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1 KARAKTERISTIK BUAH DAN SAYUR UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA 2013.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 KARAKTERISTIK BUAH DAN SAYUR UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA 2013."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 KARAKTERISTIK BUAH DAN SAYUR UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA 2013

2 Mahasiswa mengetahui dan memahami karakteristik BUAH DAN SAYUR serta mengetahui efek pengolahan terhadap karakteristiknya. Tujuan Matakuliah:

3 KARAKTERISTIK BUAH & SAYURAN

4 Tanaman Sebagai bhn pangan Akar Batang Daun Bunga Buah Biji Sayur dan Buah Sayur dan buah  secara anatomi tdk dpt dibedakan Dibedakan berdasarkan penggunaannya : - Sayur  biasa dimakan bersama makanan utama (nasi) -Buah  sebagai dessert ( dimakan segar )

5 BUAH = bagian tanaman hasil perkawinan putik dan benangsari mrpk tempat biji  mempunyai rasa manis asam, warna dan aroma yang khas SAYURAN = bagian tanaman (akar, daun, buah, biji, batang ) umumnya tanaman yang umurnya relatif pendek  tdk berasa manis, warna dan tekstur yang beragam

6 Tidak bisa dinaikkan Hanya bisa dipertahankan KUALITAS SETELAH DIPANEN Kualitas harus maksimal Penanganan baik  awet PADA SAAT DIPANEN INDIKATOR PANEN Kenampakan visual Indikator fisik Analisa kimia Indikator fisiologis

7 BUAH & SAYUR Kadar air tinggi > 70% - 85% Kadar protein : tidak lebih 3,5% Kadar lemak : tidak lebih 0,5% (kecuali alpokat) Sumber karbohidrat, 2 jenis : dapat dicerna (gula, pati) tidak dapat dicerna : dietary fiber (serat makanan) Sumber mineral dan vitamin Zat warna (pigmen)

8 BUAH

9 PENGGOLONGAN BUAH- BUAHAN MUSIM BERBUAH TIDAK musiman MUSIMAN IKLIM TEMPAT TUMBUH Buah tropis (iklim panas, suhu > 25°C) Buah sub tropis (iklim sedang, suhu maks 22°C) POLA RESPIRASI Buah KLIMAKTERIK Buah NON KLIMAKTERIK

10 Komposisi Buah Dipengaruhi beberapa faktor : Perbedaan varitas Keadaan iklim tempat tumbuh Pemeliharaan tanaman Cara pemanenan Tingkat kematangan waktu dipanen Kondisi selama pemeraman Kondisi penyimpanan

11 SAYUR Tanaman hortikultura Umur tanaman relatif pendek dibanding buah-buahan (< 1 th) Bukan tanaman musiman Setiap jenis/varitas : warna, rasa, aroma dan kekerasan berbeda Sumber mineral dan vitamin

12 PENGGOLONGAN SAYURAN BAGIAN DARI TANAMAN Akar Umbi Batang muda Tangkai daun Daun Bunga Buah Kecambah IKLIM TEMPAT TUMBUH Iklim panas (tropis). ≥25°C Iklim sedang (sub tropis) maks 22°C

13 TEKSTUR BUAH DAN SAYURAN Dipengaruhi turgor dari sel-sel yang masih hidup Turgor : tekanan dari isi sel terhadap dinding sel Dinding sel mempunyai sifat elastis Isi kandungan sel berkurang : sayuran lemas Isi kandungan sel bertambah melebihi kapasitas dinding sel, sel pecah, isi sel keluar, keteguhan sel hilang

14 FAKTOR-FAKTOR MEMPENGARUHI TURGOR 1. Konsentrasi bahan-bahan di dalam sel yang akan menentukan tekanan osmosis 2. Permeabilitas protoplasma 3. Elastisitas dinding sel

15 15 Komposisi Buah dan Sayur Carbohydrates Represent more than 90 % of dry matter  Sugar such as glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose, all share the following characteristics : - supply energy for nutrition - readily fermented by …… - may used as a preservative - on heating they darken colour.. - combine with … to give dark colour as …

16  Starches - supply energy in nutrition - firming of plant tissues 16

17  Pectin and carbohydrates gums - in colloidal solution contribute to viscosity - in solution with sugar and acid are the basis of jelly 17

18  Cellulose and hemicellulose - act primarily as supporting structures - insoluble in cold and hot water - not digested, not yield energy 18

19 Mineral Substances  0,6 – 1,80 % ( K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Al, P, Cl, S)  salt of organic acid  complex organic combination (chlorophyll, lecithin, etc)  Ca and P essential for calcium fixation (Ca/P) : 0,7 for adults and 1,0 for children  vegetable rich in P and Ca : green bean, cabbage and onion  fruit rich in P and Ca : pears, lemon, oranges 19

20 Vitamins  function as enzyme systems which facilitate the metabolism  Divided into two major groups (fat soluble and wet soluble)  Examples :  Vitamin A/ Retinol found in the orange and yellow vegetables and green leafy vegetables  Vit C / ascorbic acid and Vit E favours the absorption of iron and easily destroyed by oxidation at high temp. 20

21 Organic acids  such as citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, etc  these acids gives some function : 1. Fruit tartness and flavour 2. Slow down bacterial spoilage 3. Influence the colour of food 21

22 Pigment sources of colour classified into four major groups : 22 Chlorophylls - oil soluble, bound to protein molecules - C alone is highly unstable (acid pH) - C changes becoming pheophytin (on heating), can be protected by addition alkali to the cooking or canning water

23 Carotenoids - fat soluble - fairly resistant to heat, change in pH and water leaching - very sensitive to oxidation 23

24 Flavonoids - water soluble 1. Anthocyanin  shifting of color with pH  violet/blue in alkaline or metal ions  red in acid media 2. Anthoxanthin  pH sensitives  deeper yellow (in pH >8) and  whiter yellow (in pH <6) 24

25 Enzymes biological catalyst promote biochamical reaction Hidrolase (lipase, invertase, tannase, etc) oxidoreductase (peroxide, catalase, etc) 25 Some properties :  control the reaction associated of ripening  responsible for changing of flavor, color, texture and nutritional properties  activity of enzyme is characterized by an optimal temp and pH

26 26 Major factors of fruit and vegetables deterioration Growth and activities of microorganism Activities of natural food enzymes Temperature, both heat and cold Moisture and dryness Air and in particular O2 Light

27 27 Methods of reducing deterioration The technical methods can be summarized as follow : Physical method Chemical method Biochemical method FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

28 FRUIT AND VEGETABLE HANDLING GOALS STORAGETRANSPORTATION MARKETING /DISTRIBUTION MAIN STEPS SORTING/GRADINGWASHINGPRE COOLINGPACKING ADDITIONAL PROCESS CURINGDE GREENINGWAXING

29 Fresh fruit and vegetables - Possibilities of damage? - How to prevent?

30 Minimally processes - Factors causing deterioration? - How to prevent?

31 Fully processed food - Factors influencing the quality? - How to maintain the quality and retard the deterioration?


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