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The Concept of English Sentence Units. Sentence Units WORD SENTENCE CLAUSE PHRASE WORD.

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Presentasi berjudul: "The Concept of English Sentence Units. Sentence Units WORD SENTENCE CLAUSE PHRASE WORD."— Transcript presentasi:

1 The Concept of English Sentence Units

2 Sentence Units WORD SENTENCE CLAUSE PHRASE WORD

3 Word  The smallest of the units that make up a sentence  A single item belonging to some lexical category having an identifiable meaning  Examples: engine ---- the lexical category of noun (N) engine ---- the lexical category of noun (N) run the lexical category of verb (V) run the lexical category of verb (V) new the lexical category of adjective (A) new the lexical category of adjective (A) always the lexical category of adverb (Adv) always the lexical category of adverb (Adv)

4 Phrase  A group or string of words which is not a clause (taking neither a Subject nor a Predicate)  Functioning as one of the lexical categories, for examples: complicated device noun phrase (NP) complicated device noun phrase (NP) has severely damaged verb phrase (VP) has severely damaged verb phrase (VP) definitely wrong adjectival phrase (AP) definitely wrong adjectival phrase (AP) of high intelligence in A girl of high intelligence of high intelligence in A girl of high intelligence in June in She bought the car in june adverbial phrase (AdvP): function in June in She bought the car in june adverbial phrase (AdvP): function

5 Clause  The largest sentence unit which is a reduced form of a sentence: it takes a Subject and a Predicate  An independent clause can function as a simple sentence

6 Independent (can stand by itself) Independent (can stand by itself) e.g. You can find any information e.g. You can find any information on the World Wide Web on the World Wide Web Clause Clause Dependent (part of an independent Dependent (part of an independent clause) clause) e.g. - When you log on the Internet,.. e.g. - When you log on the Internet,.. - …… that it is a new method. - …… that it is a new method.

7 Sentence  A string of words which is regarded as capable of standing alone to express a coherent thought  It should consist of at least one independent clause (S + Predicate)

8 Grammatical Functions  A sentence may be seen as comprising five Gramatical Functions: Subject (S)Subject (S) Verb (V) – also referred to as PredicateVerb (V) – also referred to as Predicate Object (O) – it can be “direct” or “indirect”Object (O) – it can be “direct” or “indirect” Adjunct (A)Adjunct (A) Complement (C)Complement (C)

9 Simple-Sentence Patterns (1)  S + V Rachel is working Rachel is working  S + V + C Google is a search engine Google is a search engine  S + V + A He will work in the laboratory He will work in the laboratory  S + V + O They have completed the project They have completed the project S + V + O indirect + O direct S + V + O indirect + O direct The boy sent the girl flowers The boy sent the girl flowers

10 Simple-Sentence Patterns (2) Alternative : S + V + O direct + prep + O indirect S + V + O direct + prep + O indirect The boy sent flowers to the girl The boy sent flowers to the girl S + V + O + A S + V + O + A The scienctist has made his experiment carefully The scienctist has made his experiment carefully S + V + O + C S + V + O + C People have elected him governor People have elected him governor S + V + O + C + A S + V + O + C + A People elected him governor last week People elected him governor last week

11 Compound Sentence A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinator such as conjunctions, semicolons, or conjunctive adverbs (e.g. in contrast, consequently, etc). A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinator such as conjunctions, semicolons, or conjunctive adverbs (e.g. in contrast, consequently, etc).

12 Conjunctions They include the set of words such as: and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet. They include the set of words such as: and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet. They show the following relations: They show the following relations: Simple addition:Simple addition: The experiment didn’t work as expected, and the team decided to stop it The experiment didn’t work as expected, and the team decided to stop it Addition of a Negative Point:Addition of a Negative Point: Many people have never accessed the Internet, nor have they been familiar with any IT jargons. they been familiar with any IT jargons.

13 Contrast:Contrast: The project is faced with a serious problem, but the experts insist that they will continue it. The project is faced with a serious problem, but the experts insist that they will continue it. Logical Consequence: Logical Consequence: He never went to the lab, for he is allergic to chemical substances. The substance is very sensitive to heat, so it is stored in the fridge The substance is very sensitive to heat, so it is stored in the fridge Choice:Choice: You can go to the library to search for references, or you can browse in the Internet

14 Complex Sentence A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent (subordinating) clauses. A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent (subordinating) clauses. The clauses are connected by a subordinator such as because, since, after, although or when, if or a relative pronoun such as that, who or which. The clauses are connected by a subordinator such as because, since, after, although or when, if or a relative pronoun such as that, who or which. The dependent clause may be the first or second clause in the sentence The dependent clause may be the first or second clause in the sentence If the first is dependent, a comma usually separates the two clauses If the first is dependent, a comma usually separates the two clauses

15 Examples: Examples: 1. If you miss me, just call my name. 2. The boss sacked him since he didn’t show up for work for a week. 3. Although I love her, I wouldn’t mind loosing her for her happiness. 4. The girl that he loves loves another man. 5. When I need you I just close my eyes, and I am with you.


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