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Sumber: McEachern, Ek.Makro, Pendekatan Kontemporer Seni & Ilmu Analisis Ekonomi Permasalahan Ekonomi Kepentingan Pribadi yang Rasional Analisis Marginal.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Sumber: McEachern, Ek.Makro, Pendekatan Kontemporer Seni & Ilmu Analisis Ekonomi Permasalahan Ekonomi Kepentingan Pribadi yang Rasional Analisis Marginal."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Sumber: McEachern, Ek.Makro, Pendekatan Kontemporer Seni & Ilmu Analisis Ekonomi Permasalahan Ekonomi Kepentingan Pribadi yang Rasional Analisis Marginal Metoda Ilmiah Kelemahan Pemikiran Ekonomi

2 Sumber: McEachern, Ek.Makro, Pendekatan Kontemporer PERMASALAHAN EKONOMI : SUMBER DAYA TERBATAS TAPI KEINGINAN TAK TERBATAS Kelangkaan Sumber Daya Barang & Jasa Imbalan Sumber Daya Keinginan/ kebutuhan Pilihan

3 Sumber: McEachern, Ek.Makro, Pendekatan Kontemporer Barang dan Jasa & Tenaga Kerja Kapital Tanah Kewirausahaan Upah Laba Bunga Sewa Objek nyata yang digunakan untuk memenuhi keinginan & Kegiatan yg ditujukan utk memenuhi keinginan Bila jumlah yang diinginkan orang melebihi jumlah yang tersedia pada harga sebesar nol Konsekwensi kelangkaan

4 Sumber: McEachern, Ek.Makro, Pendekatan Kontemporer Pelaku Ekonomi Rumah Tangga Perusahaan Pemerintah Luar Negeri Pasar Barang & Jasa & Pasar Sumber Daya / Faktor Produksi Pasar Analisis Mikro & Makro

5 Sumber: McEachern, Ek.Makro, Pendekatan Kontemporer Analisis Ekonomi Rational Self Interest: Expected Cost Expected Benefit Analisis Marginal : Expected Marginal Cost Expected Marginal Benefit Pilihan Memerlukan Waktu & Informasi Analisis Positif dan Normatif

6 Sumber: McEachern, Ek.Makro, Pendekatan Kontemporer Ilmu dari Analisis Ekonomi Teori/Model Ekonomi : Penyederhanaan dari kenyataan ekonomi yang digunakan untuk membuat perkiraan atas dunia nyata Metoda Ilmiah: 1. Identifikasi Pertanyaaan dan Penentuan Variabel 2. Spesifikasi Asumsi & Asumsi Perilaku 4. Hipotesa 5. Validitas Prediksi rata-rata Perilaku

7 7 1. Identify the Question and Define Relevant Variables 2. Specify Assumptions or 3. Formulate a hypothesis 4. Test the hypothesis Reject the hypothesis Use the hypothesis until a better one shows up Modify Approach

8 Sumber: McEachern, Ek.Makro, Pendekatan Kontemporer Beberapa Kelemahan Analisis Ekonomi Association is Causation The Fallacy of Composition Efek Sekunder

9 Understanding Graphs Appendix  Origin  Horizontal axis  Vertical axis  Graph  Functional relation –Dependent variable –Independent variable

10 Exhibit 4 Point a: - 5 units X - 15 units Y y Vertical axis a b Point b: - 10 units X - 5 units Y 0 Origin x Horizontal axis Basics of a Graph

11 U.S. Unemployment Rate Since 1900 Exhibit 5

12 Drawing Graphs  Dependent variable –Depends on the independent variable  Types of relations between variables –Positive; direct –Negative; inverse –Independent; unrelated Appendix

13 Schedule and Graph Relating Distance Traveled to Hours Driven a b c d e Hours Driven per Day Distance Traveled per Day (miles) abcdeabcde Hours driven per day Distance traveled per day (miles) 250 Points a through e depict different combinations of hours driven per day and the corresponding distances traveled. Connecting these points graphs a line. Exhibit 6; Exhibit 7

14 Slopes of Straight Lines  Slope –Change in vertical variable –For a given increase in horizontal variable  Slope = Change in the vertical distance/ Increase in the horizontal distance  Slope of a straight line –The same value along the line Appendix

15 Alternative Slopes for Straight Lines (a) Positive relation 0 x y 5 10 Slope = 5/10 = 0.5 (b) Negative relation 0 x y 10 Slope = - 7/10 = Exhibit 8(a), (b)

16 Alternative Slopes for Straight Lines (c) No relation: zero slope 0 x y Slope = 0/10 = 0 (d) No relation: infinite slope 0 x y 10 Slope = 10/0 = ∞ 10 Exhibit 8(c), (d)

17 Slope, Units of Measurement, Marginal Analysis  Value of slope –Depends on units of measurement –Measures marginal effects Appendix

18 Slope Depends on the Unit of Measure (a) Measured in feet 0 Feet of copper tubing 65 5 $6 Total cost 1 1 Slope = 1/1 = 1 (b) Measured in yards 0 Yards of copper tubing $6 Total cost 3 1 Slope = 3/1 = 3 (a)Output is measured in feet of copper tubing. (b)Output is measured in yards. The cost: $1 per foot. Slope is different: copper tubing is measured using different units Exhibit 9

19 The Slopes of Curved Lines  Differs along the curve  Slope of a curved line at one point –Slope of the tangent Appendix

20 Slope at Different Points on a Curved Line x y a b B A The slope of a curved line varies from point to point. At point a, the slope of the curve is equal to the slope of the tangent A. At point b, the slope of the curve is equal to the slope of the tangent B. Exhibit 10

21 Curves with Both Positive and Negative Slopes 0 x y a b Some curves have both positive and negative slopes. The hill-shaped curve has: positive slope to the left of a slope of 0 at point a negative slope to the right of a. The U-shaped curve has: negative slope to the left of b slope of 0 at point b positive slope to the right of b. Exhibit 11

22 Line Shifts  Change assumptions –Changed relationship between variables –Line shift Appendix

23 Shift of Line Relating Distance Traveled to Hours Driven Hours driven per day Distance traveled per day (miles) 250 f T’ d T Line T hours driven/day and distance traveled/day average speed = 50 mph Line T’ hours driven/day and distance traveled/day average speed = 40 mph Exhibit 12


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