Amortization Amortisasi : istilah yang digunakan untuk menyebut proses membayar kembali pinjaman (Walkenbach, 2001). Amortisasi : prosedur akuntansi yang secara bertahap mengurangi nilai biaya dari suatu aktiva dengan umur manfaat terbatas atau aktiva tidak berwujud lain, melalui pembebanan berkala ke pendapatan (Downes & Goodman, 1994). Amortisasi : pembayaran Bunga plus pinjaman pokok yang jumlahnya sama setiap tahun (Syamsuddin, 1992)
EXAMPLE 1 What are the payments on a loan of $200,000 over 10 years, at 0.5% interest per month (with payments in arrears)? Function : PMT(rate, nper, pv, fv, type) =PMT(0.5%,120,200000,0,0) =$2,220.41
EXAMPLE 2 I can afford payments of $2,500 per month, and can borrow at 0.45% (per month) over 20 years. How much can I afford to borrow on a fully redeemable mortgage? Function : PV(rate, nper, pmt, fv, type) =PV(0.45%,240,-2500,0,0) =$366,433.74
EXAMPLE 3 I currently owe $150,000 on a mortgage, and make payments of $1,900 per month. The current interest rate is 0.45% per month. How long will it take to repay the loan? Function : NPER(rate, pmt, pv, fv, type) =NPER(0.45%,-1900,150000,0,0) =97.76
LATIHAN 1. I borrow $300,000 on a balloon mortgage over 15 years, with monthly payments on $100,000. The balance of $200,000 is due at the end of the term. The rate of interest is 0.4% per month, and payments are made monthly in arrears. What will the payments be? 2. If the bank insists on an amortization of $200,000 of a loan, how much extra can I borrow on the balloon mortgage basis if I can afford payments of $3,000 per month? The term of the loan is 10 years, and the current rate is 0.4% per month.
DEPRESIASI Depresiasi adalah penyusutan nilai aktiva tetap seperti mesin dan peralatan, supaya dapat mengalokasikan biayanya selama umur manfaat aktiva. Penyusutan mengurangi pendapatan kena pajak, tetapi tidak mengurangi dana kas.
Depreciation Functions Cost: Original cost of the asset. Salvage: Salvage cost of the asset after it has fully depreciated. Life: Number of periods over which the asset will depreciate. Period: Period in the Life for which the calculation is being made. Month: Number of months in the first year; if omitted, Excel uses 12. Factor: Rate at which the balance declines; if omitted, it is assumed to be 2 (that is, double-declining). Rate: Interest rate per period. If you make payments monthly, for example, you must divide the annual interest rate by 12. No-switch: True or False. Specifies whether to switch to straight- line depreciation when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation.
EXAMPLE The asset’s original cost, $10,000, is assumed to have a useful life of 10 years, with a salvage value of $1,000.