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KP5: Tanda & Gejala Gangguan Sistem Muskuloskeletal Zahid Fikri, M.Kep.

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Presentasi berjudul: "KP5: Tanda & Gejala Gangguan Sistem Muskuloskeletal Zahid Fikri, M.Kep."— Transcript presentasi:

1 KP5: Tanda & Gejala Gangguan Sistem Muskuloskeletal Zahid Fikri, M.Kep

2 Spasme Otot Otot terdiri dari 3 jenis – Otot polos – Otot jantung – Otot skeletal Spasme otot terjadi jika otot skeletal berkontraksi tetapi tidak bisa relaksasi kembali

3 Spasme otot  kontraksi yang kuat dan tidak terkontrol Otot yang mengalami spasme terus menerus  kram otot Otot yang sering mengalami kram  otot tungkai bawah, otot hamstring “Charley horse” nama lain kram otot

4 Penyebab Penyebab potensial – Cuaca yang panas – Hiper-fleksi/ hiper-ekstensi, Dehidrasi – Ketidakseimbangan elektrolit – Penggunaan berlebihan Kram otot  bukan akibat penyakit

5 Kram otot – sirosis hepatis, – aterosklerosis, tetanus, – gangguan tiroid, – gangguan pada saraf tulang belakang, gangguan tulang belakang

6 Otot polos (usus halus, kolon)  kram – Nyeri hilang timbul – Ringan  berat contoh: nyeri saat menstruasi (spasme otot polos).

7 Tanda & Gejala Nyeri, sedang  berat Kram otot  otot terlihat tidak wajar, tegang (kontraksi) Berkedut Terjadi beberapa detik  15 menit atau lebih

8 Deformitas Deformitas  kelainan bentuk muskuloskeletal Deformitas/malformasi bawaan adalah: kelainan atau defek yang bias terjadi, ketika didalamkandungan dan terlihat pada waktu lahir dan dapat pula terjadi dalam perkembangan anak dikemudian hari.

9 Jenis deformitas Deformitas sendi Deformitas muskuloskeletal

10 Penyebab Deformitas sendi – Pertumbuhan abnormal sendi  kongenital – Dislokasi akuisita – Hambatan mekanis – Kontraktus otot – Ketidakseimbangan otot

11 Deformitas muskuloskeletal – Ketidaksejajaran tulang ( loss of alignment ) – Abnormalitas panjang tulang ( abnormal length ) – Pertumbuhan abnormal tulang ( bony outgrowth )

12 Etiologi umum Pertumbuhan abnormal bawaan pada tulang ( Kongenital ) Fraktur Gangguan pertumbuhan lempeng epifisis Pembengkokan abnormal tulang ( bending of abnormally soft bone ) Pertumbuhan berlebih pada tulang matur ( overgrowth of adult bone )

13 Tanda dan Gejala Bentuk abnormal Gangguan gerak

14 Gangguan Gerak Dystonia is a disorder of muscle control; it can cause slow repetitive movements, abnormal postures and/or tremors of the musculature that are uncontrollable by the patient.

15 Walking abnormalities are abnormal, uncontrollable walking patterns. Genetics may cause them or other factors, such as diseases or injuries, may. Walking abnormalities can affect the muscles, bones, or nerves of the legs.

16 These conditions can be temporary or long term, depending on their cause. Severe walking abnormalities may require continuous physical therapy and medical care. Walking abnormalities are often referred to as gait abnormalities. Gait refers to the pattern of walking.

17 What Causes Walking Abnormalities? Cuts, bruises, or bone fractures can temporarily make it difficult to walk. However, diseases that affect the legs, brain, nerves, or spine can cause walking abnormalities. The most common causes of walking abnormalities include: – Arthritis, birth defects, such as clubfoot, leg injuries – bone fractures, infections that damage tissues in the legs – shin splints (an injury common to athletes that causes pain in the shins)

18 – tendinitis (inflammation of the tendons) – psychological disorders, including conversion disorder – inner ear infections – nervous system disorders, such as cerebral palsy or stroke

19 What Are the Symptoms of Walking Abnormalities? Walking abnormalities are separated into five groups based on their symptoms: – Propulsive gait: This walking abnormality is characterized by a slouched, rigid posture. A person with this condition walks with their head and neck thrust forward. – Scissors gait: A person with this abnormality walks with their legs bent slightly inward. As they walk, their knees and thighs may cross or hit each other in a scissor-like movement.

20 – Spastic gait: A person with spastic gait drags their feet while walking. They may also appear to walk very stiffly. – Steppage gait: A person with this condition walks with their toes pointing downward, causing their toes to scrape the ground while walking. – Waddling gait: A person with this gait waddles from side to side when walking.

21

22 Tugas Membuat diagnosa, NOC, NIC akibat: – Spasme otot – Deformitas – Abnormalitas gerak

23 TERIMA KASIH


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