Presentasi berjudul: "CRIMSON TIDE Ulasan tentang Leadership dengan Teori dari Kouzes & Posner Kelompok 1 : Nalindra Analia, Remigius Saptono, Keny Adelina, Daisy M.E.Suhari."— Transcript presentasi:
CRIMSON TIDE Ulasan tentang Leadership dengan Teori dari Kouzes & Posner Kelompok 1 : Nalindra Analia, Remigius Saptono, Keny Adelina, Daisy M.E.Suhari
Crimson Tide : Ringkasan ● Kapal selam nuklir USS Alabama yang membawa sejumlah misil balistik antar benua, ● Tokoh Utama : ● Kapten Frank Ramsey (Gene Hackman) : adalah seorang perwira senior AL yang patuh pada perintah sampai hal yang sedetail mungkin dan juga menuntut kepatuhan absolut dari bawahannya. ● Ketika perwira pertama Alabama menderita usus buntu sehingga harus dioperasi, maka Kapten Ramsey harus memilih penggantinya. ● Dari sekian banyak perwira muda AL yang cemerlang, pilihan Ramsey jatuh pada Letnan Komandan Ron Hunter (Denzel Washington) sebagai perwira pertama baru USS Alabama ● Hunter : adalah tipe perwira yang tidak membabibuta dalam menuruti perintah atasan melainkan mempertimbangkan dulu apakah perintah itu memang pantas dilaksanakan. ● Tidak butuh waktu lama muncul ketegangan antara Ramsey dan Hunter lantaran gaya kepemimpinan mereka berbeda. Apalagi ketika muncul sebuah krisis internasional yaitu direbutnya sebuah basis nuklir Rusia oleh para pemberontak yang anti Amerika dan ingin kembali pada masa keemasan Uni Soviet.
Crimson Tide : Ringkasan ● Situasi menegangkan ketika sebuah pesan berkode diterima oleh USS Alabama ini menempatkan kapal selam tersebut dalam keadaan darurat perang. ● Pesan itu juga memerintahkan Ramsey untuk melakukan serangan pre-emptive yaitu meluncurkan misil nuklir ke basis nuklir tersebut sehingga pemberontak tidak bisa mendahului menyerang Amerika. ● Masalahnya pesan itu diterima peralatan komunikasi kapal selam Amerika rusak dan pesan pun tidak utuh diterima. Komunikasi antara Alabama dengan komando militer AS pun terputus. ● Akibatnya pesan tersebut tidak bisa dikonfirmasi kepada markas komando militer. ● Bagi Kapten Ramsey, perintah dalam pesan itu sudah jelas dan ia bertekad melaksanakannya. Walau perintah itu bisa menimbulkan perang nuklir di dunia sehingga terjadi kiamat bagi umat manusia. Nyawa ratusan juta manusia tergantung dari tombol senjata nuklir yang akan ditekan Ramsey. ● Hunter yang tidak puas dengan pesan tidak lengkap itu sehingga meminta Ramsey untuk mempertimbangkan dahulu. ● Prioritas bagi Hunter adalah memperbaiki sistem komunikasi sehingga dapat berhubungan dengan markas untuk konfirmasi perintah itu.
4 Early Leadership Theories ● Hasil riset dari leadership traits. ● Temuan-temuan dari teori Behavioral tentang Leadeship ● Menjelaskan ke- dua asal dari perilaku leader Theories of Leadership Contemporary Views on Leadership ● Membedakan antara Transactional dan Transformational Leaders ● Memberikan gambaran tentang Charismatic dan Visionary Leadership. ● Membahas apa saja yang terlibat dalam Team leadership
5 Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership CategoryTransactionalTransformational Leader’s source of powerRank, positionCharacter, competence Follower reactionComplianceCommitment Time frameShort termLong term RewardsPay, promotion, etc.Pride, self-esteem, etc. SupervisionImportantLess important Counseling focusEvaluationDevelopment Where change occursFollower behaviorFollower attitude, values Where “leadership” foundLeader’s behaviorFollower’s heart Source: Adapted from www.ku.edu/~kunrotc/academics/ 401/Lesson%2009%20Read.ppt ●References for Orgnz Behav\Crimson tide speech-GH.flvReferences for Orgnz Behav\Crimson tide speech-GH.flv
6 Characteristics of Transformational Leaders ● Mempengaruhi secara individual: ● Memberikan visi dan keyakinan akan misi,menumbuhkan rasa bangga dan mendapatkan respek dan kepercayaan ● Inspiration: (Vossler)(Vossler) ● Mengkomunikasikan ekspektasi yang tinggi, menggunakan simbol untuk memfokuskan upaya, menjelaskan tujuan penting dalam cara yang sederhana ● Intellectual Stimulation: ● Meningkatkan intelektualitas, rasionalitas dan penyelesaian masalah secara hati-hati ● Individualised Consideration: (Rivetti)(Rivetti) ● Memberikan perhatian pribadi, memperlakukan setiap pekerja secara individual, meng-coach dan menasehati Source: B. M. Bass, 'From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision,' organizational Dynamics, Winter 1990, p. 22. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. American Management Association, New York. All rights reserved.
7 Hunter Rivetti, what's up? Petty Officer First class Danny Rivetti I’m sorry, Sir. It's just a difference of opinion that got out of hand Hunter What about? Petty Officer First class Danny Rivetti It's really too silly to talk about, Sir. I’d really just forget about … Hunter I don’t give a damn about what you’d rather forget about. Why were you two fighting? Petty Officer First class Danny Rivetti I said, the Kirby Silver Surfer was the only real Silver Surfer. And that the Moebius Silver Surfer was shit. And Bennefield’s a big Moebius fan. And it got of hand. I pushed him. He pushed me. I lost my head, Sir I’m Sorry. Hunter [Snaps finger| Rivetti, you’re a supervisor. You can get a commission like that. Petty Officer First class Danny Rivetti I know, Sir. You're 100 percent right. lt will never happen again. Hunter It better not happen again. If I see this kind of nonsense again, I’m going to write you up. You understand? Petty Officer First class Danny Rivetti [No answei] Hunter Do you understand? Petty Officer First class Danny Rivetti Yes, Sir. Hunter You have to set an example even in the face of stupidity. Everybody who reads comic books knows that the Kirby Silver Surfer is the only true Silver Surfer Now am I right or wrong? Petty Officer First class Danny Rivetti You’re right, Sir. Hunter Now get out of here. Petty Officer First class Danny Rivetti Yes, Sir
8 Hunter[asking about the radio repair] How long's it gonna take? VosslerI don’t know, sir HunterYou know what's going on here? VosslerYes sir HunterNo I don think you do. Let me explain it to you. If we launch, and we are wrong, what's left of Russia is gonna launch at us. There will be a nuclear holocaust beyond imagination, now it's all about knowing, Mr... [Hunter looks at Vossler’s name patch] \ Vossler We have to know whether our order to launch has been recalled or not. The only way we’re gonna know, is if you fix that radio, you understand? Vossler[looks down] HunterYou ever watch Star Trek? VosslerSt- yeah, Star.. HunterStar Trek! The USS Enterprise? All right, now you remember when the Klingons were gonna blow up the Enterprise and Captain Kirk calls down to Scotty he says “Scotty. I gotta have more power- ” VosslerHe needs more, more warp speed, yeah. Hunterwarp speed, exactly. Now I’m Captain Kirk, you’re Scotty, I need more power. I’m telling you if you do not get this radio up, a billion people are gonna die: now it's all up to you, I know it’s a shitty deal but you got it, can you handle it? Vossler[silent] HunterScotty? VosslerAye, Captain.
9 Kouzes & Posner (2002).The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco: Josey Bass. ● Mengenai bagaimana leaders memobilisasi orang lain untuk mau melaksanakan tugas-tugas organisasi secara extraordinary ● Tentang kepemimpinan yang menciptakan iklim dan suasana dimana orang mau mengubah kesempatan yang menantang menjadi sukses yang luar biasa ● Praktek yang digunakan leaders untuk mentransformasi nilai-nilai ke dalam aksi dan perilaku, visi ke dalam realitas, hambatan menjadi inovasi, perpecahan menjadi solidaritas, resiko menjadi rewards
10 Kouzes & Posner (2002).The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco: Josey Bass. ● Hasil riset selama 20 tahunan ● Melalui interview kepada orang-orang yang memimpin project team, managers, administrator sekolah, pemimpin community groups dan volunteers pada kelompok sipil. ● Yang ditanyakan adalah “Personal-Best Leadership Experience” untuk mengeluarkan best practices dari individu. ● Temuannya adalah : ● Adanya kesamaan pola dan melabelnya sebagai “The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership” ● Leadership adalah suatu rangkaian ketrampilan dan praktek- praktek yang mungkin bagi semua orang ● Dapat ditemukan di semua level di organisasi ● “Leadership is a relationship” (p.20)
11 Apa yang diharapkan orang dari seorang Leader ? ● Honest (tied to ethics and values) : Opinion about WarOpinion about War ● Forward-looking (knows where the organization is headed and what its future is) ● Inspiring (if a leader isn’t passionate, why should anyone else be?) ● Competent (able to guide, must have relevant experience and sound judgment) ● Credibility is the foundation of leadership.
Capt. RamseyAt the Naval War College it was metallurgy and nuclear reactors, not 19th- century philosophy. Capt. Ramsey“War is a continuation of politics by other means.” Von Clausewitz. Hunter I think, sir, that what he was actually trying to say was a little more... Capt. RamseyComplicated? [Men Laughing] HunterYes the purpose of war is to serve a political end but the true nature of war is to serve itself. Capt. Ramsey [laughing] I’m very impressed. In other words, the sailor most likely to win the war is the one most willing to part company with the politicians and ignore everything except the destruction of the enemy. You’d agree with that. HunterI’d agree that, umn, that’s what Clausewitz was trying to say. Capt. RamseyBut you would not agree with it? HunterNo, sir, I do not. No, I just think that in the nuclear world the true enemy can be destroyed. Capt. Ramsey(chuckling, tapping glass] Attention on deck. Von Clausewitz will now tell us exactly who the real enemy is. [laughing] Capt. Ramsey: von? [Men Laughing] Hunter:ln my humble opinion, in the nuclear world, the true enemy is war itself
15 “Leadership is the relationship between those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow” - Jim Kouzes, The Leadership Challenge “Leadership is the relationship between those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow” - Jim Kouzes, The Leadership Challenge Characteristics of Leaders
16 Are leaders born or made ? ● Of course they are born, but.. ● Leadership is learned (and earned) ● Leadership is an art ● Leadership development programs* can provide tools and techniques
17 So, Leadership is... ● Everyone’s business ● A relationship ● Self-development ● Learned ● An ongoing process
18 K & P First Law of Leadership ● If you don’t believe in the messenger, you won’t believe the message. ● You can’t believe in the messenger if you don’t know what the messenger believes. ● You can’t be the messenger until you’re clear about what you believe.
19 K & P’s second Law of Leadership ● DWYSYWD* *Do What You Say You Will Do
20 Model the WayInspire a Shared VisionChallenge the ProcessEnable Others to ActEncourage the Heart 5 Leadership Practices & 10 Commitments
21 MODEL THE WAY ● Find your voice by clarifying your personal values. ● Tools and techniques of leadership aren’t substitutes for who and what you are ● Understand your own beliefs; can’t expect people to follow you if you don’t know what you believe ● Set the example by aligning actions with shared values ● Honor diversity but find the common core ● Shared values are the organization’s promise ● Shared values are important, but not at the expense of dissent ● Discussion about WarDiscussion about War ● Confirming Clarity of Interrupted MessageConfirming Clarity of Interrupted Message
22 INSPIRE A SHARED VISION ● Envision the future and enlisting others in a common vision. ● Exemplary leaders are forward-looking ● Requires two essentials: ● Imagine the possibilities ● Find a common purpose ● Enlist others Leaders create enthusiasm and commitment among followers to embrace the common vision by appealing to their personal visions, values, interests, hopes, and dreams. (Rivetti)(Rivetti) ● You can’t do this on your own (you wouldn’t be a leader) ● The best leaders are excellent listeners
23 HunterRivetti, what's up? Petty Officer First class Danny RivettiI’m sorry, Sir. It's just a difference of opinion that got out of hand HunterWhat about? Petty Officer First class Danny RivettiIt's really too silly to talk about, Sir. I’d really just forget about … HunterI don’t give a damn about what you’d rather forget about. Why were you two fighting? Petty Officer First class Danny RivettiI said, the Kirby Silver Surfer was the only real Silver Surfer. And that the Moebius Silver Surfer was shit. And Bennefield’s a big Moebius fan. And it got of hand. I pushed him. He pushed me. I lost my head, Sir I’m Sorry. Hunter [Snaps finger|Rivetti, you’re a supervisor. You can get a commission like that. Petty Officer First class Danny RivettiI know, Sir. You're 100 percent right. lt will never happen again. HunterIt better not happen again. If I see this kind of nonsense again, I’m going to write you up. You understand? Petty Officer First class Danny Rivetti[No answei] HunterDo you understand? Petty Officer First class Danny RivettiYes, Sir. HunterYou have to set an example even in the face of stupidity. Everybody who reads comic books knows that the Kirby Silver Surfer is the only true Silver Surfer Now am I right or wrong? Petty Officer First class Danny RivettiYou’re right, Sir. HunterNow get out of here. Petty Officer First class Danny RivettiYes, Sir
24 CHALLENGE THE PROCESS ● Search for opportunities by seeking innovative ways to change, grow, and improve. ● Good leaders are fundamentally restless ● Proactivity produces better results than reactivity ● Training and the mental simulation that results can also result in unanticipated opportunities ● Experiment and take risks take risks and see mistakes as opportunities for learning and growth. : (Taking Over the Con) (Taking Over the Con) ● Good, successful leaders are ones who are willing to take a chance, fail, learn and try something new ● Not every thing has to work every time, but always seek to generate small wins (they build into big ones)
25 ENABLE OTHERS TO ACT ● Foster collaboration ● Create a climate of trust ● Facilitate relationships ● Be willing to share information and resources ● One of the easiest ways to foster collaboration is by use of the word “we” instead of “I” ● Ask questions, listen and be willing to take advice ● Strengthen others know that they cannot do it alone. They build teams and a culture of collaboration ● Enhance self-determination ● Develop competence and confidence (Vossler)(Vossler) ● Educate, educate, educate
26 ENCOURAGE THE HEART ● Recognize contributions by showing appreciation for individual excellence. ● People within the organization are the ones who make things happen ● Personalize recognition ● Celebrate the values and victories by creating a spirit of community : A pat in the backA pat in the back ● Celebrations don’t have to be public or elaborate, but they should be genuine acknowledgements of success (even small successes) ● Celebrations can create a sense of community ● Good leaders show they care
Capt. Ramsey lt looks like the whole crew needs a kick in the ass. HunterOr a pat on the back, sir. I have witnessed a fight down in crew's mess, no big deal. It appears that the crew is a bit on edge about all we're going through Morale seems a bit low. Capt. Ramsey [picks the intercom and speaks into May I have your attention please, crew of the Alabama, Mr. Hunter has brought it to my attention that Morale maybe a bit low, and you might be a bit... [looks to Hunter] Hunter[whispers] On edge. Capt. Ramsey [over the intercom] On edge. so,l suggest this. Any crew member who thinks that they cant handle the situation, can leave the ship right now, Gentlemen, we are at DEFCON 3, war is imminent. This the captain. That is all. [hangs up the intercom] HunterVery inspiring, sir.
28 7 Essentials for Encouraging the Heart ● Set clear standards ● Expect the best ● Pay attention : pat in the backpat in the back ● Personalize recognition : Thanks COBThanks COB ● Tell the story ● Celebrate together ● Set the example
HunterChief of the Boat. Chief of the BoatSir? HunterThank you, COB. Chief of the BoatThank you? *Fuck* you! Get it straight Mr. Hunter, I’m not on your side. Now you could be wrong! But wrong or right, the Captain can't just replace you at will. That was completely improper! And that's why l did what I did. By the book. HunterI thank you anyway. Encourage the Heart – recognize contributions
30 “The focus of a leader’s attention should be less on the routine operations and much more on the untested and untried. Leaders should always be asking what’s new? What’s next? What’s better” That’s where the future is.” Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner
31 “Challenge is the opportunity for greatness. People do their best when there is a chance to change the way things are.” Jim Kouzes & Barry Posner The Leadership Challenge Challenge Motivates