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PENGOLAHAN HIJAUAN LIMBAH SECARA KIMIA. Figure 10: Diagramatic representation of the lignin- hemicellulose complex and the manner in which various treatment.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PENGOLAHAN HIJAUAN LIMBAH SECARA KIMIA. Figure 10: Diagramatic representation of the lignin- hemicellulose complex and the manner in which various treatment."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PENGOLAHAN HIJAUAN LIMBAH SECARA KIMIA

2 Figure 10: Diagramatic representation of the lignin- hemicellulose complex and the manner in which various treatment methods act (Chesson, 1986).

3 Perlakuan Asam Perlakuan asam (organik & anorganik): → mengubah komposisi kimia bahan pakan. → tetapi tidak signifikan memperbaiki penggunaan nutrisi. → manfaat tidak sepadan dengan biaya dan tenaga. → proses sukar diadopsi karena kurang praktis.

4 Perlakuan dg agen pengoksidasi → Lignin dalam serat tanaman dipecah- belah/diputuskan. → a.l. hidrogen peroksida, ozon, sulfur dioksida, natrium sulfit, natrium tiosulfat, natrium hipoklorit. → bbrp. sangat efektif meningkatkan nilai nutrisi pakan serat limbah. → namun perlu biaya tinggi teknologi yang memadai untuk pengolahan skala besar.

5 Perlakuan basa a.l. Lime (kapur), caustic soda, natrium bikarbonat, amonia. NaOH & amonia u/ mengolah lignoselulosa → paling efektif, simpel, mudah diadopsi peternak biasa. (1) Perlakuan dng larutan NaOH → Dulu perlakuan perlu diikuti pencucian untuk menghilangkan pengaruh alkali tsb.

6 → “perlakuan kering” (tanpa pencucian) menggantikan perlakuan tsb. Cacahan jerami atau hijauan kering ditebarkan di atas lantai atau hamparan plastik tebal, larutan NaOH 3-4% dalam air dlm jumlah yg sama (3- 4% berat jerami). Larutan disemprotkan sambil jerami diaduk agar merata. Biarkan 3-4 jam untuk bereaksi. Jerami perlakuan alkali siap diberikan kepada ternak. Tindakan pencegahan: NaOH korosif, jaga kulit agar tidak terpapar. Gunakan sepatu bot, kaus tangan plastik dan masker muka saat pencampuran.

7 (2) Perlakuan dengan lime (kapur) CaO dan Ca(OH) 2 adalah basa lemah, perlu konsentrasi lebih tinggi dan waktu lebih lama. Hasilnya tidak menunjukkan peningkatan nilai nutrisi yang diinginkan. Kandungan Ca yg lebih tinggi pada produk ini juga bermasalah pada pemberian pakan.

8 (3) Perlakuan Amonia (amoniasi) Diteliti sistematis sejak 1930-an di Jerman. Dosis yang optimum untuk mengolah limbah lignoselulosa dr bbrp penelitian yaitu 1,5% amonia atau 3,5% urea-amonia terhidrolisis. Perlakuan dg amonia cair (am. hidoksida) menuntut ketelitian dan kehati-hatian. Sedikit kecerobohan berbahaya bagi kulit dan mukosa pekerja yang terkena cairan. Jadi penggunaannya hanya dilaksanakan bila fasilitas pengamanannya memadai.

9 Gas amonia dalam aplikasi mungkin tidak menimbulkan banyak masalah. Suatu jaringan tabung-tabung berlubang dapat menyemprotkan gas ke segala arah di atas lembaran plastik tebal. Hamparan cacahan jerami atau jerami panjang2 setebal sekitar 50 cm diletakkan menutupi tabung2 jaringan tsb. Bisa 2-5 lapis hamparan sekaligus. Bagian luar hamparan ditutup lagi dengan lembaran plastik hingga rapat dan kedap udara.

10 Setelah gas amonia diinjeksikan dalam jumlah cukup dan ditutup rapat, biarkan untuk bereaksi selama 3 minggu (cuaca panas) atau 4-5 minggu (cuaca dingin). Jerami amoniasi siap diberikan pada ternak ruminansia setelah diangin- anginkan secukupnya. Amoniasi-urea adalah cara yang terbaik mengolah limbah lignoselulosa. Urea mudah diperoleh peternak dan relatif murah.

11 Sejumlah cacahan jerami tertimbang diletakkan setebal cm di atas lembaran plastik. Pupuk urea sebanyak 3% dilarutkan dalam 40 liter air untuk setiap 100 kg jerami. Larutan disiramkan pada jerami, diaduk merata, kemudian ditutup plastik rapat2 hingga kedap udara dan biarkan bereaksi selama 3-4 minggu. Tumpukan jerami dibuka dari satu sisi, ambil jumlah yang diperlukan, angin- anginkan satu malam sebelum diberikan pada ternak.

12 Amoniasi-urea modifikasi Modifikasi untuk mengurangi kehilangan N selama perlakuan, diterapkan sistem bertingkat. Lapisan tumpukan jerami dengan 2% urea berselingan dengan yang 3% urea. Kelebihan amonia konsentrasi tinggi meresap ke lapisan berkonsentrasi rendah dan menghasilkan penghematan urea dan memperkecil gas amonia yang hilang tanpa bereaksi.

13 Pada modifikasi lebih jauh, lapisan paling atas (tebal cm) digunakan pengasaman dengan larutan ringan asam sulfat atau campuran molase dan silase rendah N. Lapisan ini menyerap lebih besar amonia tak terpakai selama proses perlakuan.

14 Perhatikan: 1.Amonia berbau tajam dan korosif, harus ditangani hati-hati. 2.Ketika bercampur dengan udara, amonia sangat mudah meledak dan terbakar, jangan menyalakan api di dekat tumpukan perlakuan amoniasi atau saat menyuntikkan gas amonia dari tanker atau silinder. 3.Jerami amoniasi harus diangin-anginkan dulu sebelum diberikan kepada ternak.

15 Substansi lain yang dapat digunakan untuk amoniasi serat limbah kering/jerami: amonium karbonat, amonium bikarbonat, amonium klorida, amonium sulfat, dan urin. Namun demikian, semuanya, kecuali urin, berharga lebih mahal daripada urea, dan kandungan N dalam urea sangat bervariasi. Semua substansi tersebut juga tidak ada yang dapat diadopsi praktis di lapangan.

16 Metode amoniasi-urea berguna untuk meningkatkan konsumsi, kecernaan yang lebih tinggi, memperkaya kandungn N hijauan berkualitas rendah, dll.

17 Figure 11: Influence of the ammonia dosage rate, the ambient temperature, the treatment time and the ambient humidity during treatment on the treatment efficiency of a barley straw, as measured by the in vitro digestibility of the organic matter (IVD OM %) (after Sundstol et al., 1978). Figure 11a: Influence of temperature and ammonia dosage rate (treatment time of 4 weeks)

18 Figure 11b: Influence of temperature and treatment time (treatment with 3.4 % ammonia dosage rate with 25 % humidity)

19 Figure 11c: Influence of temperature and humidity (treatment time of 8 weeks with 3.4 % ammonia dosage rate)

20 The following practical recommendations offer a good indication of the time needed for adequate ammonia treatment (SUNDSTOL et al., 1978): Ambient Treatment Time Temperature Required 8 weeks 5–15°C 4 to 8 weeks 15–30°C 1 to 4 weeks >30°C <1 week at least a week(*) (*) (after: Sundstol et al., 1978)

21 . Examples of practical applications Both Tunisia and Egypt have developed field techniques for treating straw with anhydrous ammonia since more than 15 years ago. Algeria is already geared up for its development. Tunisia Year Number of beneficiaries Treated straw (1,000 t)

22 Egypt Year tons of Ammonia ,700 6,886 1,964 4,262 4,130 Treated Straw (1,000 t)

23 Photo 1: Harvesting bush straw (Cenchrus biflorus (cram-cram) and Schoenefeldia gracilis towards the end of the dry season in Mauritania. Photo. Chenost.

24 Photo 2: Treating straw in a stack with anhydrous ammonia, using a mobile tank of 500 kg capacity (Tunisia). Photo. Chenost.

25 Photo 3: Treating a stack of straw with anhydrous ammonia supplied from a 30 kg bottle (Tunisia). Photo. Chenost.

26 Photo 4: Filling a mobile tank of 500 kg capacity with anhydrous ammonia from a “mother” tank of 2,000 kg capacity (Tunisia). Photo. Chenost.

27 Photo 5: A batch of rice straw in the Egyptian delta region, ready to be injected with anhydrous ammonia from a truck tanker belonging to the cooperative. Photo. Chenost.

28 Photo 6: Treating round bales of maize by the “Armako” technique showing mechanised wrapping in plastic sheeting, followed immediately by injection with ammonia (France). Photo. Chenost.

29 Photo 7: Urea treatment in a pit (in Tanzania): the airtight seal has been achievea here with banana leaves (one may also use the stalks). Photo. Chenost.

30 Photo 8: Urea treatment in a pit (Madagascar): the airtight cover has been achieved here by using strips of plastic from bags which have been stitched together. Photo. Chenost.

31 Photo 9: Urea treatment in a battery of two silos made from banco (Mauritania). Photo. Chenost.

32 Photo 10: Urea treatment in a battery of two silos made from banco (Mauritania). Photo. Chenost.

33 Photo 11: Making an enclosure for urea treatment using séko (Niger). Photo. Kayouli.

34 Photo 12: Panniers and shelters which may serve for urea treatment of straw (Cambodia). Photo. Kayouli.

35 Photo 12': Panniers and shelters which may serve for urea treatment of straw (Cambodia). Photo. Kayouli.

36 Photo 13: A traditional grain store on stilts which has been adapted for urea treatment by using plastic strips and plaited mats (Cambodia). Photo. Kayouli.

37 Photo 14: A local silo for urea treatment constructed with a wooden framework and with walls made from plaited mats (Cambodia). Photo. Kayouli.

38 Photo 15: A local shelter arranged for urea treatment by making walls from sheaves of straw (Cambodia). Photo. Kayouli.

39 Photos 16 &16': Adaptation of a traditional grain store on stilts for urea treatment of straw (Cambodia). Photos. Kayouli.

40 Photo 17: Demonstration of urea treatment within a butyl sack (Jordan). Photo Chenost.

41 Photo 18: Traditional stocks of straw bunches with inclined roofing constructed from the same type of straw bunches (Cambodia). Photo. Kayouli.

42 Photo 19: Traditional stacks of straw bunches with inclined roofing constructed from the same type of straw bunches (Cambodia). Photo. Kayouli.

43 Photo 19': A traditional stack in Madagascar. Photo. Chenost.

44 Photo 20: Hand sprinkling the solution of urea for treating a heap (Tunisia). Photo. Chenost.

45 Photo 21: Batch treatment of compressed maize stalks using a mechanised system, layer by layer, on a cooperative farm (Tanzania). Photo. Chenost.

46 Photo 22: Mechanised treatment of wheat straw in the field (France): the water and the urea are applied separately as the straw mounts the pick-up mechanism before the round bale is formed. Photo. Chenost.

47 Photo 29: Colour of rice straw after good treatment. Photo Kayouli.

48 Photo 29': Colour of rice straw after good treatment (Cambodia (a) and Madagascar (b)). Photo. Kayouli.

49 Pathak, N Textbook of Feed Processing Technology. Vikas Publishing House. New Delhi Chenost, M. and C. Kayouli Roughage Utilization in Warm Climates. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Jayasuriya, M.C.N. POTENTIAL FOR THE BETTER UTILIZATION OF CROP RESIDUES AND AGRO-INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS IN ANIMAL FEED IG IN THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT. Referensi


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