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PENERJEMAHAN TEKS KHUSUS. PENERJEMAHAN TEKS KHUSUS REVIEW: WHAT IS TRANSLATION? Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PENERJEMAHAN TEKS KHUSUS. PENERJEMAHAN TEKS KHUSUS REVIEW: WHAT IS TRANSLATION? Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PENERJEMAHAN TEKS KHUSUS

2 PENERJEMAHAN TEKS KHUSUS REVIEW: WHAT IS TRANSLATION? Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language—called the source text—and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language—called the target text, or the translation.

3 Tiga Kualitas Penerjemah Profesional 1. Menguasai pengetahuan umum yang luas (dan pengetahuan khusus bila ia harus menerjemahkan teks teknis) 2. Memiliki kecerdasan untuk memahami sebuah teks dan melihat secara cepat “logika” teks yang harus diterjemahkan, dan 3. Memiliki kemampuan retorika, yakni kemampuan merekayasa bahasa untuk menghasilkan terjemahan yang sepadan, akurat, dan berterima pada pembacanya. (Hoed, dalam Evand Halim: Lokakarya Penerjemahan Teks Hukum, HPI, 17 Maret 2013)

4 Jenis Penerjemahan Berdasarkan Penyampaian 1. Penerjemahan Tulis—Penerjemah 2. Penerjemahan Lisan—Juru Bahasa Sumber Penerjemahan Tulis: Buku, Non Buku, Subtitle Film, Dokumen Hukum, Pelokalan, Transcipta (Iklan, Menu Restoran)

5 CARA KERJA PENERJEMAH 1. BEKERJA TETAP DI PERUSAHAAN 2. BEKERJA DI RUMAH SEBAGAI PENERJEMAH LEPAS 3. BEKERJA DI RUMAH SEBAGAI PENERJEMAH TETAP PERUSAHAAN 4. BEKERJA SAMBILAN SEBAGAI PENERJEMAH LEPAS

6 PERUSAHAAN YANG MEMERLUKAN PENERJEMAH TETAP 1. Perusahaan Pertambangan Asing 2. Perusahaan Migas Asing 3. Perbankan Asing 4. Kantor Akuntan/Audit 5. Firma Hukum/Kantor Pengacara 6. Kantor Notaris 7. Media (Televisi, Koran, Media Online) 8. LSM Asing 9. Perwakilan Badan Dunia 10. Perusahaan manufaktur

7 PEMBERI PEKERJAAN UNTUK PENERJEMAH LEPAS 1. Penerbit di Indonesia 2. Biro Penerjemahan 3. Perusahaan Multinasional 4. Perusahaan Periklanan 5. Kedutaan 6. Pemerintah atau BUMN 7. LSM Internasional 8. Perorangan 9. Perusahaan Pembuat Subtitle Film

8 SYARAT PENERJEMAH YANG BAIK 1. Menguasai Bahasa Sasaran (Bahasa Indonesia); terampil EYD 2. Menguasai Bahasa Sumber 3. Mengenal Bahan Terjemahan Dengan Baik 4. Mengetahui Cara Mencari Dan Menggunakan Sumber Bantuan 5. Menguasai Beberapa Program Komputer: Word, Excel, Powerpoint 6. Menguasai CAT TOOL(S) 7. Memiliki Akses Internet

9 ALAT BANTU PENERJEMAHAN DI ERA 2000-AN 1. Program Komputer: Word, Excel, Powerpoint 2. CAT Tools: Wordfast, Trados, Omega3 3. Kamus Online :Kateglo, the freedictionary 4. Wikipedia, Google Search 5. Quick Time Player 6. Bahtera, Milis Penerjemah Indonesia: 7. Forum HPI di Facebook: 8. Proz.com, Milis Penerjemah Internasional

10 DI MANA MENDAPATKAN PEKERJAAN? 1. Penerjemah Buku: sebagai-penerjemah-lepas-buku/http://blog.bahtera.org/2009/08/cara-merintiskarier- sebagai-penerjemah-lepas-buku/ 2. proZ, translatorcafe 3. HPI Notice 4. Milis Bahtera 5. SiHapei:http://sihapei.hpi.or.id/ 6. Gengo.com

11 BERAPA HONOR PENERJEMAH? 1. Berdasarkan halaman hasil terjemahan (1 halaman = 200 kata; Ariel, 12 fontsize, double space): Migas/Pertambangan/: Rp Perbankan/Kantor Hukum/Notaris: LSM Asing/Perwakilan Badan Dunia: Manufaktur: Rp – Rp Media: Rp – Rp Penerbit: Rp – Rp

12 BERAPA HONOR PENERJEMAH (Lanjutan) 2. Berdasarkan jumlah kata dalam dokumen asli 3. Berdasarkan jumlah karakter 4. Berdasarkan jumlah jam yg digunakan dlm menerjemahkan 5. Berdasarkan jumlah subtitle dlm satu film 6. Berdasarkan durasi film (jumlah menit) 7. Berdasarkan derajat kesulitan 8. Berdasarkan jenis bahan yg diterjemahkan 9. Bahasa yg penerjemahnya langka 10.Peraturan Menkeu No. 084/PMK.02/2011: Indonesia-Inggris dan sebaliknya: Rp [Sumber: Diolah dari Bahan Seminar Penerjemahan “Not Lost in Translation” Universitas Warmadewa, Denpasar, Bali, 20 April 2013]

13 The Nature of the Legal Language “We lawyers cannot write plain English. We use eight words to say what could be said in two. We use old, arcane phrases to express commonplace ideas. Seeking to be precise, we become redundant. Seeking to be cautious, we become verbose. Our sentences twist on, phrase within clause, clause within clause, glazing the eyes and numbing the minds of our readers. The result is a writing style that has, according to one critic, four outstanding characteristics. It is: (1) wordy, (2) unclear, (3) pompous, and (4) dull.” (Wydick in Evan Halim, 2013)

14 Example 1: Ina – Eng KUHPer Pasal 1425 “Tidaklah biaya rugi dan bunga, harus digantinya, apabila lantaran keadaan memaksa atau lantaran suatu kejadian tak disengaja si berutang berhalangan memberikan atau berbuat sesuatu yang diwajibkan, atau lantaran hal-hal yang sama telah melakukan perbuatan yang dilarang.”

15 Example 2: Eng - Ina Contractual Clause The Security Agent shall not, nor shall any receiver appointed pursuant to any Finance Document or any attorney or agent of the Security Agent by reason of taking possession of the whole or any part of the Security Property or any other reason whatsoever and whether as mortgagee in possession or on any other basis whatsoever, be liable for any loss or damage arising from the realization of the whole or any part of the Security Property or any other property, assets, rights or undertakings of whatsoever nature whether or not owned by the Obligors (other than the Individual Guarantor) or any other person or in which the Obligors (other than the Individual Guarantor) or any other person has an interest, from any act, default or omission in relation to all or any of the Security Property or any other property, assets, rights or undertakings of whatsoever nature whether or not owned by the Obligors (other than the Individual Guarantor) or any other person or in which the Obligors (other than the Individual Guarantor) or any other person has an interest, or from any act, default or omission in relation to the whole or any part of the Security Property or from any exercise or non-exercise by it of any right, remedy or power conferred upon it in relation to the whole or any part of the Security Property or any other property, assets, rights or undertakings of whatsoever nature whether or not owned by the Obligors (other than the Individual Guarantor) or any other person or in which the Obligors (other than the Individual Guarantor) or any other person has an interest, by or pursuant to any Finance Document or otherwise, unless such loss or damage is financially judicially determined to have been caused by its fraud, willful default or gross negligence.

16 Tiga syarat terjemahan teks hukum yang baik (1): 1. Terjemahan yang baik harus benar (accurate) dan sepadan (congruent) bila ditinjau dari aspek linguistik maupun hukum: “Dalam penerjemahan teks hukum, istilah-istilah hukum harus diterjemahkan secara tepat pula semantiknya agar tidak terjadi salah tafsir.” (Hoed dalam Halim, 2013)

17 Tiga syarat terjemahan teks hukum yang baik (2): 2. “Tolok ukur utama dalam penilaian penerjemahan adalah kesepadanan makna antara teks sumber dengan teks sasaran. Terjemahan dianggap salah apabila mengandung distorsi makna referensial (tidak sekadar dianggap sebagai terjemahan buruk).” Machali dalam Hail, 2013)

18 Tiga syarat terjemahan teks hukum yang baik (3): 3. “Terjemahan teks hukum harus setia pada teks sumber dan memperhatikan laras (register), gaya (style) dalam bahasa hukum” (Halaim, 2013)

19 Some Principles of Translating Legal Documents (1) 1. The legal translation should be faithful to the source text. Being “FAITHFUL” means: The translation should reflect accurately the meaning of the original text. The translator should refrain from changing the style of the source text. Nothing should be arbitrarily added or removed to the extent that it affects meaning, though sometimes part of the sentence can be transposed.

20 Practice 1 I hereby appoint, designate and constitute Jonathan Tahir, M.Hum, as my true and lawful attorney-in-fact for me and in my name, place, and stead for my use and benefit.

21 Some Principles of Translating Legal Documents (2) 2. Faithful Translation does not mean that the translator should do the translation word for word, like machine translation. The translator should at all times prioritize readability of his/her translation by making any necessary changes through addition, deletion, tarnsposition, paraphrasing, etc. Such adaptation is called “the translator’s strategy”, which is necessary to achieve a certain degree of readability and naturalness in the translation.

22 Practice 2 No Party shall assign, convey, sell, dispose of or otherwise transfer any of the Assets, either now or hereafter existing, whether in part or in whole, to any third parties without the express written consent of the other Party.

23 Partai manapun tidak diizinkan untuk menetapkan, menyampaikan, menjual, mengatur atau sebaliknya pemindaian aset apapun, baik untuk saat ini maupun seterusnya, baik sebagian maupun keseluruhan, kepada pihak ketiga manapun tanpa melampirkan izin dari partai lain

24 Practice 3 Licensor further agrees that neither it nor any of its legal representative will institute any action or proceeding against Licensee.

25 Some Principles of Translating Legal Documents (3) 3. The translator should translate terminologies consistently into the target language. In legislation and other drafting, there is a convention that the same idea is always expressed using the same wording. In statutory interpretation, this convention is reflected in the rule that ordinarily the same words should be understood to have the same meanings while different words should be understood to have different meanings. In short, variations in wording in a legal text are generally taken to signal a change in meaning. There is no room for aesthetically motivated variation in the translation of terminologies.

26 As Robert Dick writes: “Monotony is not abhorrent to a drafter. There is great satisfaction and comfort in seeing the same term over and over again. Reliance on the same meaning of the terms speeds the understanding of the context. This is much like an editor who tries to achieve consistency of type faces for headings of a book as well as consistency in numbering patterns for footnotes and chapters. The same approach is required for recurring word groups or expressions.”

27 BE CONSISTENT Perjanjian: Contract, Agreement Pasal: Article, Section, Clause Harta/Kekayaan: Assets, Property, Estate Penggugat: Plaintiff, Claimant Appellant: Pembanding, Pemohon Banding Biaya hukum: Legal fees, Legal costs Penyewa: Tenant, Lessee Pemegang saham: Stockholder, Shareholder

28 Some Principles of Translating Legal Documents (4) 4. The translator should do terminological research to ensure lexical accuracy (semantic equivalence). “A translator is not an expert who knows everything, but one who always knows where to go when in trouble.” (Halim, 2013)


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