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MATERI 9 ENDOCRYNOLOGY KEBUNTINGAN DAN KELAHIRAN MK. ILMU REPRODUKSI 1 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB.

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Presentasi berjudul: "MATERI 9 ENDOCRYNOLOGY KEBUNTINGAN DAN KELAHIRAN MK. ILMU REPRODUKSI 1 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB."— Transcript presentasi:

1 MATERI 9 ENDOCRYNOLOGY KEBUNTINGAN DAN KELAHIRAN MK. ILMU REPRODUKSI 1 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

2 SUB POKOK BAHASAN Hormon yang berperan dalam kebuntingan (Progesteron, estrogen, PGF2 alfa, Prolaktin ) Perubahan hormonal selama kebuntingan Perubahan hormonal menjelang dan selama kelahiran (meliputi progesteron, estrogen, pgf2 alfa dan oxitocin) Proses kelahiran 2 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

3 Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati3 Proses Implantasi

4 Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati4 Hormon selama kebuntingan PLACENTA CORPUS LUTEUM Mare Ewe Cow, Sow,Goat Progesteron UTERUS PREGNANCY PLASENTA Progesteron Estrogen Prolactin Untuk produksi susu

5 Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati5 Beberapa teori yang menginduksi Partus Volume uterus  meningkat Hormon PGF2α  Meningkat Hormon Progesteron  Turun Hormon Estrogen  Naik Miometrium  semakin sensitif kontraksi Oxytosin  diproduksi

6 Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati6 Aktivasi fetus Fetus menghasilkan Corticosteroid  menyebabkan turunnya progesteron  peningkatan estrogen dan keluarnya PGF2α  menyebabkan myometrium kontraksi

7 Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati7 Perubahan saat bunting menyebabkan kelahiran Relaxed Myometrial Excitement Contractile Closed Cervical Ripening Dilatation PREGNANCY PRE LABOR LABOR

8 Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati8 Tahapan Melahirkan : 1. Dilatation of Cervix Uterus mengalami kontraksi Periode : Dimulai dari kontraks uterus sampai uterus mengalami dilatasi, juga vagina. Induk ingin merebah, nafas frekuensi meningkat. Perubahan posisi fetus

9 Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati9 2. Keluarnya fetus Uterus dan perut kontraksi keras. Periode : Servik membuka luas dan fetus bisa keluar. Induk merejan, Plasenta pecah, cairan keluar.

10 Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati10 3. Keluarnya Plasenta Kontrasi uterus mulai menurun Keluarnya fetus diikuti plasenta Plasenta terlepas dari endometrium Keluar plasenta

11 Hormonal Control of Gestation Progesterone - Main Hormone -Causes uterine quiescence and histotroph production Sources of Progesterone During Gestation Gestation Sheep - CL to day 50 then placenta 148 days Cow - CL throughout. However, after 280 days ~ day 215 placenta and adrenal produce enough progesterone to maintain pregnancy Sow - All from CL 114 days Can remove CL after day 50 and not cause abortion Remove CL at any time causes abortion 11 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

12 1st CL produces progesterone up to ~ 180 days, FSH stimulates follicles growth and eCG (PMSG) causes CL's to form from follicles. They secrete progesterone and are active from day Progesterone is low until 270 days - rises in last 5 months due probably to placental progesterone production. Mare - Gestation 337 days PMSG - Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin Now call eCG Origin is Endometrial cups Endometrial cups form from invasion of the chorionic girdle cells surround the spherical placenta of mare. These invade into the uterine endometrium on Days 30 to 35 of gestation to form the ulcer-like cups. 12 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

13 Hormonal Changes that Control Parturition Time of parturition is controlled by maturation of the hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal axis CRF Fetal anterior pituitary gland Stimulates oxytocin receptor in myometrium Steps Fetal ACTH causes - Fetal Corticosteroids causes - Progesterone levels placental production or CL regression) - Production of Estrogens by placenta - PGF2  production by uterus - Pine-needle abortion in cattle - cause by a corticosteroid-like product Corticotropic Releasing Hormone Infusion induces parturition Fetal Adrenal Adrenalcorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Removal Blocks Parturition Corticosteroid Glucocorticoid Estrogen (Increase) Progesterone (Decrease) Prostaglandin F2  (Increase) Hypothalamus Redrawn from Liggins, G.C In Foetal Autonomy 13 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

14 Hormonal changes cause: Final maturation of fetus Expansion of birth canal Maternal behavior Synthesis and ejection of milk Initiation of uterine contractions Termination of pregnancy Initiates parturition and lung development Cortisol - stimulates lung surfactant Prolactin completes final mammary development and milk secretion Fescue toxicity problems: Ergot causes inhibition of prolactin release and thus milk production 14 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

15 Significance of initial hormonal changes Progesterone - removes block on uterine contractions. Estrogen - makes uterus more responsive to induction of contractions i.e., more irritable and smooth muscle tissue stimulation. Events just Prior to Parturition: 1. Pelvic ligaments soften - Tail head sinks due to estrogens and relaxin. 2. Cervix softens and begins secreting stringy mucus - estrogens and relaxin.. Allows myometrial muscle fibers to work together in bundles Induction of oxytocin receptors Increased water content in cervical tissue and cervical plug is removed 15 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

16 16 Beberapa teori yang menginduksi Partus Volume uterus  meningkat Hormon PGF2α  Meningkat Hormon Progesteron  Turun Hormon Estrogen  Naik Miometrium  semakin sensitif kontraksi Oxytosin  diproduksi

17 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB 17 Aktivasi fetus Fetus menghasilkan Corticosteroid  menyebabkan turunnya progesteron  peningkatan estrogen dan keluarnya PGF2α  menyebabkan myometrium kontraksi

18 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB 18 Perubahan saat bunting menyebabkan kelahiran Relaxed Myometrial Excitement Contractile Closed Cervical Ripening Dilatation PREGNANCY PRE LABOR LABOR

19 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB 19 Tahapan Melahirkan : 1. Dilatation of Cervix Uterus mengalami kontraksi Periode : Dimulai dari kontraks uterus sampai uterus mengalami dilatasi, juga vagina. Induk ingin merebah, nafas frekuensi meningkat. Perubahan posisi fetus

20 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB Keluarnya fetus Uterus dan perut kontraksi keras. Periode : Servik membuka luas dan fetus bisa keluar. Induk merejan, Plasenta pecah, cairan keluar.

21 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB Keluarnya Plasenta Kontrasi uterus mulai menurun Keluarnya fetus diikuti plasenta Plasenta terlepas dari endometrium Keluar plasenta

22 To understand what happens to cause parturition and what happens during and after parturition. To understand the hormonal control of parturition. To understand retained placentas, artificial induction of parturition and uterine involution. Learning Objectives 22 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

23 How Was Mechanism For Parturition Discovered? Skunk Cabbage - Sheep consuming this type of vegetation in western US had prolonged gestations. Fetus had congenital hypoplasia of Anterior Pituitary Gene Defect - Autosomal recessive gene in Holstein breed Large calves grow in utero 1-2 months beyond delivery date. Congenital hypoplasia of Anterior Pituitary 23 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

24 Initiation and Control of the Parturient Process Parturient Process 24 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

25 Significance of initial hormonal changes Progesterone - removes block on uterine contractions. Estrogen - makes uterus more responsive to induction of contractions i.e., more irritable and smooth muscle tissue stimulation. Events just Prior to Parturition: 1. Pelvic ligaments soften - Tail head sinks due to estrogens and relaxin. 2. Cervix softens and begins secreting stringy mucus - estrogens and relaxin.. Allows myometrial muscle fibers to work together in bundles Induction of oxytocin receptors Increased water content in cervical tissue and cervical plug is removed 25 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

26 3. Swelling of vulva. 4. Udder swells - fills with first milk and due to edema: 5. Fetus moves into proper position - resting on thorax, front feet and head facing the cervix Collagenase breaks down collagen which also widens the pelvis Prolactin, Estrogens and glucocorticoids 26 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

27 Stages of Parturition: I. Dilation of Cervix. (2-6 hours, cow) Uterine contractions become coordinated and regular - Estrogen & PGF2  induced Fetus pushed against cervix - amnion dilates cervix Chorioallantoic membrane may break Pressure of fetus in cervix stimulates oxytocin release and reflex contractions of abdominal muscles. Heifers 12 hours Synchronized This occurs because progesterone has declined Stimulates oxytocin release 1st Water Bag Ferguson Reflex Contractions force the calf legs and head to spread cervix 27 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

28 II. Expulsion of Fetus (.5-2 hours, cow) Strong uterine contractions due to synergistic actions of high estrogen, PGF2  and oxytocin Strong abdominal muscle contractions Amnion ruptures - mucin lubricates vagina - vestibule Fetus passes through vagina - vestibule. Longer than 2 hours considered to have dystociadystocia 2nd Water Bag Cause of death in 6.4% of calf losses on average 28 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

29 1. Head 2. Shoulders Three Barriers in Delivery of a CalfDelivery of a Calf 3. Hips 29 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

30 Sow Delivery of Piglets Length of Stage II in sow is 2 to 4 hours Delivery of piglets is usually between 8 to 45 minutes between each one. Delivery will alternate piglets between horns Last 1/4 of horn in large litters increases the chance of stillborn - Length of umbilical cord Uterine horn contracts to shorten distance after delivery of each piglet 30 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

31 III. Expulsion of the Placenta (4-5 hours, cow) Uterine contractions continue Blood forced from cotyledon villi - shrinkage separates cotyledon and caruncle Contractions push placenta out Causes of retained Placentas: -Infections caused adhesions between cotyledon and caruncle -Calving stress - twins or calving difficulty - edema of cotyledon - won't separate from caruncle -Weak uterine contractions - villi won't shrink Prolapsed uterus - cow tired need to give oxytocin Oxytocin Milk fever - Calcium low 31 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

32 Care of retained placentas: Do not manually remove from uterus; uterine damage greater than infection of retained placenta Infuse Bovine uterus with tetracycline and systemic injections of penicillin until placenta passes ~ 2-4 days. Do not pull placenta out even in Mare! Check to see placenta is fully intact in Mare or you need a Veterinarian to clean her out. Don’t breed on foal heat if there is a problem Don’t give mare tetracycline as this will cause inflammation!! Can treat cow with either PGF2  or oxytocin (ergonovine) to expel the infection 32 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

33 Preventing retained placentas: Vaccinate for Brucellosis and leptospirosis Make sure Vitamin A, E and Selenium are not deficient in diet Don't have cows over-conditioned at calving Have sanitary calving conditions Allow heifers to be large enough at calving and don't breed to bull that sires larger calves than your female can handle. Size of pelvis Feed and develop heifers before breeding 33 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

34 Artificial Induction of Parturition: Reasons: Time parturition to labor costs Avoid dystocia (Large Fetus) How to do it: Give ACTH Give Corticosteroids. (Dexamethasone) Give PGF2   Give Oxytocin Need to know status and size of fetus Must have Management First! Must Know Breeding Dates!!! 34 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

35 Cow - Do not induce before last 7-14 Days of gestation Method: Dexamethasone - parturition in 48 hours, mg/IM -High incidence of retained placentas and lower postpartum fertility. Azium (trade name) combined with 25 mg Lutalyse induces within 35+2 hours. Requires a live fetus work, does not work on a mummified fetus If cow are induced early Retained placenta is not problem if treated properly - Giving estrogen before induction of parturition incidence Prostaglandins used in cases of a mummified fetus and are also effective in inducing abortion the first 4-5 months Example for inducing parturition in beef cattle: Sixty breeding season, induce cows 265 days from last day of breeding season 35 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

36 Mare - Do after day 320 of gestation Oxytocin (20-60 I.U.) close to term !!! Takes less than 1 hour! Placenta expelled in < 1 hour Make sure of the following before inducing foaling: 1. Udder is enlarged with presence of colostrum 2. There is relaxation of the perineal region 3. Cervical relaxation (can insert 1 to 2 fingers) Usually induce for only two reasons: 1. Demonstration 2. Prolonged gestation In normal pregnancy, mare can control time of day for foaling through her release of oxytocin. Inject oxytocin give no choice of time. 36 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

37 Sheep - Best within a few days of parturition Dexamethasone (8-20 mg) Parturition in hours 5 to 7 days Retained placenta not a problem Can use Lutalyse to abort before Day 50 of gestation Goat - CL is important throughout pregnancy Can use Lutalyse to induce 5-7 Days prior to normal time of parturition 37 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

38 Sow - Do after day 111 of gestation PGF2  (Lutalyse 10 mg/IM) parturition in hours. Note that this is less than 3 Days from normal parturition Close synchrony - Lutalyse at 8 AM followed by oxytocin 40 IU 24 hours later. Sows farrow between 8 AM and 5 PM (32 hours from start) Piglets should be born within 1 to 8 (average 1-4) hours with 15 minute intervals between piglets - May give oxytocin in last few piglets to decrease stillborn numbers in large litters or after extended delivery interval Its is important to give PGF2  no sooner than Day 111. If given on Day 110 will cause stillborn piglets ( too immature to survive) 38 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

39 Bitch - If needed to get rid of unplanned mating Give Prostaglandin F2  at:.25  g/kg body weight 3X/day for 3 to 4 days 39 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

40 Induction of Abortion in Feedlot Heifers 1. All females in a feedlot should be examined rectally for pregnancy, and abortion induced at that time. 2. Animal induced to abort should be in good health and well adjusted to the feedlot. One should always remember, abortion will be stressful and combined with any other stress (diseases like shipping fever, pneumonia, etc.) can cause extreme losses in gain efficiency or even death. 3. Growth promotants containing progesterone or analogues to progesterone may interfere with induction of abortion and should be withheld until after abortion occurs. 40 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

41 Procedure: 1. Heifers that are less than 150 days into gestation can be aborted with a single intramuscular injection of 25 mg Lutalyse or 500  g Estrumate Efficiency of 90%. 2. After 150 days of gestation, combination of 25 mg Dexamethazone and 500  g Estrumate is needed to cause abortion. Efficiency of 95%. 3. Abortion will occur over 2 to 10 days. 4. All abortions should be recorded, and heifers which fail to abort re-examined. 5. Failure to induce abortion is most likely caused by failure of luteolysis. Re- treatment will usually cause abortion. 6. In the case of fetal mummification, Prostaglandin treatment will stimulate expulsion. 7. Cows over 4 months pregnant will have a high percent of retained placenta (80%). Most cases will resolve themselves, but the producer needs to monitor health of females after abortion. 41 LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

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