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1.Apa yang dimaksud dengan hara tanaman ? 2.Mengapa perlu dikelola secara terpadu ? 3.Apa tujuan dari pengelolaan hara tanaman terpadu ? 4.Hara tanaman.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1.Apa yang dimaksud dengan hara tanaman ? 2.Mengapa perlu dikelola secara terpadu ? 3.Apa tujuan dari pengelolaan hara tanaman terpadu ? 4.Hara tanaman."— Transcript presentasi:

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3 1.Apa yang dimaksud dengan hara tanaman ? 2.Mengapa perlu dikelola secara terpadu ? 3.Apa tujuan dari pengelolaan hara tanaman terpadu ? 4.Hara tanaman apa saja yang dapat dikelola secara terpadu ? 5.Bagaimana cara pengelolaannya ?

4 UNSUR YANG ADA DALAM JARINGAN TANAMAN ≠ UNSUR HARA YANG DIBUTUHKAN TANAMAN

5 Enhanced Soil Fertility Enhanced Pest Regulation Synergisme Healthy Agroecosystem Healthy Crop Interactions (+; -) Agroecology: science & sustainability

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7 Dikelola jumlah (takaran)nya

8 Luxury Consumption Toxicity Visual Symptoms Deficiency 10% Reduction in Growth Visual Symptoms Critical Nutrient Range (no symptoms) Critical Concentration Concentration of Nutrient in Tissue (dry basis)

9 Dikelola jenis (macam) hara-nya

10 1.N berlebihan  meningkatkan kekahatan tembaga (Cu) & boron (B),  tingkatkan kerentanan thd serangan hama & penyakit, 2.P berlebihan  mengganggu serapan tembaga (Cu), besi (Fe) dan seng (Zn), 3.K berlebihan  menimbulkan kekahatan boron & menurunkan rasio minyak terhadap tandan pada sawit, 4.Tembaga (Cu) & sulfat berlebihan  hambat serapan Mo,

11 5.Tembaga, seng & mangan berlebihan  hambat serapan Fe, 6.K atau Na berlebihan  turunkan serapan mangan & boron, 7.N & Mg berlebihan sebabkan kekahatan tembaga, 8.Pengapuran (Ca) berlebihan  turunkan serapan boron & kekahatan Mg, 9.Kelebihan besi, tembaga atau seng  hambat serapan Mn.

12 How the pH of Soil Affects the Availability of Nutrients Different types of plants have different soil pH requirements

13 Dikelola jenis (macam) sumber hara-nya

14 Plant roots – the primary route for mineral nutrient acquisition Meristematic zone – Cells divide both in direction of root base to form cells that will become the functional root and in the direction of the root apex to form the root cap Elongation zone – Cells elongate rapidly, undergo final round of divisions to form the endodermis. Some cells thicken to form casparian strip Maturation zone – Fully formed root with xylem and phloem – root hairs first appear here

15 ROOT ABSORBS DIFFERENT MINERAL IONS IN DIFFERENT AREAS Calcium – Apical region Iron – Apical region (barley) – Or entire root (corn) Potassium, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate – All locations of root surface In corn, elongation zone has max K accumulation and nitrate absorption – In corn and rice, root apex absorbs ammonium faster than the elongation zone does – In several species, root hairs are the most active phosphate absorbers

16 WHY SHOULD ROOT TIPS BE THE PRIMARY SITE OF NUTRIENT UPTAKE?  Tissues with greatest need for nutrients  Cell elongation requires Potassium, nitrate, and chlorine to increase osmotic pressure within the wall,  Ammonium is a good nitrogen source for cell division in meristem,  Apex grows into fresh soil and finds fresh supplies of nutrients.  Nutrients are carried via bulk flow with water, and water enters near tips,  Maintain concentration gradients for mineral nutrient transport and uptake.

17 ROOT UPTAKE SOON DEPLETES NUTRIENTS NEAR THE ROOTS Formation of a nutrient depletion zone in the region of the soil near the plant root – Forms when rate of nutrient uptake exceeds rate of replacement in soil by diffusion in the water column – Root associations with Mycorrhizal fungi help the plant overcome this problem

18 1.Musim  potensi fotosintesis, 2.Potensi produksi tanaman, 3.Interaksi hara (nol, sinergisme, antagonisme), 4.Hara total vs tersedia tanah & faktor penjerapnya,, 5.Reaksi pupuk (kemasaman akibat 100 kg Za diatasi dg 107 kg kaptan; 100 kg Urea dg 36 kg kaptan), 6.Jumlah & perbandingan hara terbawa panen, 7.Kandungan hara dlm daun (efektivitas serapan), 8.Aktivitas Biota tanah, 9.Cara & waktu pemberian pupuk. 1.Musim  potensi fotosintesis, 2.Potensi produksi tanaman, 3.Interaksi hara (nol, sinergisme, antagonisme), 4.Hara total vs tersedia tanah & faktor penjerapnya,, 5.Reaksi pupuk (kemasaman akibat 100 kg Za diatasi dg 107 kg kaptan; 100 kg Urea dg 36 kg kaptan), 6.Jumlah & perbandingan hara terbawa panen, 7.Kandungan hara dlm daun (efektivitas serapan), 8.Aktivitas Biota tanah, 9.Cara & waktu pemberian pupuk. Dasar Penetapan

19 1.Pemberian Zn  tingkatkan serapan K, perbaiki status N, P & Ca didalam tanaman,  tingkatkan produksi kelapa sawit sampai 12 – 78%, 2.Pemberian Zn melalui daun (larutan 1000 ppm Zn) lebih efektif drpd pemberian lewat tanah atau injeksi

20 NCa PMg KSKS 16 Essential Elements CHOCHO BClCuFe MnMoZn

21 Non-Mineral Nutrients Carbon(C) Hydrogen(H) Oxygen(O) Used in photosynthesis

22 MINERAL NUTRIENTS

23 Muatan Negatif Muatan Negatif Kation 2 teradsorbsi Ca 2 + H + K + Mg 2+ H + NH 4 + H + Na + fenolik O-O- hidroksil O-O- COO - karboksil O-O- fenolik COO - karboksil COO - karboksil O-O- O-O- COO - H + K + Mg 2+ H + NH 4 + H + Na + Kation 2 dalam larutan tanah ADSORPSI (JERAPAN) KATION OLEH KOLOID HUMUS & SEL-SEL MIKROBA DALAM TANAH

24 NUTRIENT CHEMICAL SYMBOL IONIC FORM ChlorineClCl - NitrateNNO 3 - SulfateSSO 4 = BorateBBO 4 = PhosphatePH 2 PO 4 - NEGATIVELY CHARGED IONS ARE CALLED ANIONS

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26 Negatively Charged Colloids Attract Cations K+K+ Ca ++ Na + Ca ++ H+H+ Mg Soil Colloid

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29 UNSUR DISERAP TANAMAN DALAM BENTUK KONSENTRASI (%) BOBOT KERING

30 UNSUR DISERAP TANAMAN DALAM BENTUK KONSENTRASI BOBOT KERING

31 CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC) The total number of exchangeable cations a soil can hold (amount of its negative charge)

32 SOILSOIL H + Ca ++ Mg ++ K + Al 3+ NH NH 4 OAc SOILSOIL NH 4 + H + Ca ++ Mg ++ K + Al 3+ NH OAc Solution “Conventional” CEC determination by displacement of cations with ammonium acetate extraction

33 + 9 KCl + 9 KCl SOIL K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+K+ + 9 NH Cl - 9 Cl -Solution SOIL NH 4 + Filter and measure ammonium by steam distillation of ammonia Displacement of ammonium ions with KCl solution

34 Cations determined by: – extraction using ammonium acetate, Mehlich 1, or Mehlich 3 extractants – analysis using atomic absorption spectrometry or ICP equipment Sum of extractable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na), with some adjustment for H + and Al 3+ (using pH), gives estimate of “true” CEC

35 Generally ….the higher the CEC The more fertile the soil tends to be The more clay the soil tends to have The more organic matter a soil tends to have (especially for weathered, sandy, soils in the South)

36 CLAY AND ORGANIC MATTER HAVE GREATEST INFLUENCE ON CEC ORGANIC MATTER HAS A HIGHER CEC


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