisolasi dari ekosistem perairan (aquatic) Micrograph of ballistoconidia-producing cells of Sporidiobolus longiusculus CRUB 1044  (Bar = 10µm)

40 Fungi imperfectii Yeast

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43 Rhodotorula Red or yellow yeasts Rubrotorula red culture
Flavotorula yellow culture Isolated from blood and human systemic cause significant disease and infections called rhodotorulorsis It is a common saprophytic airborne contaminant of skin, lungs, urine and feces. R. mucilaginosa can colonize moist surfaces in humans, including the skin, respiratory, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts 3 active main species: Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula minuta, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

44 Cryptococcus First isolated (1902) from a lession in lung horse
On Sabouraud's dextrose agar colonies are cream colored with a smooth mucoid texture.No pseudohyphae present. Almost all pathogenic for human or animal C.Laurentii Reported can caused fungemia in human Applicated as a biocontrol of post-harvest diseases, controlling Penicillium, Pezicula malicorticis An isolate 360C was as efficient as the fungicides (thiabendazole and iprodione) to reduce apple fruit rots

45 Brettanomyces Brettanomyces spp. has also been isolated from sparkling wines where they cause haziness and gushing in bottle fermented sparkling wines Produce 4-ethyl phenol and 4-ethyl guaiacol in wine,Instead, the contaminated wines were found to be intensely bitter and showed distinct signs of corkiness.

46 B. bruxellensis Dipakai untuk pembuatan wine, biasanya dengan menggabungkan 5 jenis mikroba diantaranya (pada gambar): B.bruxellensis, Brettanomyces lambicus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Pediococcus cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae

47 Candida Have 200 yeast species
Normal flora on skin surface and in intestinaltracts of warm-blooded animals. Cause Candidiasis (Candida infection usually in vagina, mouth) Pseudo- and true-septate mycelium possible. The cells of the yeast are surrounded by a rigid polysaccharide capsule, which helps to prevent them from being recognised and engulfed by white blood cells in the human body

48 Pitysporum is now known as Malassezia (since 19th century identified by Louis Charles Malassez) Lipid dependent yeast and normal flora in scalp A research shows that there is similarities of phylogeny, mating type gene organization, and pathogenesis between Malassezia and Ustilago There is 10 species known: M. furfur M. pachydermatis M. globosa M. restricta M. slooffiae M. sympodialis M. nana M. yamatoensis M. dermatis M. obtusa

49 Malassezia globosa (former : Pitysporum ovale) Excessive sweat and it is not rapidly drying will cause the skin condition to be alkali and facilitate the growth of yeast In normal condition, the growth rate of Pitysporum ovale is less than 47% The growth rate of Pitysporum ovale in dandruff may reach 74% if there is a igniting factor

50 Trichosporon colonies are rapid growing, smooth, wrinkled, waxy, white brownish colored. The wrinkled appearance becomes more prominent in time common yeast-like fungi whose primary mode of reproduction is the formation of arthrospores and blastospores normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans and that includes the causative agent of trichosporosis. This genus is cosmopolitan, common in soil, fresh and sea water, and plant detritus. Recorded isolations include garden compost, sewage sludge, intertidal sand, running water, and mud.

51 Kloeckera This yeast has been found in soil, water, various fruits, bivalve molluscs, crabs, prawns and fruit flies; in Spain, it has been described in the fermentation processes of some wines. In our region, it has also been found in the intestine of mackerel

52 DAFTAR PUSTAKA Behrend Trichosporon spp. Tanggal Akses: 3 Desember 2009 Roselino, Ana Maria, et al An outbreak of scalp white piedra in a Brazilian children day care. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo vol.50 no.5. Zu-Guo Yu, and Vo Anh Phylogenetic tree of prokaryotes based on complete genomes using fractal and correlation analyses. Program in Statistics and Operations Research, Queensland University. Kunkell, Dennis Yeast fungus (Trichosporon cutaneum) - Copyright Dennis Kunkel Microscopy. Kailua : Dennis Kunkel Inc. Barkin, Wendy Psoriasis and Antioxidants: A Literature Review. http: // www .thione.com /summaries/ drm03. html. Tanggal Akses : 3 Desember 2009. Makimura Atlas Medical Mycology. Japan: Teikyo University Institute of Medical Mycology Anonim Tanggal akses: 4 Desember Anonim http://www.emlab.com/app/fungi/Fungi.po?event=fungi&species=124&type=primary . Tanggal akses: 4 Desember Vuuren, Hennie J.J. Van, George K. van der Merwe and Zongli Luo How Brettanomyces/ Dekkera spp. Can Affect Wines. Tanggal Akses: 3 Desember 2009.

53 Makimura, Koichi. 2002. Pathogenic Fungi Database. http://timm. main
Makimura, Koichi Pathogenic Fungi Database. database_eng.html. Tanggal Akses: 7 Desember 2009. Kavanagh, Kevin Fungi: Biology and Applications. New York: Wiley Inter science. Anonim faculty. clintoncc.suny.edu/ faculty/Michael.Gregory/ files/Bio%20102/ Bio%20102% 20 lectures / fungi/ fungi.htm. Tanggal Akses : 3 Desember 2009. Anonim Tanggal Akses : 3 Desember 2009. Anonim http:// biotechvnu.edu.vn/ vtcc/components/ com_virtuemart/shop_image/ product/ Pachysolen _tanno_4874e1d jpg. Tanggal Akses : 3 Desember 2009. Anonim Tanggal Akses : 3 Desember 2009. Anonim Tanggal Akses : 3 Desember 2009.

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