2AmortizationAmortisasi : istilah yang digunakan untuk menyebut proses membayar kembali pinjaman (Walkenbach, 2001).Amortisasi : prosedur akuntansi yang secara bertahap mengurangi nilai biaya dari suatu aktiva dengan umur manfaat terbatas atau aktiva tidak berwujud lain, melalui pembebanan berkala ke pendapatan (Downes & Goodman, 1994).Amortisasi : pembayaran Bunga plus pinjaman pokok yang jumlahnya sama setiap tahun (Syamsuddin, 1992)
3EXAMPLE 1What are the payments on a loan of $200,000 over 10 years, at 0.5% interest per month (with payments in arrears)?Function : PMT(rate, nper, pv, fv, type)=PMT(0.5%,120,200000,0,0)=$2,220.41
4EXAMPLE 2I can afford payments of $2,500 per month, and can borrow at 0.45% (per month) over 20 years. How much can I afford to borrow on a fully redeemable mortgage?Function : PV(rate, nper, pmt, fv, type)=PV(0.45%,240,-2500,0,0)=$366,433.74
5EXAMPLE 3I currently owe $150,000 on a mortgage, and make payments of $1,900 per month. The current interest rate is 0.45% per month. How long will it take to repay the loan?Function : NPER(rate, pmt, pv, fv, type)=NPER(0.45%,-1900,150000,0,0)=97.76
6LATIHANI borrow $300,000 on a balloon mortgage over 15 years, with monthly payments on $100,000. The balance of $200,000 is due at the end of the term. The rate of interest is 0.4% per month, and payments are made monthly in arrears. What will the payments be?If the bank insists on an amortization of $200,000 of a loan, how much extra can I borrow on the balloon mortgage basis if I can afford payments of $3,000 per month? The term of the loan is 10 years, and the current rate is 0.4% per month.
7JAWABAN: 1. Function : PMT(rate, nper, pv, fv, type) =–$1,580.412. Function : PMT(rate, nper, pv, fv, type)=PMT(0.4%,120,200000,0,0)=–$2,101.81:
8DEPRESIASIDepresiasi adalah penyusutan nilai aktiva tetap seperti mesin dan peralatan, supaya dapat mengalokasikan biayanya selama umur manfaat aktiva.Penyusutan mengurangi pendapatan kena pajak, tetapi tidak mengurangi dana kas.
10Depreciation Functions Cost: Original cost of the asset.Salvage: Salvage cost of the asset after it has fully depreciated.Life: Number of periods over which the asset will depreciate.Period: Period in the Life for which the calculation is being made.Month: Number of months in the first year; if omitted, Excel uses 12.Factor: Rate at which the balance declines; if omitted, it is assumed to be 2 (that is, double-declining).Rate: Interest rate per period. If you make payments monthly, for example, you must divide the annual interest rate by 12.No-switch: True or False. Specifies whether to switch to straight-line depreciation when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation.
11EXAMPLEThe asset’s original cost, $10,000, is assumed to have a useful life of 10 years, with a salvage value of $1,000.