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TEKNOLOGI KOLABORATIF. Outline  Komunikasi & Jaringan  Komunikasi dan kolaborasi  Alat pendukung kolaborasi : workflow ke groupware.  Telecommuting.

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Presentasi berjudul: "TEKNOLOGI KOLABORATIF. Outline  Komunikasi & Jaringan  Komunikasi dan kolaborasi  Alat pendukung kolaborasi : workflow ke groupware.  Telecommuting."— Transcript presentasi:

1 TEKNOLOGI KOLABORATIF

2 Outline  Komunikasi & Jaringan  Komunikasi dan kolaborasi  Alat pendukung kolaborasi : workflow ke groupware.  Telecommuting dan e-learning.

3 Komunikasi Apakah Komunikasi Komputer?  Proses dimana dua atau beberapa komputerbatau perangkat memindahkan data, perintah, dan informasi. a a d c b e a a f c

4 Penggunaan Teknologi Komunikasi  Voice mail  Fax   Chatroom  Instant Message  FTP  Newsgroup  Telephony  Videoconference  Groupware  Global Positioning System (GPS)

5 Berbagi Software Berbagi Hardware Jaringan Apakah Jaringan?  Sekumpulan komputer dan perangkat yg saling berhubungan melalui perangkat komunikasi dan media transmisi.  Fasilitas komunikasi antar user  Berbagi sumber daya dengan pengguna lainya. Fasilitas Komunikasi Berbagi data dan Informasi

6 Jaringan Apakah local area network (LAN)?  Jaringan yg menghubungkan beberapa komputer diwilayah yg geografisnya terbatas, seperti rumah, laboratorium, dan kantor yg berdekatan.  Menggunakan protokol ethernet.

7 Administration Adding, deleting, and organizing users and performing maintenance tasks File management Locating and transferring files Jaringan Apakah network operating system?  The system software that organizes and coordinates the activities on LAN  Also called a network OS or NOS Printer management Prioritizing print jobs and reports sent to specific printers on the network Security Monitoring and, when necessary, restricting access to network resources

8 Networks What are servers and clients?  Server Controls access to the hardware and software on the network Provides a centralized storage are for programs Dedicated servers perform a specific task  Clients Other computers on the network Rely on the server for resources database server stores and provides access to a database network server manages network traffic print server manages printers and print jobs file server stores and manages files

9 Jaringan Apakah topologi Jaringan?  Konfigurasi komputer dan perangkatnya dalam jaringan komunikasi.  Umumnya topologi yg paling banyak digunakan ada 3 : Bus, Ring dan Star RingStar Bus

10 Jaringan Topologi Bus?  Terdiri atas kabel pusat tunggal, dimana seluruh komputer dan perangkatnya saling berhubungan.  Bus adalah bentuk fisikalnya  Bus juga disebut backbone  Murah dan mudah di install personal computer

11 Networks Topologi Ring?  A cable forms a closed ring, or loop, with all computers and devices arranged along the ring  Data travels from device to device around the entire ring

12 Jaringan Topologi Star?  All of the devices connect to a central computer/hub  All data that transfers from one computer to another passes through the hub host computer printer file server personal computer

13 The Telephone Network What is a dial-up line?  A temporary connection that uses one or more analog telephone lines for communications  A modem at the sending end dials the telephone number of a modem at the receiving end Advantages Costs no more than making a regular call Computers at any two locations can establish a connection using modems and the telephone network Disadvantage Cannot control the quality of the connection because the telephone company’s switching office randomly selects the line

14 The Telephone Network What is a dedicated line?  A connection that always is established between two communications devices  The quality and consistency of the connection is better because dedicated lines provide a consistent connection Can be analog or digital Digital lines transfer data and information at faster rates than analog lines

15 Communications Devices What is a modem?  A communications device that converts a computer's digital signals to analog signals before they are transmitted over standard telephone lines  Sometimes called a dial-up modem modulate To change into an analog signal demodulate To convert an analog signal into a digital signal mo + dem

16 DSL modem Sends and receives digital data to a DSL line Communications Devices What is a digital modem?  One that sends and receives data and information to and from a digital telephone line such as ISDN or DSL ISDN modem Also called an ISDN adapter Sends and receives digital data to an ISDN line

17 Communications Devices What is a cable modem?  A modem that sends and receives data over the cable television (CATV) network  Currently much faster than a dial-up modem or ISDN  Usually attaches to a USB port or a port on a network interface card

18 Communications Devices What is a network interface card (NIC)?  A card you insert into an expansion slot of a personal computer or other device, enabling the device to connect to a network NIC for desktop computer NIC for notebook computer

19 twisted pair cable twisted pair wire Physical Transmission Media What is twisted-pair cable?  Consists of one or more twisted pair wires bundled together  Each twisted pair wire consists of two separate insulated copper wires  Twisted together to reduce noise  Noise is an electrical disturbance that can degrade communications

20 coaxial cable plastic outer coating woven or braided wire insulating material copper wire Physical Transmission Media What is coaxial cable?  Consists of a single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers  Often called coax  Often used for cable television wiring

21 fiber-optic cable between floors of a building cable contains many optical fibers outer covering jacket Physical Transmission Media What is fiber-optic cable?  Contains a core of dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic  Uses light to transmit signals  Each strand is called an optical fiber Thin as a human hair protective coating glass cladding optical fiber core

22 transmitter sends the broadcast radio signal Wireless Transmission Media What is broadcast radio?  A wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air over long distances such as between cities, regions, and countries and short distances such as within an office or home  Slower and more susceptible to noise than physical transmission media receiver accepts the broadcast radio signal must have an antenna that is located in the range of the signal transceiver both sends and receives signals from wireless devices

23 Wireless Transmission Media What is cellular radio?  A form of broadcast radio that is used widely for mobile communications, specifically wireless modems and cellular telephones  A cellular telephone is a telephone device that uses radio signals to transmit voice and digital data messages mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) cell calling party in auto called party public switched telephone network base station (microwave station)

24 Dukungan Jaringan terhadap Proses Komunikasi  Tanpa komunikasi, tidak ada kerjasama /kolaburasi  Teknologi Informasi modern, terutama via web, menyediakan peralatan murah, kapabel dan andal.  Kelompok – kelompok butuh tidak hanya komunikasi tetapi Informasi dan Knowledge.

25 Kerangka Waktu/tempat komunikasi  Efektifitas suatu teknologi komputasi kolaboratif tergantung kepada Waktu –Transmisi synchronous atau asynchronous dari Informasi Tempat –Lokasi dari Partisipan

26 Groupware  Software yang menyediakan dukungan kolaboratif bagi kelompok.  Aplikasi yang mendukung waktu/tempat yang berbeda  Paling banyak menggunakan Teknologi Internet  Memiliki kemampuan sedikitnya salah satu dari berikut : Electronic brainstorming –Free flow of ideas and comments Electronic conferencing or videoconferencing Group scheduling and calendars Conflict resolution Model building Electronic document sharing Voting services  Electronic meeting services also available  Enterprise-wide systems expensive in cost and human resources

27 Groupware yang populer  Lotus Notes / Domino  Microsoft Netmeeting  Groove Workspace  Group Systems Meeting Room and OnLine  WebEx

28 Keuntungan dan Masalah  Keuntungan dari kerja kelompok (groupwork) Process gains –Teknik Kelompok Nominal –Metode Delphi Teknologi yang diaplikasikan sebagai GSS –Kombinasi Hardware and software untuk meningkatkan groupwork –Komputasi kolaburorasi  Masalah-masalah dalam kerja kelompok (groupwork) Process losses Tidak efisien

29 GSS  Common group activities with computer assistance. Perolehan kembali informasi (Information retrieval) Berbagi Informasi –Paralelisme –Anonimitas Penggunaan Informasi  Dukungan Partisipan Meningkatkan productifitas dan Efektifitas dari pertemuan-pertemuan –Pengambilan keputusan yang lebih efisien –Meningkatkan efektifitas dari keputusan

30 Teknologi GSS  Ruag keputusan bertujuan khusus Electronic meeting rooms Software operates across LAN Allowed for face-to-face meetings Trained facilitator coordinates meeting Group leader structures meeting with facilitator  Fasilitas Multiguna General purpose computer lab Effective way to lower costs Trained facilitator coordinates meeting Group leader structures meeting with facilitator  Groupware berbasi web dengan Client Anytime/anyplace meetings with deadlines established Software bought or leased No facility costs Flexible

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32 GSS Meeting Process  Group leader meets with facilitator to plan meeting structure.  Participants meet on computers.  Group leader or facilitator poses question.  Participants brainstorm by entering comments into computer.  Facilitator employs idea organization software to sort comments into common themes.  Results are displayed.  Facilitator or group leader leads discussion.  Themes are prioritized.  Highest priority topics are either sent through the process again for further discussion or a vote is taken.

33 Proses pertemuan GSS  Proses Standar Exploratory idea generation Idea organization tool Prioritization New idea generation Selection of final idea  Success based upon effectiveness, reduction in costs, better decisions, increased productivity

34 GSS dan Belajar Jarak Jauh  Classroom collaborative computing advantages Brainstorming, chat, discussion boards Distribution of information, lectures –Publishes to course site –Videoconferenced –Consistent materials Textbooks can be bound or electronic s and listservs –One-on-one interaction Allows for global classrooms Anytime/anyplace with fixed deadlines –Flexible time frame –Doesn’t interfere with work shift Low delivery costs with large audiences

35 GSS dan Belajar Jarak Jauh ( Lanjutan )  Disadvantages: Fewer social interactions Communication problems Students must be self-starters and highly disciplined Classes require major technical and administrative support Technical infrastructure must be reliable Courses may need to be redesigned for online Special training  Corporate training online: Allows anytime/anyplace training Lowers costs Decreases time away from jobs Shortens learning process Delivered via Intranet, intranets, extranets, audio and video conferencing

36 Sistem Pendukung Kreatifitas  Kreatifitas Fundamental human trait Level of achievement Can be learned  Organizations recognize value in innovation  Stimulated by electronic brainstorming software Free flow idea generation  Creative computer programs Smartbots function as facilitators Identify analogies in letter patterns Draw art Write poems  Computer programs stimulate human productivity


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