Presentasi berjudul: "PENGEMBANGAN DISIPLIN AKUNTANSI SECARA INTERNASIONAL Accounting is a function of the business environment in which it operates, and it originated in order."— Transcript presentasi:
PENGEMBANGAN DISIPLIN AKUNTANSI SECARA INTERNASIONAL Accounting is a function of the business environment in which it operates, and it originated in order to record business transaction. Akuntansi mulai dikenal dengan adanya “double-entry” Pengaruh Italia sangat kuat (Genoa, Florence, dan Venice), dimulai abad 13-14
PENGEMBANGAN DISIPLIN... (Lanjt) Luca Pacioli (1494) menerbitkan “Summa de Arithmatica” Buku pedoman bisnis bagi orang Venice Standar bagi Italia, Belanda, Jerman, dan Inggris. Isi buku: 1) Memorandum mencatat informasi transaksi; 2) Jurnal pembuatan jurnal; 3) Ledger posting ke ledger debit dan kredit. Perkembangan selanjutnya, akuntansi berusaha menggambarkan good practices, tidak difikirkan asumsi dan pengembangan teorinya. Bagaimana dengan “teori akuntansi?”
PENGEMBANGAN DISIPLIN... (Lanjt) 1550-an: ada literatur tentang komersial dan politik, bagaimana memanaj keu publik. 1673: France introduces accounting code, balance sheet (once two years), and debit in left-hand side while credit in right-hand side. 1770-an: accounting developed significantly. 1760-1830: industrial revolution double-entry developed more expanded. 1990-an: industrial complexity appeared with merger, acqusition and MNC development influencing external and internal financial reporting and controlling systems. 2000-an: bagaimana?
National Differences in Accounting System Banyaknya sistem akuntansi, sebanyak negara yang ada di dunia. Accounting systems are influenced by environment where they used. Ownership, industrialization, inflation, economic development, educational system, law, politic, and sociality are factors may strongly influence accounting system in certain country.
INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT The USA is number one country in international trading, followed by Germany, Japan, France, and UK. Also, in international investment: USA (25%) UK (13), France (11), Germany (9), and Japan (6) Global Players: EU (38%), USA (29), and Japan (16).
GLOBAL CORPORATE STRATEGY Dominant theory of economic activity among countries was mercantilism. The premis of mercantilism was a country’s wealth was dependent on its holdings of gold. Therefore, countries tend to restrict imports, subsidize exports, exploit colonies and hoard gold. 1700s Adam Smith questioned mercantilism and suggested that the real wealth of country consisted in the goods and services available to its citizens absolute advantage in production. Absolute advantage can be natural (climate and natural resources) or acquired (firm-specific advantage, such as technology).
GLOBAL CORPORATE... (cont’d) Another strategy is comparative advantage, countries tend to specilaize in the production of products that they can produce most efficiently. The comparative advantage of a country due to the abundance of certain production factors. Reasons to export 1.To make different product. 2.To get a rid of excess production capacity. 3.To gain greater market share and increase sales. 4.To test a market without having to risk investing capital.
Barriers to trade There are two barriers to trade: structural and transactional. Structural market failure is often related to government action: unemployment, infant industry, industrialization, political action, balance of payment problem. Transactional barrier related to tariff and nontariff barriers. A tariff is a governmental tax levied on goods shipped internationally. Nontariff barrier related to international trade block, such as NAFTA, WTO, AFTA, EU etc. The best examples of nontariff barriers to trade are subsidies, exchange rate manipulations, etc.
ACCOUNTING DIMENSION OF GLOBAL STRATEGY Dimensi akuntansi pada strategi global ada pada financial statements, controlling, transfer pricing and international audit. Implications: 1.Language & currency are different 2.Different definition 3.Type and number of information disclosure are different International business evolution: Pre- industrialization, industrialization, after World War II, and multinational era.
ACCOUNTING DIMENSION... (cont’d) Accounting aspec of international business export-import financial information hire foreigner. Shipping, insurance, legal, payment etc. must be concerned. Field of international accounting 1.Descriptive / comparative accounting 2.Accounting dimension of international transaction / MNEs
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AND MULTINATIONAL STRATEGY Int’l business involved at least two countries. Reasons for int’l involvement: sales expand, to get production factors, to get “knowledge” Forms of involvement are strategic alliance and direct investment