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8 -1 Functional and Activity- Based Budgeting CHAPTER.

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Presentasi berjudul: "8 -1 Functional and Activity- Based Budgeting CHAPTER."— Transcript presentasi:

1 8 -1 Functional and Activity- Based Budgeting CHAPTER

2 Discuss budgeting and its role in planning, control, and decision making. 2.Define and prepare a master budget, identify its major components, and explain the interrelationships of its various components. ObjectivesObjectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: ContinuedContinued

3 Describe flexible budgeting, and list the features that a budgetary system should have to encourage managers to engage in goal- congruent behavior. 4.Explain how activity-based budgeting works. ObjectivesObjectives

4 8 -4 Strategic Plan Short-Term Objectives Short-Term Plan Budgets Feedback Planning Long-Term Objectives Budgeting and Planning and Control

5 8 -5 Strategic Plan Short-Term Objectives Short-Term Plan Budgets Feedback PlanningControl Monitoring of Actual Activity Investigation Corrective Action Long-Term Objectives Comparison of Actual with Planned

6 8 -6 Advantages of Budgeting 1.Memaksa para manager untuk melakukan perencanaan. 2.Menyediakan informasi yang dapat digunakan untuk memperbaiki pembuatan keputusan. 3.Menyediakan standar untuk evaluasi kinerja. 4.Memperbaiki komunikasi dan koordinasi.

7 8 -7 The master budget adalah rencana keuangan komprehensif bagi organisasi secara keseluruhan Biasanya, anggaran induk adalah periode satu tahun, sesuai dengan tahun fiskal perusahaan.

8 8 -8 A master budget can be dividing into operating and financial budgets.

9 8 -9 Operating budgets describe the income-generating activities of a firm. Financial budgets detail the inflows and outflows of cash and the overall financial position.

10 8 -10 Preparing the Operating Budget Sales budget (Anggaran penjualan) Production budget (Anggaran produksi) Direct materials purchases budget (Anggaran Pembelian Bahan Baku Langsung) Direct labor budget (Anggaran Tenaga Kerja Langsung) Overhead budget (Anggaran Overhead) Selling and administrative expenses budget (Anggaran Beban Penjualan & Administrasi) Ending finished goods inventory budget (Anggaran persediaan akhir barang jadi) Cost of goods sold budget (Anggaran HPPenjualan)

11 8 -11 Schedule 1 Texas Rex, Inc. Sales Budget For the Year Ended December 31, 2004 Quarter Year Year Units1,0001,2001,5002,0005,700 Unit selling price x $10 x $10 x $10x $10x $10 Budgeted sales$10,000$12,000$15,000$20,000$57,000

12 8 -12 Computing Units to be Produced Units to be produced = Expected unit sales + Units in ending inventory – Units in beginning inventory

13 8 -13 Schedule 2 Texas Rex, Inc. Production Budget For the Year Ended December 31, 2004 Quarter Year Year Sales (Schedule 1)1,0001,2001,5002,0005,700 Desired ending inventory Total needs1,2401,5001,9002,2005,900 Less: Beginning inventory Units to be produced1,0601,2601,6001,8005,720

14 8 -14 Computing Units to be Purchased Purchases = Direct materials needed for production + Desired direct materials in ending inventory – Direct materials in beginning inventory

15 8 -15 Schedule 3 Texas Rex, Inc. Direct Materials Purchases Budget For the Year Ended December 31, 2004 Quarter Year Year Units to be produced (Schedule 2)1,0601,2601,6001,8005,720 Direct materials per unit x 1x 1x 1x 1 x 1 Production needs1,0601,2601,6001,8005,720 Desired ending inventory Total needs1,1861,4201,7801,9065,826 ContinuedContinued Plain T- Shirts

16 8 -16 Quarter Year Total needs1,1861,4201,7801,9065,826 Less: beginning inventory Direct materials to be purchased1,1281,2941,6201,7265,768 Cost per poundx $3x $3x $3x $3 x $3 Total purchase cost plain t-shirts$3,384$3,882$4,860$5,178$17,304

17 8 -17 Schedule 3 Texas Rex, Inc. Direct Materials Purchases Budget For the Year Ended December 31, 2004 Quarter Year Year Units to be produced (Schedule 2)1,0601,2601,6001,8005,720 Direct materials per unit x 5x 5x 5x 5 x 5 Production needs5,3006,3008,0009,00028,600 Desired ending inventory Total needs5,9307,1008,9009,53029,130 ContinuedContinued

18 8 -18 Quarter Year Year Total needs5,9307,1008,9009,53029,130 Less: beginning inventory Direct materials to be purchased5,5406,4708,1008,63028,740 Cost per ouncex $0.20x $0.20x $0.20x $0.20 x $0.20 Total purchase cost of ink$ 1,108$ 1,294$ 1,620$ 1,726$ 5,748 Total direct materials pur- chases cost$4,492$5,176$6,480$6,904$23,052

19 8 -19 Quarter Year Year Units to be produced (Schedule 2)1,0601,2601,6001,8005,720 Direct labor time per unit (hr.)x 0.12x 0.12x 0.12x 0.12x 0.12 Total hours needed Average wage per hour x $10x $10 x $10 x $10 x $10 Total direct labor cost$1,272$1,512$1,920$2,160$6,864 Schedule 4 Texas Rex, Inc. Direct Labor Budget For the Year Ended December 31, 2004

20 8 -20 Schedule 5 Texas Rex, Inc. Overhead Budget For the Year Ended December 31, 2004 Quarter Year Year Budgeted direct labor hours (Schedule 4) Variable overhead rate x $5x $5x $5x $5 x $5 Budgeted variable overhead$ 636$ 756$ 960$1,080$ 3,432 Budgeted fixed overhead 1,645 1,645 1,645 1,645 6,580 Total overhead$2,281$2,401$2,605$2,725$10,012

21 8 -21 Schedule 6 Texas Rex, Inc. Ending Finished Goods Inventory Budget For the Year Ended December 31, 2004 Unit-cost computation: Direct materials ($3 + $1)$4.00 Direct labor (0.12 $10)1.20 Overhead: Variable (0.12 $5)0.60 Fixed (0.12 $9.59) 1.15 Total unit cost$6.95 Units Unit Cost Total Units Unit Cost Total Finished goods: Logo T-shirts 200 $6.95 $1,390

22 8 -22 Schedule 7 Texas Rex, Inc. Cost of Goods Sold Budget For the Year Ended December 31, 2004 Direct materials used (Schedule 3)$22,880 Direct labor used (Schedule 4)6,864 Overhead (Schedule 5) 10,012 Budgeted manufacturing costs$39,756 Beginning finished goods 1,251 Goods available for sale$41,007 Less: Ending finished goods (Sched. 6) - 1,390 Budgeted cost of goods sold$39,617

23 8 -23 Schedule 8 Texas Rex, Inc. Selling and Administrative Expenses Budget For the Year Ended December 31, 2004 Quarter Year Planned sales in units (Schedule 1)1,0001,2001,5002,0005,700 Variable selling and administrative expenses per unitx $0.10x $0.10x $0.10x $0.10x $0.10 Total variable expenses$ 100$ 120$ 150$ 200$ 570 ContinuedContinued

24 8 -24 Fixed selling and admin- istrative expenses: Salaries$1,420$1,420$1,420$1,420$5,680 Utilities Advertising ,100 Depreciation Insurance Total fixed expenses$1,720$1,820$2,420$2,120$8,080 Total selling and admin- istrative expenses$1,820$1,940$2,570$2,320$8,650 Quarter Year

25 8 -25 Sales (Schedule 1) $57,000 Less: Cost of goods sold (Schedule 7) -39,617 Gross margin$17,383 Less: Selling and administrative expenses (Schedule 8) -8,660 Operating income $ 8,733 Less: Interest expense (Schedule 10) - 60 Income before taxes$ 8,673 Less: Income taxes (Schedule 10) -2,550 Net income$ 6,123 Schedule 9 Texas Rex, Inc. Budgeted Income Statement For the Year Ended December 31, 2004

26 8 -26 The cash budget (anggaran kas) The budgeted balance sheet (anggaran neraca) The budget for capital expenditures (anggaran untuk pengeluaran modal) TheThe Usual Financial BudgetsBudgets

27 8 -27 The Cash Budget Beginning cash balancexxx Add: Cash receiptsxxx Cash availablexxx Less: Cash disbursementsxxx Less: Minimum cash balancexxx Cash surplus (deficiency)xxx Add: Cash from loansxxx Less: Loan repaymentsxxx Add: Minimum cash balancexxx Ending cash balancexxx

28 8 -28 The Cash Budget Beginning cash balance$ 5,200 Add: Cash receipts (cash and credit sales) 10,600 Total cash available 15,800 Less: Cash disbursements-15,777 Less: Minimum cash balance - 1,000 Total cash needs -16,777 Excess or deficiency (-) of cash- 977 Add: Cash from loans1,000 Less: Loan repayments ---- Ending cash balance$ 1,023 Texas Rex, Inc. 1 st Quarter $1,000 (loan) - $977 + $1,000 (minimum cash balance)

29 8 -29 Texas Rex, Inc. Cash Receipts Pattern for 2004 Source Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4 Source Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4 Cash sales$ 2,500$ 3,000$ 3,750$ 5,000 Received on account from: Quarter 4, 20051,350 Quarter 1, 20066, Quarter 2, 20068, Quarter 3, ,1251,125 Quarter 4, ,500 Total cash receipts$10,600$11,850$14,775$19,625

30 8 -30 Schedule 11 Texas Rex, Inc. Budgeted Balance Sheet December 31, 2006 Assets Current assets: Cash$ 7,503 Accounts receivable1,500 Materials inventory424 Finished goods inventory 1,390 Total current assets$10,817 Property, plant, and equipment: Land$ 1,100 Building and equipment36,500 Accumulated depreciation -7,760 Total property, plant, and equipment 29,840 Total assets$40,657 ContinuedContinued

31 8 -31 Liabilities and Owners’ Equity Current liabilities: Accounts payable$ 1,381 Owners’ equity: Retained earnings$39,276 Total owners’ equity 39,276 Total liabilities and owners’ equity$40,657

32 8 -32 Cash Budget Sales Budget Production Budget Direct Materials Purchases Budget Direct Labor Budget Overhead Budget The Master Budget

33 8 -33 Sales Budget Production Budget Direct Materials Purchases Budget Direct Labor Budget Overhead Budget Cash Budget Ending FG Inventory Budget (Unit cost) The Master Budget

34 8 -34 Selling and Administrative Expenses Budget` Sales Budget Production Budget Direct Materials Purchases Budget Direct Labor Budget Overhead Budget Cash Budget Cost of Goods Sold Budget Budgeted IS The Master Budget Ending FG Inventory Budget

35 8 -35 A static budget adalah untuk tingkat aktivitas tertentu. A flexible budget adalah anggaran yang menungkinkan suatu perusahaan untuk menghitung perkiraan biaya dalam suatu tingkat aktivitas. Static Budgets versus Flexible Budgets

36 8 -36 Units produced1,2001, F Actual Budgeted Variance Actual Budgeted Variance Direct materials cost$4,830 $4,240$590 U Direct labor costs1,4401, U Fixed overhead: Variable: Supplies U Power U Fixed: Supervision1,0551, F Depreciation Total$8,570$7,793$777 U Performance Report Quarterly Production Costs

37 8 -37  Flexible budget dapat digunakan sebagai fakta untuk menghitung berapa biaya seharusnya untuk tingkat aktivitas aktual.  Flexible budgeting dapat digunakan untuk memperhitungkan tingkat biaya yang seharusnya untuk tiap tingkat aktivitas.  Flexible budgeting dapat membantu para manajer mengatasi ketidakpastian dengan memungkinkan mereka untuk melihat perkiraan hasil pada suatu tingkat aktivitas The Uses of Flexible Budget

38 8 -38 Variable overhead: Direct materials$4.00$4,000$4,800$5,600 Direct labor1.201,2001,4401,680 Variable overhead: Supplies Power Total variable costs$5.80$5,800$6,960$8,120 Range of Production (units) Range of Production (units) Production Costs 1,000 1,200 1,400 Production Costs 1,000 1,200 1,400 Variable Cost per Unit Fixed overhead: Supervision$1,105$1,105$1,105 Depreciation Total fixed costs$1,645$1,645$1,645 Total production costs$7,445$8,605$9,765 Flexible Production Budget

39 8 -39 Units produced 1,200 1, Actual Budget Variance Actual Budget Variance Direct materials $4,830$4,800 $30 U Direct labor 1,4401, Variable overhead: Supplies F Power F Total variable costs$6,975$6,960 $15 F Performance Report Quarterly Production CostsContinuedContinued

40 8 -40 Units produced 1,200 1, Actual Budget Variance Actual Budget Variance Fixed overhead: Supervision1,0551, F Depreciation Total fixed costs$1,595$1,645-$50 F Total production costs$8,570$8,605$35 U Performance Report Quarterly Production Costs

41 8 -41 Goal congruence (Kesesuaian tujuan) Dysfunctional behavior (Perilaku disfungsional) Frequent feedback on performance ( Umpan balik berkala atas kinerja) Monetary and nonmonetary incentives (Insentif uang & bukan uang) Participative budgeting (Anggaran Partisipatif) Realistic standards (Standar yg realistis) Controllability of costs (Kemampuan mengendalikan biaya) Multiple measures of performance (Beberapa pengukuran kinerja) Behavior Dimensions of Budgeting

42 8 -42 Participative budgeting has three potential problems: 1.Menetapkan standar yg terlalu tinggi atau rendah. 2.Membuat kelonggaran dalam anggaran. 3.Partisipasi semu.

43 8 -43 Activity-Based Budgeting Activity flexible budgeting adalah prediksi berapa biaya aktivitas nantinya jika terdapat perubahan pada output aktivitas.

44 8 -44 Flexible Budget: Direct Labor Hours Cost Formula Direct Labor Hours Direct materials---$10$100,000$200,000 Direct labor---880,000160,000 Maintenance$ 20,000350,00080,000 Machining15,000125,00035,000 Inspections120, ,000120,000 Setups50, ,00050,000 Purchasing 220, , ,000 Total$425,000$22$645,000$865,000 Fixed Variable 10,000 20,000

45 8 -45 Driver: Direct Labor Hours Formula Level of Activity Direct materials---$10$100,000$200,000 Direct labor , ,000 Subtotal $0$18$180,000$360,000 Driver: Machine Hours Maintenance$20,000$5.50$64,000$108,000 Machining 15, ,000 47,000 Subtotal$35,000$7.50$95,000$155,000 Activity Flexible Budget ContinuedContinued Fixed Variable 10,000 20,000 Fixed Variable 8,000 16,000

46 8 -46 Driver: Number of Setups Fixed Variable2530 Inspections$80,000$2,100$132,500$143,000 Setups --- 1,800 45,000 54,000 Subtotal$80,000$3,900$177,500$197,000 Driver: Number of Orders Fixed Variable 15,000 25,000 Purchasing$211,000$ 1$226,000$236,000 Total$678,500$948,000 Activity Flexible Budget

47 8 -47 Actual Costs Budgeted Costs Budget Variance Direct materials$101,000$100,000$ 1,000U Direct labor80,00080, Maintenance55,00064,0009,000F Machining29,00031,0002,000F Inspections125,500132,5007,000F Setups46,50045,0001,500U Purchasing 220,000226,000 6,000F Total$657,000$678,500$21,500F Activity-Based Performance Report

48 8 -48 Variances for the Inspection Activity Activity Actual Cost Budgeted Cost Variance Inspection: Fixed$ 82,000$ 80,000$2,000U Variable 43,500 52,500 9,000F Total$125,500$132,500$7,000F

49 8 -49 The End Chapter Eight

50 8 -50


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