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1 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa  Primer (extractive), pertanian, pertambangan, perikanan, kehutanan.  Sekunder (goods production), manufaktur,

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa  Primer (extractive), pertanian, pertambangan, perikanan, kehutanan.  Sekunder (goods production), manufaktur,"— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa  Primer (extractive), pertanian, pertambangan, perikanan, kehutanan.  Sekunder (goods production), manufaktur, dan pemrosesan.  Tersier (domestical service), restoran dan hotel, salon kecantikan, laundry & dry cleaning, pemeliharaan dan reparasi.  Kuarter (trade), transportasi, perdagangan eceran, komunikasi, keuangan dan asuransi, real estate, dan pemerintahan.  Kuiner (perbaikan dan peningkatan kapasitas manusia), kesehatan, pendidikan, riset, rekreasi, dan kesenian. 1. Jasa Dalam Ekonomi Modern Perkembangan sektor jasa erat kaitannya dg tahap- tahap perkembangan aktivitas ekonomi :

2 2 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa  Kesempatan kerja yg diciptakannya  Semakin meningkatnya jumlah tenaga kerja wanita yg terserap dalam sektor jasa  Besarnya pembelian sektor ini u/ alat-alat seperti komputer, peralatan kantor dan komunikasi (pembelian sektor jasa lebih besar dibandingkan pembeelian sektor manufaktur)  Meningkatnya sumbangan sektor jasa terhadap GNP (suatu negara) yg menggeser dominasi sumbangan sektor manufaktur atau ekstraktif (AS: peran sektor Jasa + 70% dari GNP)  Meningkatnya tenaga kerja jasa dalam pemrosesan informasi dan dalam industri-industri berteknologi tinggi.  Tumbuh suburnya kerjasama sektor jasa dg sektor manufaktur yg saling menguntungkan  Adanya kompleksitas kehidupan Peran sektor jasa dalam suatu perekonomian semakin meningkat dilihat dari:

3 3 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa  A service is an act or performance offered by one party to another.  Services are economic activities that create value and provide benefits for customers at specific times and place as a result of bringing about a desired change in – or on behalf of – the recipient of the service (Lovelock)  Setiap tindakan atau unjukkerja yg ditawarkan oleh salah satu pihak kpd pihak lain yg prinsipnya bersifat ‘intangible’ dan tidak menyebabkan perpindahan kepemilikan apapun.  Jasa sebagai deeds (tindakan, prosedur, aktivitas); proses-proses, dan kinerja yang intangible. 2. What Is a Service?

4 4 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa  Produk fisik murni (garam, sabun mandi, dll)  Produk fisik dg jasa pendukung (penawaran disertai satu atau beberapa jasa pendukung)  Hybrid (penawaran terdiri dari brg dan jasa yg porsinya sama)  Jasa utama yg didukung dg barang dan jasa minor  Jasa murni Suatu penawaran dapat bervariasi dari dua kutub ekstrim: satu sisi murni berupa brg (tangible), dan disisi lainnya murni jasa (intangible). Thus, dapat dibedakan menjadi 5 kategori:

5 5 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa High Low HighIntangible Elements Tangible Elements salt Soft Drinks VCR Tennis Racquet New Car Made-to-Measure Clothing Furniture Rental Fast-Food Restaurant Plumbing Repair Lawn care Oil Change on Car House Cleaning Airline flight Teaching Investment Mgt Figure: Value Added by Tangible vs Intangible Elements in Goods & Service

6 6 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa  Nature of the product  No customer ownership of services  Service product as intangible performance  Greater involvement of customers in the production process  Peoples as part of the product  Greater difficulties in maintaining quality control standards  Harder for customer to evaluate  No inventories for service after production  Importance of the time factor  Different distribution channels Ten generic differences between services and physical goods:

7 7 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa Clothing Jewelry Furniture Houses Automobiles Restaurants meals Vacation Haircuts Child care TV repair Legal services canal Auto repair Medical diagnosis Most goods Most services Easy to evaluate Difficult to evaluate High in search qualities High in experience qualities High in credence qualities Figure: Continum of Evaluation for Different Types of Products

8 8 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa  Intangibility Jasa tidak dapat dilihat, dirasa, diraba, dicium atau didengar sebelum dibeli. Berbeda dg brg yg objek fisiknya jelas, dapat dimiliki, jasa dapat dikonsumsi tanpa dapat dimiliki secara fisik.  Heterogeneity Jasa memp. sifat sangat variatif karena mrp. ‘nonstandardized output’, artinya, banyak variasi bentuk, kualitas dan jenis, bergantung pd siapa, kapan, dan di-mana jasa tersebut dihasilkan. Tiga faktor penyebab variabilitas kualitas jasa: - kerjasama atau partisipasi pelanggan selama penyampaian jasa - moral/motivasi karyawan dalam melayani pelanggan - beban kerja perusahaan. 3. Karakteristik Jasa

9 9  Perishability of output Jasa merupakan komoditas yg tidak tahan lama dan tidak dapat disimpan. Bila suatu jasa tidak digunakan (tidak terjual), maka jasa tersebut akan berlalu begitu saja. Oleh karenanya perusahaan jasa harus mampu mengevaluasi kapasitasnya u/ menyeimbangkan penawaran dan permintaan.  Inseparability or simultaneity of production and consumption Pada jasa, proses operasi terjadi secara bersamaan dg proses konsumsi. Interaksi antara penyedia jasa dan pelanggan akan menentukan hasil dari jasa. Pelanggan hadir dan merupakan bagian dari proses operasi jasa. I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa

10 10 I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa  Supporting facility, Sumberdaya/fasilitas fisik yg harus ada sebelum suatu jasa ditawarkan kepada konsumen. Kriteria yg digunakan pelanggan u/ menilai fasilitas fisik: kesesuaian arsitektural, dekorasi interior, tata letak fasilitas, dan peralatan pendukung lainnya. contoh: rumah sakit, golf course, pesawat terbang.  Fasilitating goods, Bahan-bahan yang dibeli atau dikonsumsi oleh pembeli, atau item-item yg diberikan pelanggan. Kriteria penilaian yg digunakan pelanggan u/ menilai: konsistensi, kuantitas, dan variasi atau pilihan yang tersedia. 4. Paket Jasa Paket Jasa? Serangkaian brg/jasa yg diberikan (tersedia) dalam suatu lingkungan ttt Ka rak te ris tik

11 11  Explicit service, Semua manfaat yg dapat diamati dan dirasakan dg panca indera, meliputi karakteristik jasa yang esensial atau intrinsik. Kriteria penilaian pelanggan: pelatihan bagi para personel jasa, keleng-kapan, konsistensi, dan ketersediaan (lokasi, akses, dan pelayanan 24 jam)  Implicit service, Manfaat psikologis yg dirasakan pelanggan, merupakan karakte-ristik ekstrinsik yang melengkapi suatu jasa. Kriteria penilaian pe- langgan : sikap personel jasa, privacy dan keamanan, kenyama-nan, suasana, waktu tunggu, status, dan perasaan tenteram/ tenang. I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa

12 12 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa 5. Pendekatan Terpadu thd Manajemen Jasa Delapan Komponen Manajemen Jasa Terpadu  Product Elements Manajer harus memilih fitur dari core product (brg atau jasa) dan serangkaian elemen jasa pelengkap yg mengelilinginya, dg merujuk pd manfaat yg diinginkan pelanggan dan seberapa baik pesaing menghasilkannya dan menyajikannya kepada pelanggan  Place, Cyberspace, and Time Penyampaian elemen produk kepada pelanggan mencakup keputusan tempat dan waktu penyampaian, apakah menggunakan saluran distribusi fisik atau elektronik (atau keduanya), bergantung kpd sifat jasa yg ditawarkan. Kecepatan dan kemudahan (place and time) bagi pelanggan menjadi determinan penting didalam strategi penyampaian jasa.  Process Penciptaan dan penyampaian elemen produk kepada pelanggan mem-butuhkan proses desain dan implementasi yg menggambarkan metode dan urutan tindakan dimana sistem operasi jasa bekerja.

13 13  Productivity and Quality Elemen ini harus diperlakukan secara stratejik sbg. rangkaian yg saling terkait. Productivity, dikaitkan dg bgmana input diubah men-jadi output yg bernilai bg pelanggan. Quality, merujuk kpd tingkat dimana jasa memuaskan pelanggan dg memenuhi kebutuhan, keinginan, dan harapannya.  People Sebagian besar jasa bergantung pada interaksi langsung antara pe-langgan dg personal perusahaan, (potong rambut, makan direstoran)  Promotion and Education Tidak ada program pemasaran yg bisa berhasil tanpa komunikasi yang efektif. Komponen ini memainkan tiga peranan vital: memberikan informasi dan advis yang diperlukan, membujuk ‘target customers’, ttg kegunaan produk ttt, mendorong mereka u/ melakukan pembelian. Didalam pemasaran jasa komunikasi lebih bersifat ‘educational’, terutama bagi pelanggan baru. I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa

14 14 I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa Physical Evidence Tampilan gedung, keindahan taman, kendaraan, desain interior, peralatan, staff/personel perusahaan, signs, printed material, dan visible cues lainnya menunjukkan bukti fisik kualitas suatu perusahaan jasa. Pada jasa dg elemen fisik yg sedikit (ch: Asuransi), periklanan penting untuk menciptakan simbol-simbol yg bermakna bagi pelanggan. Price and Other User Costs Komponen ini menunjukkan berbagai pengeluaran dan biaya yg dibebankan kepada pelanggan dalam mendapatkan manfaat jasa yg dibutuhkan. Delapan....

15 15 Didalam bisnis jasa,ketiga fungsi manajemen: pemasaran, operasi dan sumberdaya manusia, memainkan peran sentral dan saling terkait dalam memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan. Perusahaan jasa harus memahami implikasi dari 8 komponen manajemen jasa terpadu u/ mengembangkan strategi yg efektif. I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa Hubungan SDM, Operasi dan Pemasaran Jasa Customers Marketing Management Operation Management Human Resources Management Figure: Interdependence of Marketing, Operations, and Human Resources

16 16 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa Penciptaan Value didalam Bisnis Jasa What is value? Is the worth of a specific action or object relative to an individual’s (or organization’s) needs at a particular point in time, less the costs involved in obtaining those benefits Perusahaan menciptakan ‘value’ dg menawarkan berbagai tipe jasa yang dibutuhkan pelanggan, menggunakan kapabilitas yg dimiliki secara tepat, dan menyampai- kannya dg berbagai kemudahan dan menyenangkan pada tk harga yg ‘acceptable’. Perusahaan menerima ‘value’ dari pelanggan dalam bentuk uang yg dibayarkan untuk membeli dan menggunakan jasa yg diminta. Transfer of value tersebut menggambarkan satu dari konsep paling mendasar dalam pemasaran, yi: exchange. (take place when one party obtains value from another in return for some-thing else of value). Pertukaran (the exchange of value) tidak terbatas pada ‘buying and selling’, tetapi juga terjadi ketika karyawan bekerja pada suatu organisasi. Karyawan memperoleh ‘benefit’ dari pekerjaan yang dilaku- kan dalam bentuk: gaji, insentif, dan berbagai pengalaman berharga seperti pelatihan, on-the-job experience, dan bekerja dengan kolega yg ramah.

17 17 I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa 6. How Do Service Differ from One Another? Core Product versus Supplementary Service Sebagian besar jasa terdiri dari sebuah rangkaian, mencakup variasidari elemen-elemen jasa, termasuk beberapa physical goods. Adalah penting membedakan antara core product yang dibeli pelanggan,dan seperangkat jasa pelengkap yg sering menyertai produk tersebut. A bed for the night in an Elegant Private Room with Bathroom Reservation Valet Parking Reception Baggage Service Coctail Bar Restaurant Entertainment/ Sports/Exercise Telephone Wake-up Call Room Service Business Center Cashier Figure: Core Product and Supplementary Service for Luxury Hotel

18 18 I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa  Tingkat tangibilitas dan intangibilitas dari proses jasa Apakah jasa memerlukan sesuatu yg bersifat fisik/berwujud (kendaraan pd jasa angkutan), atau prosesnya melibatkan lebih banyak sesuatu yg tidak berujud (mengajar, konsultasi)  Apa atau siapa penerima langsung dari proses jasa Kepada siapa jasa tersebut diarahkan?: - services directed at people bodies (potong rambut) - services directed at goods and other physical posseeeions (reparasi) - services directed at people’s minds (pendidikan) - services directed at intangibles assets (bank, asuransi)  Tempat dan waktu penyampaian jasa Apakah pelanggan yg datang kelokasi jasa, atau provider yg mendatangi pelanggan 7. Klasifikasi Jasa Jasa dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan 7 kriteria (Lovelock; 2001):

19 19  Kustomisasi versus standarisasi Apakah pelanggan akan menerima jasa yg sama atau apakah fitur jasa disesuaikan u/ memenuhi persyaratan konsumen  Sifat hubungan dg konsumen Apakah pelanggan dapat diidentifikasi (nasabah Bank) atau tidak (pengguna telepon coin)  Sifat permintaan dan penawarannya Apakah sifat permintaannya tetap atau berfluktuasi  Sejauh mana fasilitas, peralatan, dan orang mrp bagian dari pengalaman jasa. Sejauh mana pelanggan jasa diekspose pada elemen-elemen fisik dalam sistem penyampaiannya. I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa

20 20 I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa Klasifikasi Jasa Basis Klasifikasi Contoh 1. Segmen Pasar Konsumen akhir Konsumen organisasi Salon kecantikan Konsultan manajemen 2. Tingkat Keberwujudan Rented-goods service Owned-goods service Non-goods service Penyewaan mobil Reparasi mobil Pemandu wisata 3. Keterampilan Penyedia Jasa Professional service Nonprofessional service Dokter Supir taksi 4. Tujuan organisasi Profit service Non-profit service Bank Yayasan sosial 5. Regulasi Regulated service Angkutan umum 6. Tingkat Intensitas Karyawan Equipment-based service People-based service ATM Pelatih sepakbola 7. Tingkat Kontak Provider dg Pelanggan High-contact service Low-contact service Universitas Bioskop

21 21 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa Service factory: Penerbangan Transportasi dg truk Hotel Resor dan rekreasi Service shop: Rumah Sakit Reparasi mobil Jasa reparasi lainnya Mass service: Penjualan grosir & ritel Sekolah Aspek ritel dari perbankan komersial Professional service: Dokter Pengacara Akuntan Arsitek Tingkat Interaksi dan Kustomisasi Tingkat Intensitas Tenaga Kerja Tinggi Rendah Tinggi Figure: Matriks Proses Jasa (Fitzsimmons, dkk)

22 22 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa People processing involves tangible actions to people bodies. Pelanggan secara fisik harus hadir selama proses penyampaian jasa u/ menerima manfaat jasa yg diinginkan. ch: penumpang pesawat, potong rambut, perawatan gigi. Possession processing includes tangible actions to goods and other physical possession belonging to the customer. Objek yang membutuhkan proses harus ada dan tidak diperlukan kehadiran pemiliknya. ch: cleaning service/loundry service, reparasi kendaraan Mental stimulus processing refers to intangible actions directed at people’s minds. Pelanggan harus hadir secara mental. Pelanggan bisa hadir dilokasi dimana jasa diproduksi (such a lecture at the class), atau dilokasi lain yg dihubungkan dg ‘broadcast signals’ atau melalui ‘telecomunication lingkages’. Information processing describes intangible actions directed at a customer’s assets. Keterlibatan langsung pelanggan sedikit diperlukan ketika transaksi pertama dilakukan, hubungan selanjutnya dengan pelanggan dapat dilakukan melalui surat, telepon atau internet. ch: Asuransi, Bank, Konsultan. 8. Jasa Sebagai Proses Sebagai proses, jasa dihasilkan dari tiga proses: input (orang), sumberdaya, dan informasi. A process implies taking an input and transforming it into output Kategorisasi Proses Jasa

23 23 I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa Who or what is the recipient of the service PeoplePossessions People processing (service directed at people bodies): passenger transportation health care lodging beauty salons Physical therapy Fitness center Restaurant/bars barber funeral service recreation Possession processing (service directed at physical possessions): freight transportation repair and maintenance warehousing/storage office cleaning service retail distribution laundry and dry cleaning refueling landscaping/gardening What is the nature Of the service act? Tangible Actions Mental stimulus processing (services directed at people’s minds): broadcasting cable advertising/PR arts and entertainment management consulting education information services music concerts psychotherapy religion voice telephone Information processing (services directed at intangible assets): accounting banking data processing data transmission insurance programming legal service research securities investment software consulting Intangible Actions Figure: Understanding the Nature of the Service Act

24 24 II.Masalah-Masalah Dalam Bisnis Jasa Jasa tidak dapat disimpan Jasa tidak dapat dilindungi dengan hak paten Perusahaan tidak dapat dengan mudah dan cepat mengkomunikasikan suatu jasa Harga sukar ditetapkan 1. Masalah yang berkaitan dengan Intangibility

25 25 II.Masalah-Masalah Dalam Bisnis Jasa Menekankan petunjuk-petunjuk yg tampak (tangible cues) yaitu : tempat (desain interior, eksterior), SDM (ramah, responsif, murah senyum, rapi), peralatan (komputer, meja, kursi, dll), media komu- kasi (brosur, pamflet, leaflet, papan pengumunan), simbol perusahaan, dan harga. Menggunakan SDM lebih banyak dp sumberdaya lainnya Mendorong komunikasi melalui word-of-mouth, dg cara pemberian insentif ttt kpd pelanggan yg dapat menarik pelanggan baru Menciptakan citra (image) organisasi yg kuat, melalui iklan, logo/simbol, perilaku manajemen dan karya- wan yang positif (responsif, etis, peduli lingkungan, dan terpercaya Memanfaatkan akuntansi biaya (manajemen biaya dan akuntansi manajemen) dalam menetapkan harga Melakukan komunikasi purnabeli (post-purchase communication): mengumpulkan informasi kepuasan pelanggan, keluhan pelanggan, saran dan kritik pelanggan, informasi produk baru kpd pelanggan Strategi Mengatasi

26 26 II. Masalah-Masalah Dalam Bisnis Jasa Konsumen terlibat dalam aktivitas produksi jasa Kegiatan pemasaran dan produksi sangat interaktif Produksi massa yang terpusat sangat sukar dilakukan dalam bisnis jasa 2. Masalah yang berkaitan dengan inseparability Strategi Mengatasi Melakukan seleksi dan pelatihan thd public contact personnel (frontliner employees yang berhubungan langsung dg konsumen) Mengelola konsumen Menggunakan berbagai macam lokasi jasa (multisite locations)

27 27 II, Masalah-Masalah Dalam Bisnis Jasa Sangat sulit melakukan standarisasi dan pengendalian kualitas 3. Masalah yang berkaitan dengan Karakteristik Variability Strategi Mengatasi Mengindustrialisasikan jasa dg cara menambah dan memanfaatkan peralatan canggih serta melakukan standarisasi produksi, (misal: franchising) Melakukan service customization (meningkatkan intensitas interaksi antara perusahaan dan pelanggan, shg. Produk dan program pemasaran dapat disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan dan keinginan pelanggan

28 28 II, Masalah-Masalah Dalam Bisnis Jasa Jasa tidak dapat disimpan 4. Masalah yang berkaitan dg karakteristik perishability Strategi Mengatasi Menggunakan berbagai pendekatan u/ mengatasi permintaan yg berfluktuasi (manajemen permintaan) ch: mengurangi permintaan pd periode permintaan puncak dg cara: menaikkan harga atau diferensiasi harga, atau demarketing (diskon bila konsumen berbelanja jauh hari sebelum lebaran misalnya) Melakukan penyesuaian thd permintaan dan kapasitas secara simultan shg tercapai keseim-bangan antara keduanya (manajemen penawaran) ch: menggunakan karyawan paruh waktu pada periode sibuk, menyewa atau berbagi fasilitas dan peralatan tambah-an dg perusahaan lain.

29 29 III. Mengelola Service Encounters  Technology and Customer Contact - Perkembangan teknologi sering menawarkan cara baru bagi bisnis jasa u/ menciptakan dan menyampaikan jasa (core and suplementary service) berdasarkan informasi (Technology-based model of service delivery). contoh: Penggunaan teknologi internet, ATM, pelayanan 24 jam melalui telepon pada industri perbankan. Implikasinnya  pelanggan dapat menghemat lebih banyak waktu untuk melakukan transaksi karena tidak harus mendatangi Bank Branch. 1. Pelanggan dan Operasi Jasa

30 30  Service Encounters: ? A service encounter is a period of time during which customers interact directly with a service (it describe personal interactions between customers and employees).  Differing Level of Customer Contact Three levels of customer contact : * High-contact service (pelanggan mendatangi fasilitas jasa, secara aktif terlibat dalam proses penyampaian jasa) * Medium-contact service (pelanggan mendatangi fasilitas jasa atau didatangi, tetapi tidak terlibat secara fisik dalam proses penyampaiannya * Low-contact service (sangat sedikit terjadi kontak antara pelanggan dg provider) III. Mengelola Service Encounters

31 31 III. Mengelola Service Encounters Emphasizes Encounters with Service Personnel Emphasizes Encounters With Equipment High Low Nursing home Haircut Star Hotel Good Restaurant Airline Travel Management Consulting Retail Banking Motel Fast Food Dry Cleaning Telephone Banking Car Repair Insurance Cable TV Movie Theatre City Bus Home Banking Mail-Based Repairs Internet-Based Service Figure: Levels of Customer Contact with Service Organizations

32 32 III. Mengelola Service Encounters 2. Jasa Sebagai Sistem Sebagai suatu sistem jasa merupakan kombinasi dari komponen (subsistem): service operation, service delivery and service marketing Technical Core Technical Core Physical Support Contact Pesonnel Customer Backstage ( invisible) Front Stage (visible to Customer Other Customers Figure: The Service Busines as a System Technical Core

33 33 III. Mengelola Service Encounters Visible component operasi jasa: - Service personnel (relating to the actors) - Physical facilities, equipment, and other tangibles (relating to the stage set) The stage set : - Backstage, fasilitas yg merupakan technical core dari sistem jasa (little interest to customers). Kegagalan ‘backstage personnel and system’ bekerja akan mempengaruhi kualitas frontstage acivities. - Frontstage, mencakup semua element terdiri dari: physical support dan contact personnel yang merupakan garis depan dalam sistem operasi jasa (visible to customer) Service Operation System

34 34 Proporsi dari overall service operation yg terlihat oleh pelanggan bervariasi bergantung kepada level of customer contact. - High-contact service, secara langsung melibatkan pelanggan secara fisik, pelanggan mendatangi service factory (lebih dominan melibatkan fronstage, walaupun masih terdapat aktivitas backstage yang tidak terlihat oleh pelanggan - Medium-contact service, memerlukan keterlibatan yg lebih rendah pelanggan didalam penyampaian jasa. Konsekuensinya keterlibatan visible component dalam service operation system juga lebih rendah. - low-contact service, biasanya memp. strategi u/ meminimalkan customer contact dg service provider. Backstage element berada pada lokasi yang berbeda. Frontstage elements biasanya terbatas pada kontak melalui post dan telekomunikasi. III. Mengelola Service Encounters

35 35 III. Mengelola Service Encounters Service delivery berkaitan dg dimana, kapan, dan bagaimana service product disampaikan kepada pelanggan. Service delivery as a subsystem, mencakup visible elements of the service operating system (buildings, equipment, and per-sonnel) and entail exposure to other customers. Service Delivery System Service Delivery Consists of a series of processes that customers experien- ces as a performance Direct interaction Customers Use electronic, information & communication technologies To reduce direct contact Self-service delivery often offers customers greater convenience than face-to-face contact automated gasoline pump ATM coin-operated food drink dispencers self-guided museum tour Potential disadvantages: The shift from personal service to self-service sometimes distrubs customers, The strategy is: Give information campaign to edu- cate customers and promote the benefits of the new approach

36 36 III. Mengelola Service Encounters Service Marketing System Technical Core Advertising Sales Calls Market Research Surveys Billing/Statement Miscelllaneous Mail Phone Calls, Fax Random exposures to Facilities/ Vehicles Chance Encounters with Service Personnel Word-of-Mouth The Customer Interior & Exterior Facilities Equipment Service People Other Customers Other Customers Service Operation System Service Delivery System Other Contact Point BackstageFrontstage Figure: The Service Marketing System for High-Contact Service Technical Core The Customer Mail Self Service Equipment Phone, Fax Web Site Advertising Market Research Surveys Billing/Statement Random Exposure to Facilities, Personnel Word-of-Mouth Service Op. System Service Delivery System Other Contact Points Backstage Frontstage Figure: The Service Marketing System for Low-Contact Service

37 37 III. Mengelola Service Encounters Service Personnel Contacts with customers may be face-to-face, by telecommunication (telephone, fax, telegram, telex, electronic mail and express delivery services. This personnel may include: - sales representatives - customer service staff - accounting/billing staff - operations staff who do not normally provide direct service to customers (e.g, engineers, janitor) - designated intermediaries whom customer perceive as directly representing the service firm Service facilities and equipment - building exteriors, parking areas, landscaping - building interiors and furnishings - vehicles - self-service equipment operated by customers - other equipment Table: Tangible Elements and Communication Compo- nent in the Service Marketing System

38 38 III. Mengelola Service Encounters Nonpersonal communications - form letters - brochures/catalogs/instruction manuals/web sites - advertising - signate - news stories/editorials in the mass media Other people - fellow customers encounterd during service delivery - word-of-mouth comments from friends, acquintances, or even strangers Table: Tangible Elements and Communication Compo- nent in the Service Marketing System

39 39 III. Mengelola Service Encounters 3. Mengelola Service Encounter U/ Hasil yg Memuaskan Managing People in Service Encounters Tugas manajer: Menyiapkan service personnels yang memiliki: Technical skill (technical aspects aspect of the job quickly and accurately) and Interpersonal skills (how to serve customer respectively) Service employees perlu diberi pelatihan, otoritas, dan dukungan manajemen sehingga dapat membe- rikan pelayanan terbaik kepada pelanggan (in satis- factory outcomes. Bentuk lain dari kontrol perilaku karyawan, manajer harus mampu menjadi ‘the role model’ bagaimana memberikan pelayanan yang terbaik kepada pelanggan.

40 40 III. Mengelola Service Encounters Critical Incidents in Service Encounter The Customer Perspective Menentukan titik kegagalan yang paling mungkin didalam ‘service encounter’, dimana terdapat risiko signifikan kekecewaan pelanggan, merupakan langkah pertama ‘in taking corrective action’ untuk mengatasi kejadian tersebut. N egative critical incidents yang diselesaikan dg baik, mempunyai potensi besar untuk meningkatkan loyalitas karena provider menunjukkan kepada pelanggan bahwa perusahaan benar-benar peduli kpd mereka. The Employee Perspective Customer-employee contact is “a two-way street” Memahami pandangan karyawan thd situasi yg diha- dapi sangat penting, karena ‘thoughtless or poorly behave customers’ sering menyebabkan ‘needless problems bagi service personnel yang berusaha keras melayani mereka dg baik.

41 41 III. Mengelola Service Encounters 1.Low (Customer Presence Required during Service Delivery) - Product are standardized - Service is provided regardless of any individual purchase - Payment may be the only required customer input Examples: - End customer: * Bus travel * Motel stay * Movie Theatre - Business-to-business: * Uniform cleaning service * Interior greenery maintenance 4. The Customer as Coproducer Tabel : Level of Customer Participation across Different Services

42 42 III. Mengelola Service Encounters 2.Moderate (Customer inputs required for service creation) - Client inputs customize a standard service - Provision of service requires customer purchase - Customer inputs (information, materials) are necessary for an adequate outcome, but the service firm provides the service Examples: - End customer * Hair cut * Annual physical exam * Full-service restaurant - Business-to-business * Agency-created advertising campaign * Payroll service * Independent freight transportation

43 43 III. Mengelola Service Encounters 3.High (Customer coproduces the service product) - Active client participation guides the customized service - Service cannot be created apart from the customer’s purchase and active participation - Customer inputs are mandatory and coproduces the outcomes. Examples: - End customer: * Marriage counselling * Personal training * Weight-reduction program - Business-to-business: * Management consulting * Executive management seminar * Install wide area network (WAN)

44 44 III. Mengelola Service Encounters 5. Service Firms as Teachers Semakin banyak pekerjaan diharapkan kpd pelanggan u/ melakukannya, semakin banyak informasi yang diperlukan pelanggan ttg begaimana hal tsb dilakukan. Thus, perusahaan bertanggung-jawab mendidik ‘inexperienced customers’ tersebut. Lack of knowledge, dapat membawa kpd ‘frustation with the process and unsatisfactory results’ termasuk menempatkan pelanggan pada risiko, karenanya customer education sangat diperlukan, dan memegang peran kunci didalam strategi komunikasi pemasaran bagi bisnis jasa. Customer education approaches: brochures and posted instructions Advertising for new services often contains significant educational content Case: Thoughtful banks place a telephone beside their ATMs, so that customers can call a real person for help and advice at any time if they confused about the onscreen instructions.

45 45 IV : Developing new products or services for existing markets, Developing new products or sercvices for new markets Developing new applications for existing products or services Improving the quality of existing product or services Reducing the cost of an existing product or service Minimizing dangers, nuisances, or pollution associated with the use of product or service Reducing or eliminating difficulties associated with the production or use of a product or service Standardizing a product or service line Adapting a product or service to new legal requirements or opportunities Improving customer or public relations Specifying and describing the new product or service concepts in sufficient detail for them to be implemented by another person or group 1. The Purpose of Design

46 46 It must be objective, not subjective It must be precise, not vague It must be fact driven, not opinion driven It must be methodological, not philosophical IV 4 Basics Characteristics in New Service Development

47 47 IV 2. Stage in New-Service Development Business Strategy Development or Review new-Service Strategy Development idea Generation STOP Screen ideas against new service strategy Concept Development and Evaluation STOP Test concept with customers and employees Business Analysis STOP Test for profitability and feasibility Service Development and Testing STOP Conduct service prototype test Market Testing STOP Test service and other marketing-mix elements Commercialization Postintroduction Evaluation Front-End Planning Implementation

48 48 IV 3. The Relationship of Design to Marketing and Production Customer Marketing Production or service delivery Product/service designers Marketing Cutomer Needs Performance Spects Design Spects Product or service

49 49 IV 4. Design Process The design process is often controlled by a procedure known as ‘project management’. With project management, the design project is broken down into a hierarchy of tasks for the design of subsystems and components. The major advantages of formal manag. of the design process: 1. Project purpose, tasks, and subtasks are clearly defined, 2. Responsibilities for the tasks are well defined 3. There is frequent and complete reporting for coordination and performance/task/cost evaluation 4. The development time is shortened 5. The concentrated team effort produces higher morale The major disadvantages: 1. It is difficult to find good project managers 2. Ornazational planning is a complex process and may result in lower utilization of company personnel 3. Any snag that delays the coordinated design effort may delay the entire project and cause snowballing 4. Time pressures may stifle creativity

50 50 1.Accumulation of Information, Informasi utama ttg desain jasa berupa spesifikasi kinerja (the design specifications) yang diperoleh dari manajemen atau staf pemasaran. Informasi lain yang diperlukan: - state-of-the-art technology - architectural input, - the availability of human skills - equipment options must be thoroughly researched IV The process of designing a service involve steps: Note: the Marriot Corporation is a good exp. of a company that accumulates volumes of information, mostly from its competitors, when designing new services.

51 51 2. Development of Conceptual Alternatives Mengubah spesifikasi kinerja menjadi pilihan desain jasa (alternative service designs). Alternative designs pada tahap ini disecut ‘concepts’ karena pada dasarnya baru berupa ide-ide yang belum diimplementasikan atau di definisikan secara detail. contoh: Service Performance Spects Alternative Concept IV Movie theatre Waiting in ticket line not to exceed 5 minute Multiple ticket booths Coin-operated entrance gates Advance ticket purchases by phone with credit cards Mail-order Banking Supply withdrawal cash to customers within 24 hours Arrange with local bank to supply cash by electronic fund transfer Send cash by overnight express service Private transportation Move customers about city rapidly Taxi system Jitney system (i.e, shared rides)

52 52 3. Design and Testing of Prototype Prototipe atau sampel jasa dikontstruksikan dan diuji. Ada beberapa teknik yang dapat digunakan spt: uji coba rute baru (local bus route),simulasi komputer, yg memungkinkan konsumen untuk melihat sistem operasi secara hipotetis dari new product yg diuji. Banyak organisasi jasa memp. Multiple outlets (Mc.Donald’s), dimana prototipe yg berbeda dapat diuji. 4. Final Design, Drawings, and Specifications The final service design akan dipengaruhi oleh teknologi dari proses jasa. The final design harus benar-benar sesuai dengan preferensi pasar. Thus, penelitian ttg: customer needs, attitudes, and prefe- rences, the results of market tests harus benar-benar dapat digunakan dalam pengambilan ‘the final decision’. the last steps in the design process: menyiapkan spesifikasi ‘narritive’ dari ‘the bundle of intangibles supplied’. Spesifikasi desain perangkat jasa memberikan gambaran ttg jasa secara jelas bahwa pengalaman jasa yg sama dapat direplikasi diberbagai lokasi (paket jasa yg dijual perusahaan tsb). IV

53 53 IV 5. Service Design System Approaches Personalized service (Jasa personal) Pendekatan ini keyakinan bahwa jasa merupakan susuatu yg sifatnya personal (dilakukan oleh individu ttt, dan ditujukan kepada individu lainnya). Karenanya setiap pelanggan harus dilayani secara personal sesuai kebutuhannya. Production line approach (Pendekatan lini produksi) Jasa secara rutin disediakan dalam lingkungan yg terkendali untuk menjamin konsistensi kualitas dan efisiensi operasi. Beberapa karakteristik yg menunjang keberhasilan pendekat- an ini: a. Adanya keterbatasan karyawan dalam bertindak (ditujukan untuk standarisasi dan konsistensi dalam kualitas) b. Adanya pembagian kerja (division of labor), sesuai dengan spesialisasi ketrampilan karyawan. c. Menggantikan sdm dengan teknologi tertentu (pemanfaatan teknologi dan komputerisasi sbg. substitusi secara sistema- tis). Misal: penggunaan ATM didalam industri perbankan. d. Standarisasi jasa. (misal: franchising), memungkinkan upaya perencanaan dan prediksi lebih awal atas pelayanan dan permintaan pelanggan. Tugas menjadi lebih jelas, aliran pelanggan teratur, terciptanya keseraga- man kualitas jasa, proses jasa menjadi lebih mudah diken- dalikan.

54 54 IV Memisahkan operasi kontak tinggi dan operasi tanpa kontak langsung dengan pelanggan. Manfaat: - perusahaan dapat menciptakan persepsi personalized service bagi pelanggan - perusahaan dapat mencapai skala ekonomis melalui pemro- sesan volume kerja. Keberhasilan pendekatan ini bergantung pada 2 faktor: a.Tingkat kontak dengan pelanggan (tinggi, sedang, rendah). - berkaitan dg kehadiran pelanggan secara fisik dalam sistem jasa. - Diukur berdasarkan %-tase atau perbandingan antara waktu kehadiran pelanggan dalam sistem jasa dg waktu total pe- nyampaian suatu jasa. - Pada high-contact service, kehadiran dan partisipasi pelang- gan sangat menentukan timing permintaan, sifat jasa, dan kualitas jasa. b. Pemisahan high-contact operation dan noncontact operation lansung dg pelanggan, akan mempengaruhi desain sistem jasa yg dibutuhkan. - high-contact operation, membutuhkan karyawan yg terampil dalam melayani pelanggan - noncontact operation, tidak harus secara fisik berhubungan langsung dg pelanggan (operasi dapat dijadwalkan u/ mencapai kapasitas optimal). Contoh: back-stage operation.

55 55 IV Partisipasi Pelanggan Berdasarkan tk. Keterlibatan pelanggan, sistem penyampaian jasa dapat dipandang dari dua titik ekstrim. Swalayan (self-service) Ketergantungan penuh pada penyedia jasa Thus,ada dua macam kontribusi yg dapat diberikan pelanggan dalam sistem penyampaian jasa: a. Menggantikan provider labor dengan customer labor. (penggunaan fasilitas ATM). b. Memperhalus atau mengurangi variasi permintaan jasa. metode yang digunakan: - Sistem reservasi dan appointment, untuk menghindari antrian panjang, dan mendapatkan kepasatian pelayanan, (praktek dokter, hotel, perusahaan penerbangan). - Penetapan harga diferensial, dilakukan untuk mendorong pelanggan memanfaatkan jasa pada waktu-waktu diluar jam sibuk, (tarif murah telp. Interlokal pada jam-jam ttt). - Mengelola atau memperkuat permintaan pada periode tidak sibuk, agar perbedaan permintaan dengan periode sibuk tidak terlampau tajam (minivacation weekends pada hotel). - Mengembangkan jasa komplementer selama jam sibuk, (penggunaan fasilitas ATM ).

56 56 IV Swalayan (self-service) Pada pendekatan ini tk keterlibatan pelanggan sangat tinggi. pelanggan berperan secara aktif dalam proses jasa, (Super- market; pelanggan memilih sendiri produk yg diinginkan, membawa sendiri brg belanjaannya).

57 57 IV 6. Tipe Operasi Jasa Proyek sejumlah aktivitas saling terkait, didefinisikan dg jelas, disele- saikan dlm tahap waktu ttt. Jasa profesional yg berkaitan dg penanganan proyek : arsitek, konsultan, pengacara, akuntan, dokter. Batch (job shop) jasa disesuaikan dengan spesifikasi dan kebutuhan pelanggan. Faktor terpenting dalam tipe ini adalah kemampuan u/ melaksa- nakan berbagai kombinasi dan tahapan/rangkaian aktivitas yg berbeda bagi setiap konsumen, (jasa katering, perawatan medis, bengkel. Lini (flow shop) Berhubungan dengan penyampaian jasa yg telah distandari- sasi, sehingga rangkaian operasi yg dilakukan relatif sama, (registrasi di perg. Tinggi, pemeriksaan kesehatan di RS, pengurusan STNK/SIM) Proses berkesinambungan (ongoing process) Beroperasi selama 24 jam penuh, siap memberikan pelayanan kapanpun dibutuhkan (kepolisian, Barisan Pencegah dan Pemadam Kebakaran.

58 58 1. Arti dan Tipe Harapan Pelanggan Jasa Sifat dan sumber harapan yg muncul diantara berbagai kelom- pok konsumen, pada dasarnya relatif sama. End-and business-customer groups, Experienced and inexperienced customers Customers of pure and of product-related services Expectation of Had fundamentally the same nature and antecedents Levels of Expectations Zone of Tolerance Desired service Adequate service The level of service the customer hopes to receive The level of service the customer will accept The extent to which customers recognize and are willing to accept this variation

59 59 The Zone of Tolerance Different customers posses different zone of tolerance. Merupakan salah satu aspek didalam ‘range of reasonable service’, bahwa pelanggan mempunyai zona toleransi yg ber- beda, (some customers have narrow of tolerance, requiring a tighter range of service from provider, while other customers allow a greater range of service). Zone of tolerance vary for service dimensions Zona toleransi pelanggan jasa bervariasi berdasarkan atribut atau dimensi jasa. Semakin penting atribut/dimensi jasa tersebut bagi pelanggan semakin sempit zona toleransinya. Zone of Tolerance Zone of Tolerance Desired service Adequate service Desired service Adequate service Level of Expec- tation Most important Factors Least important factors Figure: Zone if tolerance for Different Service Dimensions

60 60 Zone of tolerance vary for first-time and recovery service. Zona toleransi untuk ‘first time service’ biasanya lebih tinggi dari pada ‘recovery service’. - Harapan pelanggan lebih tinggi kepada ‘service outcome’ dan ‘the process’ selama ‘recovery service’. - Fluktuasi didalam zona toleransi pelanggan individual lebih mengarah kepada fungsi perubahan pada ‘adequate service level’ (move up and down due to situational circumtances) dari pada ‘the desired service level’ (tends to move upward incre- mentally due to accumulated experiences). Figure: Zone of tolerance for first-time and recovery service First-Time Service Outcome Process Recovery Service LowHigh Expectations Outcome Process

61 61 2. Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Harapan Pelanggan Sources of Desired Service Expectations Figure: Factors that influence desired service Enduring service intensifiers Personal needs Desired service Zone of Tolerance Adequate service Expected Service Including physical,social, psy- chological, and functional needs Are individual, stable factors that lead the customer to a heightened sensitivity to service. derived service expectation (the most important of these factors), terjadi ketika harapan pelanggan dipicu oleh orang lain atau kelompok dimana individu tsb berinteraksi. personal service philosophy, pelanggan mendasarkan ‘generic attitude’ ttg makna dari jasa dan perlakuan yg pantas (proper conduct) dari service provider.

62 62 Sources of Adequate Service Expectations Figure: Factors that Influence adequate service Transitory service intensifiers Perceived service alternatives Self-perceived service role Situational factors Desired service Zone of Tolerance Adequate service Predicted Service The level of service customers believe they are likely to get.

63 63 Transitory service intensifiers, Bersifat temporer, jangka pendek, faktor individual yang mem- buat seorang pelanggan lebih menyadari kebutuhannya akan jasa tersebut ch: Personal emergency situations in which service is urgently needed, (such as traffic accident) riase the level of adequate service expec- tation, particularly level of responsiveness required and considered acceptable. Perceived service alternatives, Jasa yang sama yang bisa diperoleh pelanggan dari provider yang lain (competitors). Semakin banyak pesaing, semakin ba- nyak pilihan pelanggan, akan semakin tinggi ‘level of adequate service, (the customer will be less tolerant of the service perfor- mance) The customer’s self-perceived service role, Didefinisikan sbg. persepsi pelanggan thd tingkat dimana pe- langgan mempunyai pengaruh atas ‘the level of service’ yang mereka terima (partisipasi pelanggan dalam proses ‘service delivery’ tinggi). A dissatisfied customer who complains will be less tolerant than one who does not voice his or her concerns. Situational factors, Kondisi kinerja jasa yg dipandang pelanggan sbg sesuatu yg berada diluar kendali ‘service provider’. Semakin maklum pe- langgan dg faktor situasi, semakin tinggi tk toleransi pelanggan.

64 64 Sources of Both Desired and Predicted Service Expectations Figure: Factors that influence desired and predicted service Explicit service promises Past experience Word-of-mouth Implicit service promises Desired Service Zone of Tolerance Adequate Service Predicted Service Expected Service

65 65 Explicit service promises, Pernyataan/janji personal ( when they are communicated by salespeople or repair personnel) dan nonpersonal (when they come from advertising, brochures, and other writte publications) tentang jasa yg dibuat oleh perusahaan kepada pelanggan, (completely in the control of the service provider). Implicit service promises, Jasa dikaitkan dengan isyarat lain dari ‘explicit promises’ yg bermuara pada kesimpulan ttg seperti apa jasa yg akan diterima oleh pelanggan ybs. ‘Quality cues’ didominasi oleh harga dan elemen tangibles dari jasa tersebut. Word-of-mouth communication, Komunikasi dari mulut kemulut sangat penting dalam konteks jasa yg sulit dievaluasi sebelum pembelian dan mengalami lang- sung proses jasa tersebut. Past experience, Pengalaman masa lalu konsumen didalam mengkonsumsi jasa merupakan kekuatan lain didalam mempengaruhi ‘desired and predicted service’. (look at this statement,” My expectations are definitely influenced by my past experience... My expectations are more realistic because of the knowledge I’ve gained”.)

66 66 3. A Model of Customer Service Expectations Figure: Nature and determinants of customer expectation of service Enduring Service Intensifiers Derived expectations Personal service philosophies Personal Needs Transitory Service Intensifiers Emergencies Service problems Perceived Service Alternatives Self-Perceived Service Role Situational Factors Bad weather Catastrophe Random overdemand Explicit Service Promises Advertising Personal selling Contracts Other communications Implicit Service Promises Tangibles Price Word-of Mouth Personal Expert (consumer re- ports, publicity, etc) Past Experience Expected Service Desired Service Zone Of Tolerance Adequate Service Perceived Service Predicted Service Gap 5

67 67 1. Customer Perceptions How customer perceive services, how they asses/evaluate, whether they have experienced quality service and whether they are satisfied. Satisfaction, umumnya dipandang sbg konsep yg lebih luas. Service quality, focuses on dimensions of service, mrp komponen dari kepuasan pelanggan (satisfaction),. SatisfactionvsService quality Internal customer, are employees within the firm who in their jobs, depend on others in the organization for internally provided goods and Services. External customer, individuals and business that buy goods and services from the organization. Asumsi: bahwa dimensi jasa dan cara ‘customer’ mengevaluasi jasa, dianggap tidak ada perbedaan, apakah mereka internal atau external customer.

68 68 Figure: Customer perception of quality and customer satisfaction Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Tangibles Service Quality Product Quality Price Customer Satisfaction Situational Factors Personal Factors

69 69 2. Customer Satisfaction Adalah tingkat perasaan seseorang setelah membandingkan kinerja produk/jasa yg ia rasakan dibandingkan dg harapannya. Satisfaction is the consumer’s fulfilment response. It is a judge- ment that a product or service feature, or the product or service it self, provides apleasurable level of consumption-related fulfilment. Product and Service Features, kepuasan pelanggan dengan produk atau jasa, dipengaruhi secara signi- fikan oleh evaluasi pelanggan thd fitur produk atau jasa. Ch: important features for a resort hotel : the pool area, access to golf facilities, restaurants, room comfort and privacy, helpfulness and courtesy of staff, room price, and so forth. Consumer Emotions, Emosi pelanggan dapat mempengaruhi persepsi pelanggan terha- dap kepuasan thd produk dan jasa yg dikonsumsi. Specific emotion bisa dipicu oleh pengalaman konsumsi itu sendiri, ia akan mempengaru- hi kepuasan konsumen thd jasa. Attribution for Service Success or Failure, atribusi thd keberhasilan dan kegagalan jasa juga mempengaruhi per- sepsi pelanggan thd kepuasan. Ketika pelanggan merasa ‘surprised’ dg ‘outcome’ (jasa yg diterima lebih baik atau lebih buruk dari yg diharap- kan), konsumen cenderung berusaha mencari alasan, dan penilaian me- reka thd alasan tsb dapat mempengaruhi kepuasannya.

70 70 Perceptions of Equity or Fairness, Kepuasan pelanggan juga dipengaruhi oleh persepsi pelanggan terha- dap kewajaran jasa yg diterima. Pelanggan akan bertanya pada diri mere- ka: apakah saya telah diperlakukan sama dibandingkan dg pelanggan ? apakah pelanggan lain diperlakukan lebih baik, memperoleh harga yg lebih baik, memperoleh jasa dg kualitas yg lebih baik? (note: notions of fairness are central to customers’ perceptions of satis- faction with product and service). Outcomes of Customer Satisfaction Mengapa semua perhatian tertuju pada kepuasan pelanggan? Studi menemukan bahwa peningkatan ‘level of customer satisfaction’ dapat dihubungkan dengan ‘customer loyalty and profit’. Dalam konteks makro, satisfaction mrp indikator penting dari ‘quality of life’. Figure: Relationship bet- ween customer satisfaction and loyalty in competitive industries 1 = very dissatis- fied 2 = dissatisfied 3 = neither satis- fied nor dis- satisfied 4 =satisfied 5 = very satisfied loyalty (repetition) (%)

71 71 3. Service Quality Lima perspektif terhadap kualitas menurut Garvin: 1.Transcendent view of quality, Memandang kualitas sbg ‘innate excellence’, artinya, kualitas dapat dirasakan atau diketahui, tetapi sulit didefinisikan dan di operasionalkan. Biasanya diterapkan didunia seni. 2.The Product-based approach, Memandang bahwa kualitas merupakan merupakan karakteris- tik atau atribut yg dapat dikuantitatifkan dan dapat diukur. Per- bedaan dlm kualitas mencerminkan perbedaan dalam jumlah beberapa unsur (atribute) yg dimiliki produk. Bersifat objektif, karenanya tidak dapat menjelaskan perbedaan dalam selera, kebutuhan, dan preferensi individu. 3. User-based definition, Berpendapat bahwa kualitas bergantung pada orang yg me- mandangnya (bersifat subjektif dan demand oriented). Suatu produk dianggap berkualitas tinggi jika mampu memuaskan preferensi individu yg bersangkutan. 4. The manufacturing-based approach, Bersifat ‘supply-based’ terutama memperhatikan praktek-prak- tek ‘engineering and manufacturing’, dan mendefinisikan kuali- tas sbg. kesesuaian dg. persyaratan (conformance to require- ment). In service, we would say that quality was “operations driven”.

72 72 5. Value-based definitions, Memandang kualitas dari segi ‘value and price’. Dengan mem- pertimbangkan trade-off antara kinerja (or conformance) dan harga, kualitas didefinisikan sbg ‘affordable excellence’. Kualitas dipandang bersifat relatif, produk dg kualitas tertinggi belum tentu paling bernilai (yg paling bernilai adalah brg/jasa yg paling tepat dibeli. Manfaat superior service quality: Loyalitas pelanggan meningkat Pangsa pasar lebih besar Harga saham yg lebih tinggi Harga jual yang lebih tinggi Produktivitas yang lebih tinggi So, Service quality ? Tingkat keunggulan yg diharapkan dan pengendalian atas tingkat keunggulan tersebut untuk memenuhi keinginan pelanggan. 2 factors of servqual: expected service, perceived service

73 73 Price Advantage Lower Quality Cost Lower Cost Quality Specification Productivity Customer Value Market Share Customer-Driven Quality Productivity & Growth Customer Atribute & Design Specification Investment in Improving Quality Figure : The benefit of quality

74 74 The Service Excellence ? Pelayanan yg unggul: Sikap, cara karyawan dalam melayani pelanggan secara memuaskan, dg memenuhi 4 unsur pokok: -kecepatan - ketepatan - keramahan - kenyamanan Komponen utama ‘total quality of service’ 1. Technical quality, komponen yg berkaitan dg kualitas output jasa yg diterima pe- langgan: - search quality, kualitas yg dpt dievaluasi pelanggan sebelum membeli jasa, (ch: harga jasa) - experience quality, kualitas yg hanya dpt dievaluasi setelah pelanggan mengkonsumsi jasa. - credence quality, kualitas yg sukar dievaluasi pelanggan mes- kipun telah mengkonsumsi jasa 2. Functional quality, komponen yg berhubungan dg kualitas cara jasa disampaikan 3. Corporate image, profit, reputasi, citra umum, dan daya tarik khusus yg dimiliki perusahaan

75 75 Service Quality Dimension. Reliability Responsiveness Competence Access Courtesy Communications Credibility Security Understanding Tangibles Tangibles, appearance of physical facili- ties, equipment, personnel, and written materials. Reliability, ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Responsiveness, willingness to help cus- tomers and provide prompt service. Assurance, employees’ knowledge and courtesy and their ability to inspire trust and confidence. Empathy, caring, individualized attention given to customers Parasuraman, dkk Menurut Gronroos: 6 Unsur: Profesionalism and skills, Attitudes and behavior Accessibility and flexibility Reliability and trustworthiness Recovery Reputation and credibility Tiga kriteria pokok kualitas Jasa: 1. outcome-related criteria, 2. Process-related criteria 3. Image-related criteria Di ja bar kan men ja di

76 76 Prinsip-Prinsip Kualitas Jasa Kepemimpinan, strategi kualitas perusahaan harus merupakan inisiatif dan ko- mitmen dari manajemen puncak. Pendidikan, semua personil perusahaan mulai dari ‘top management’ sam- pai karyawan operasional harus memperoleh pendidikan me- ngenai kualitas. Perencanaan, proses perencanaan stratejik harus mencakup pengukuran dan tujuan kualitas yg digunakan dalam mengarahkan perusahaan untuk mencapai visinya. Review, proses ‘review’ merupakan alat yg paling efektif bagi manajemen untuk mengubah perilaku organisasi untuk menjadi lebih baik dan lebih baik lagi. Komunikasi, implementasi strategi kualitas dalam organisasi dipengaruhi oleh komunikasi, baik antara karyawan perusahaan dg pelang- gan, antar karyawan, antara karyawan dg manajemen dan stake- holder lainnya. Penghargaan dan Pengakuan (total human reward) kepada kar- yawan yg berprestasi untuk meningkatkan motivasi kerja.

77 77 Model Kualitas Jasa (Gap Model) Word-of-mouth Communication Komunikasi Eksternal Persepsi manajemen Penjabaran Spesifikasi Penyampaian Jasa Jasa Yang dirasakan Jasa Yang Diharapkan Pengalaman Yang Lalu Kebutuhan Personal Service Provider Consumer Gap 4 Gap 3 Gap 2 Gap 1 Gap 5 Source: A.Parasuraman, at al

78 78 Quality Defined as Gap Between Perceptions and Expectations Gap 1: Consumer Expectation-Management Perception Gap, service managers tidak selalu dapat memahami dg tepat fitur jasa seperti apa yg diinginkan oleh pelanggan. Gap 2: Management Perception-Service Quality Specifications Gap manajemen tidak selalu mampu menyusun standar kiner- ja yg tepat sesuai dengan yg diinginkan oleh pelanggan. Gap 3: Service Quality Specifications-Service Delivery Gap, meskipun ‘guidelines’ ttg ‘appropriate quality’ sudah di- buat, jasa yg berkualitas sering gagal didalam penyam- paiannya kepada pelanggan. Gap 4: Service Delivery-External Communication Gap, media iklan dan komunikasi lainnya yg digunakan oleh perusahaan dapat mempengaruhi harapan pelanggan terhadap jasa yg ditawarkan. Risiko yg dihadapi adalah apabila jasa yg disampaikan tidak sesuai janji. Gap 5: Expected Service-Perceived Service Gap, kunci untuk menjamin penyampaian jasa yg berkualitas adalah dg memenuhi atau melebihi harapan pelanggan. gap terjadi apabila pelanggan mengukur kinerja jasa dg cara yg berbeda, atau keliru didalam mempersepsikan kualitas jasa.

79 79 identifikasi atribut kunci kualitas jasa dari sudut pandang mana- jemen dan konsumen. penekanan terutama pada gap yg terjadi antara persepsi dan harapan pelanggan dengan penyedia jasa pemahaman tentang implikasi teratasinya kesenjangan yg ada terhadap pengelolaan jasa. Merujuk pada service quality model, beberapa hal yg perlu diperhatikan: Steps in the systmatic development of quality (Murdick, dkk): Identify customer expectations design the service to meet customer expectations of quality develop and implement a quality training program design and implement a quality control program Figure: the service profit chain Internal Service quality Employee Satisfac- tion Customer retention Employee retention External Service quality Customer Satisfac- tion Profit

80 80 Pengukuran Kualitas Jasa Dua hal yg perlu diperhatikan: spesifikasi determinan kualitas jasa perangkat kualitas jasa yg bisa diukur Ditentukan oleh: tk kontak jasa proses atau ouput jasa Dua pertanyaan penting berkaitan dg kualitas: - apa yg seharusnya diberikan jasa tersebut? - apa yg benar-benar telah diberikan jasa tersebut? So, kualitas jasa mrp penilaian atas sejauh mana suatu jasa se- suai dg apa yg seharusnya disampaikan. Dua pertanyaan berikut yg perlu dijawab: apa yang diukur? - apakah process or output quality? - apakah physical or interactive quality? - apakah technical, functional, or corporate quality? Result and process oriented Sumber kualitas menurut Gummesson: design quality production quality delivery quality relationship quality Customer and process oriented

81 81 Alternatif Pengukuran Kualitas Jasa Skor Kualitas Jasa = (skor kinerja – skor harapan) Skor Kualitas = Skor Derajat x (Skor Kinerja) Jasa Kepentingan Skor Kualitas Jasa = (Skor Kinerja) Skor Kualitas = Skor Derajat x (Skor Kinerja – Skor Harapan) Jasa Kepentingan Bagaimana Mengukurnya? berkaitan dengan instrumen/formula yang bagaimana yang dapat digunakan untuk mengukur kualitas jasa.

82 82 VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN Standarization of Service Behaviors and Actions Penterjemahan harapan pelanggan kedalam standar kualitas yg spesifik bergantung pada tingkat dimana tugas-tugas dan perilaku yg terbentuk dapat distandarisir atau routinized. - Beberapa eksekutif dan manajer menganggap jasa tidak dapat distandarisir Reasons: “that customization is essential for providing high-quality service, such as accounting consulting, engineering, and dentistry, professionals provide customized and individualized services; so, standardizing of the task is perceived as being impersonal, inadequate, and not in the customer’s best interests, inconsistent with employee empowerment. - Kenyataannya “many service task are routine, even in highly customized services” artinya, banyak aspek dari service provision yang dapat di rutinisasi. Exp: Physicians and dentists, can and do standardise recurring and nontechnical aspects of service such as : checking patients in, weighing patients, billing patients, collecting payment, and taking routine measurements 1. Faktor Penting dalam Penentuan Standar Jasa

83 83  Substitution of technology for personal contact and human effort (exp: automatic teller machine, airport X- ray machines)  Improvement in work methods (exp: routinized tax and accounting service developed by firms).  Combinations of these two methods. Standarisasi jasa dapat terjadi dalam tiga bentuk :. VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN

84 84 Formal Service Targets and Goals - Perusahaan yg sukses didalam penyampaian jasa yg berkualitas secara konsisten, membuat standar formal untuk memandu karyawan didalam penyampaian jasa. Seperti: lama waktu transaksi, pencatatan frekuensi kegagalan penyampain jasa, seberapa cepat menangani keluhan pelanggan – dan upaya keras peningkatan kualitas jasa dg menentukan tujuan yg bermuara pada pemenuhan harapan pelanggan. - Beberapa tipe dari ‘formal goal setting’ yg relevan didalam bisnis jasa: 1). There are specific targets for individual behavior or actions exp: consider the behavior “calls the customer back quickly” an action that signal responsiveness in contact employees. Jika the service goal diatas dinyatakan dg statement yg umum, karyawan akan memberikan interpretasi yg berbeda karena tidak ada ukuran pas dari kata quickly, apakah 5 menit, 1 jam 1 hari dll, shg menimbulkan inkonsistensi thd penyampaian jasa. Thus, harus dinyatakan dg jelas standar waktu dari ‘call the customer back quickly’. VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN

85 85 2). Involves the overall departement or company target, most frequently expressed as a percentage, across all execution of behavior or action. exp: a departement might set as its overall goal “to call the customer back within four hours 97 % of the time”, and collect the data over a month’s or year’s time to evaluate the extent to which it meets the target. VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN

86 86 Customer – Not Company – Defined Standards - Pada dasarnya semua perusahaan mempunyai pengukuran dan standar jasa yg ditentukan oleh perusahaan – yg dibangun untuk mencapai tujuan perusahaan akan produktivitas, efisiensi, biaya, atau kualitas teknis. - Untuk menutupi gap 2 (customer-driven service designs and standards- company perceptions of customer expectations), standar yg ditetapkan oleh perusahaan harus berdasarkan pada persyaratan dan harapan pelanggan daripada hanya berdasarkan tujuan internal perusahaan. Implikasi: a). Knowing customer requirements, priorities, and expectation levels can be both effective and efficient. b). Anchoring service standards on customers, can save money by identifying what customer values, thus eliminating activities and features that the customer either does not notice or will not pay for. VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN

87 87 Tipe standard jasa yg dekat dg ‘provider gap 2’ adalah “customer-defined standards”  operational goals and measures based on pivotal customer requirements that are visible to and measured by customer. Customer-defined standards allows for the translation of customer requirements into goals and guidelines for employee performance. Terdapat 2 tipe dari customer-defined service standard : - “Hard” customer- defined standard - “Soft” customer-defined standard VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN 2. Customer-Defined Service Standard Hard Customer-Defined Standard - Federal Express standards, diantaranya SQI, masuk kedalam kategori “hard standards and measure” : things that can be counted, timed, or observed through audits. - Exp: A series of 35 studies accros numerous industries from the Arthur D. Little management consulting firm found that: * the most frequently cited customer complaint was late product and service delivery (44%), followed by product and service quality mistake (31%)

88 88 Hard service-standards for reliability, dapat dilakukan dg membangun reliability standards untuk menciptakan value system yg handal dalam bisnis jasa. contoh: - a generic reliability standard that would relevant to virtually any service company is “right first time”, yg berarti bahwa jasa yg disiapkan disampaikan secara tepat “the first time” menurut penilaian pelanggan, - Another example,” right on time” which means that the service is performed at the scheduled time, (waktu penyampaian jasa terjadwal dan tepat waktu) VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN

89 89 Hard service-standards for responsiveness, disiapkan untuk menjamin kecepatan dan ketepatan penanganan terkait dg penyampaian jasa perusahaan, misal: - Pengiriman produk (within two working days), - Penanganan komplain (by sundown each day), - Menjawab pertanyaan (within two hours) - kedatangan untuk repair calls (within 30 minutes of estimated time) Responsiveness perceptions akan menurun ketika pelanggan menunggu lama untuk bisa menghubungi perusahaan melalui telepon, atau terjebak kedalam a phone mail sistem. VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN

90 90 Semua prioritas pelanggan tidak dapat dihitung, ditentukan waktunya atau diobservasi melalui audit. For exp: ‘ understanding and knowing the customer ‘ is not a customer priority for which a standard that count, time, or observes employees can adequately capture. Soft measures dapat didomumentasikan menggunakan “perceptual measures”. Disebut soft standards and measures, karena ia merupakan ‘opinion-based measures’ yang tidak diobservasi dan harus dikumpulkan melalui komunikasi (talking to) dengan pelanggan, karyawan, atau pihak lain yg terkait. Soft standards memberikan arah, panduan dan feedback kepada karyawan cara mencapai kepuasan pelanggan dan dapat dikuantifikasi dengan mengukur persepsi dan kepercayaan pelanggan. Soft standards sangat berguna terutama untuk person- to-person interaction, seperti pada selling process and delivery process for professional services. VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN “soft” Customer-Defined Standard

91 91 VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN 3. Proses Pengembangan ‘Customer-Defined Standards 1. Identify existing of desired service encounter sequence 2. Translate customer expectation into behaviors/actions 3. Select behavior/actions for standards 4. Set hard or soft standards 5. Develop feedback mechanisms 6. Establish measures and target levels 7. Track measures against standards 8. Provide feedback about performance to employees 9. Update target levels and measures softHard Measure by Transaction- Based Surveys Measures by Audits of Operating Data Figure: Process for setting customer-defined standards

92 92 Mencakup penggambaran rangkaian service encounter Service blueprint dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi rangkaian service encounter yg diinginkan. Idealnya perusahaan membuka diri untuk menemukan rangkaian service encounter yang sesuai dengan keinginan pelanggan VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN Identify Existing or Desired Service Encounter Sequence Abstraksi customer requirements and expectations harus diterjemahkan secara konkrit kedalam tindakan dan perilaku spesifik yg dikaitkan dg masing-masing enconter didalam rangkaian service encounter Informasi atas tindakan dan perilaku harus dikumpulkan dan diinterpretasikan oleh sumber yg objektif seperti oleh lembaga penelitian atau departemen didalam perusahaan tanpa hambatan didalam pengambilan keputusan akhir sehingga tidak bias ( really customer- defined standards) Translate Customer Expectations into Behaviors and Actions for Each Service Encounter

93 93 The standards are based on behaviors and actions that are very important to customers. (Customer-defined standards need to focus on what is very “important ” to customer) The standards cover performance that needs to be improved or maintained. (Customer-defined standards should be established for behavior that needs to be improved or maintained). The standards cover behaviors and actions employees can improve (Employees perform according to standards consistently only if they understand, accept, and have control over the behaviors and actions specified in the standards). The standards are accepted by employees (Employees will perform to standard consistently only if they understand and accept the standards). The standards are predictive rather than reactive (Customer- defined standard should not be established on the basis of complaints or other forms of reactive feedback). The standards are challenging but realistic (If standards are not challenging, employees get little reinforcement for mastering them) VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN Select Behaviors and Actions for Standards Mencakup penetapan prioritas tindakan dan perilaku yang akan dibangun sesuai dg customer-defined standards. The following are the most important criteria for creation of the standards:

94 94 Involves deciding whether hard or soft stnadards should be used to capture the behavior and action. Seperti misalnya, speed of complaint handling (menggunakan “a hard measure), satisfaction (menggunakan, “soft measure”) VII.PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN Decide Whether Hard or Soft Standards Are Appropriate Develop Feedback Mechanisms for Measurement to Standards One critical aspect of developing feedback mechanisms is ensuring that they capture the process from the customer’s view rather than the company view, (this is a difficult step for most companies). That companies establish target levels for the standards. The techniques: - Simple perception—Action correlation studies - Hypothetical Satisfaction – Performance Surveys - Competitive Benchmarking Establish Measures and Target Levels

95 95 Statistical process control and other types of charts are everywhere tracking characteristics of its concreten and crushed stone and process such as the time it takes customer to fill their trucks Customer complaints are also tracked through what the company calls”product service discrepancy report”, and root- cause analysis and update are distributed to all plants. Note: We simply have to know how we’re doing VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS PELANGGAN Track Measures against Standards Provide Feedback about Performance Employees Communicate the performance on its service quality indicator daily so that everyone in the company knows how it is performing, SQI measurement gives everyone in the company immediate feedback on activity that is strongly related to customer perception. Involves revising the target levels, measures, and even customer requirements on a regular enough basis to keep up with customer expectations Periodically Update Target Levels and Measures

96 96 1. Consumer Complaining Behavior Customer response to service failure: do nothing complain in some form to the service firm take action through a third party (consumer advocacy group, consumer affairs or regulatory agencies, and civil or criminal court). abandon this supplier and discourage other people from using the service (negative word-of-mouth) Types of Complainers Passives, this group of customers is least likely to take any action Voicers, this customers actively complain to the service provider, but they are less likely to spread negative word-of-mouth, to switch patronage, or to go to third parties with their complaint. Irates, this customers are more likely to engage in negative word-of-mouth to friends and relatives and to switch providers than are others. Activists, these customers are characterized by above average propensity to complain on all dimension. They will complain to the provider, they will tell others, and they are more likely than any other group to complain to third parties

97 97 Service failure Take action Do nothing Complain to provider Complain to family and friends Complain to third party Switch providers Stay with provider Switch Providers Stay with Provider Figure: Customer response the service failure

98 98 Why don’t unhappy customers complain? There are three reason why dissatisfied customers don’t complain: they didn’t think it was worth the time or effort they decided no one would be concerned about their problem or resolving it they did not know where to go or what to do Impact on repurchase intentions when complaints are satisfactorily resolved, there’s a much better chance that the customers involved will remain brand loyal and continue to repurchase the items in questions TARP found that intentions to repurchase different types of products range from 69 to 80 percent among those complainers who completely satisfied with the outcome of complaint. What do customers expect? Customer expect fair treatment: outcome fairness (customer expect outcomes, or compensation that match the level of their dissatisfaction) procedural fairness (fairness in term of policies, rules, and timelines of complaint process) interaction fairness (customer expect to be treated politely, with care, and honesty)

99 99 2. Impact of Service Recovery Efforts on Customer Loyalty complaint handling harus dilihat sbg ‘ a profit center’ bukan sebagai ‘a cost center’ termasuk menciptakan formula u/ membantu perusahaan terkait dg ‘value of retaining a pro- fitable customer’ thd seluruh biaya yg dikeluarkan u/ menjalankan ‘an effective complaint handling unit’ Hasilnya: - impressive return on investment; from 50 to 70% for banking, 20 to 150% for gas utilities, over 100% for automotive service, and from 35 – 400% for retailing ( source : TARP) Service Recovery Following Customer Complaints Service recovery, mrp upaya yg sistematis yg dilakukan perusaha- an untuk mengambil tindakan koreksi terkait dg kegagalan jasa yg disajikan kepada pelanggan (play a crucial role in achieving (or restoring) customer satisfaction) Beberapa komplain dilakukan: ketika jasa sedang disampaikan, dan ketika jasa sudah selesai dikonsumsi (how the complaint is handled may determine whether the customer remains the firm or seeks new suppliers in future).

100 The Service Recovery Strategy Components of an effective service recovery system Do the job Right the First time + Effective Complaint Handling = Increased satisfaction And loyalty Identify Service complaints Resolve Complaints Effectively Learn from The recovery experience conduct research monitor complaints develop ‘complaint as opportunity’ culture Developed effective Systems and training in complaint handling Conduct Root-Cause Analaysis Feedback Figure: Components of an effective service recovery system

101 101 Principles of Effective Problem Resolution: recovering from service failure requires commintment, planning, and clear guidelines service recovery efforts should be flexible, and employees should be empowered to use their judgement and communi- cation skill to develop solutions that will satisfy complaining customer Guidelines for Effective Problem Solution (Lovelock): Act fast (take care of the problems on the front line, empower employees) Admit mistake but don’t be defensive Show that you understand the problem from each customer point of view Don’t argue with customers Acknowledge the customer’s feelings Give customers the benefit of the doubt Clarify the steps needed to solve the problem Keep customers informed of progress Consider compensation Persevering to regain customer goodwill

102 Service Guarantees Service guarantees are powerful tools for ‘promotion and achieving service quality’ for the reasons: a. Guarantees force firms to focus on what their customers want and expect in each element of the service b. Guarantees set clear standards, telling customers and employees alike what the company stand for. c. Guarantees require the development of the systems for generating meaningfull customer feedback and acting on it d. Guarantees force service organizations to understand why they fail and encourage them to identify and overcome potential fail points e. Guarantees build marketing muscle by reducing the risk of the purchase decision and building long-term loyalty

103 103 A good guarantees forces the company to focus on its customers An effective guarantees sets clear standards for the organization A good guarantees generates immediate and relevant feedback form customers When the guarantee is invoked there is an instant opportunity to recover Information generated through the guarantee can be tracked and integrated into continuous improvement efforts Studies of the impact of service guarantees suggest that employee morale and loyalty can be enhanced as a result For customers, the guarantee reduces their sense of risk and builds confidence in the organization Benefit of Service Guarantees:

104 104 Satisfaction versus service attribute guarantees Service guarantees can be unconditional satisfaction guarantees or attribute guarantees, - satisfaction guarantees; if client unhappy, they don’t pay for the service. - attribute guarantees; firms offer guarantees of particular aspects of service that are important to customers (e.g, package delivery by a certain time, etc) Types of Service Guarantees: External versus internal guarantees Guarantees don’t have to be just for external customers, that internal service guarantees– one part of the organization guaranteeing its service to others– are effective ways of aligning internal service operation.

105 105 Unconditional, the guarantee should make its promise unconditionally Meaningfull (that are important to customer), - berikan garansi atas elemen-elemen jasa yg penting bagi pelanggan - ganti rugi sebaiknya sepenuhnya dapat menutupi ketidakpuasan pelanggan Easy to understand and communicate, - bagi pelanggan—mereka perlu memahami apa sebenarnya yang mereka harapkan - bagi employees—mereka perlu memahami apa yang harus dilakukan easy to invoke and collect, Characteristic of effective guarantees:

106 106 perencanaan sdm memastikan bahwa perusahaan memiliki karyawan dalam jumlah yang tepat, dengan berbagai kualifikasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan (at the right times and place) perencanaan sdm tersebut harus menjadi,”the firm’s strategic plan, intermediate plan, and operating”. manpower planning in large service firms is similar to that of manufacturing firms. a). Manpower planning 1. Sifat Manajemen SDM

107 107 Recruiting, - mengidentifikasi dan menarik orang yg dapat menempati posisi ttt didalam firm. - dimulai dg menyiapkan job descriptions dan spesifikasi keterampilan dan kemampuan calon karyawan untuk posisi tersebut. note: in services, many white-collar workers and tradepeople are directly concerned with servicing the customers, often while the customer is waiting or is in contact with the employee, so, employee recruiting and selection are extremely important for the service firm Employee Selection, - harus berdasarkan kriteria for performance of the job yang jelas (so, the application form should be designed to uncover the applicant’s skills and abilities for job performance). - teknik lain yang dapat digunakan: testing, interviews, references and probationary periods of employment b). Recruiting and Selecting

108 108 Tujuan : - for changing an employee’s behavior to prepare the employees for a job - upgrade the employee’s performance on the job Pada bisnis jasa, program T&D umumnya berbeda diantara: - managers - professional personnels - office and clerical (including information processors) - technicians (spt: lab assistants or auto repair mechanics) - operative employees (spt: bus drivers, mail clerk, etc) c). Training & Development (T&D)

109 109 Means arranging their work to make them both productive and motivated. Faktor penentu keefektifan utilisasi sdm: - job structure and work that provide an opportunity for “stretch” performance - participation in decisions that have a direct effect on the person’s job - open communications and equitable scheduling of assignments - component supervision and organizational flexibility - economic and noneconomic rewards that recognize achievement and equity - opportunity for growth - a culture that encourages caring for both customer and worker needs d). Utilizing Human Resources

110 110 Develop a public image of the company such that employees have pride in working for the firm Provide flexitime working conditions so that people may fit their work to their personal needs and lifestyle, including working at other jobs Reward employees for participating in suggestions that can make their work more productive Structure jobs so that employees have control over their work and responsibilities that challenge them Provide first-class facilities (such as private offices, lounges, cafetarias, etc, Reduce the cost of employment for the worker Compensate by salary or commission Design the service so that the customer does more of the work (exp self-service stores, cafetarias, ATM, etc) e). Rewarding Employees Methods for compensating employees in order to Attract and retain them:

111 111 Private-profit, not for profit, and government workers Full-time versus contingent workers White-collar versus blue collar workers Professional service employees versus consumer service employees 2. Types of Service Employees

112 Peramalan Dalam Operasi Jasa Pentingnya peramalan dalam operasi jasa berkaitan dg karakte- ristik bisnis jasa: permintaan jasa sangat fluktuatif sifat jasa yang tidak berwujud jasa diproduksi dan dikonsumsi secara bersamaan Proses Peramalan Jasa Penentuan tujuan peramalan, berkaitan dg penentuan: variabel yg akan diestimasi, pengguna ramalan, alasan dibutuhkannya peramalan, biaya peramalan, jangka waktu peramalan, derajat ketepatan peramalan, waktu melakukan peramalan. Penyusunan model, menyusun/ mengembangkan model (penyajian secara ringkas dan lugas ttg sistem atau aspek yang akan diramal) yg tepat, agar diperoleh hasil peramalan yg sahih (valid) dan handal (reliable). Pengujian model, model harus diuji sebelum digunakan, agar validitas dan reliabi- litas hasil peramalan dapat dipertanggungjawabkan.

113 113 Penerapan model, model yg telah diuji diterapkan u/ peramalan masa yad sesuai dg jangka waktu yang diinginkan. Revisi dan Evaluasi secara kontinu, - revisi dilakukan berkaitan dg adanya perubahan baik internal maupun eksternal (harga, biaya promosi, peraturan pemerintah, teknologi, dll). - evaluasi dilakukan dg membandingkan ramalan yg telah dibuat dg hasil aktualnya, u/ menilai tepat tidaknya metode ramalan yg digunakan dan u/ meningkatkan kualitas ramalan. 2. Karakteristik Permintaan dan Penawaran Jasa Dalam setiap momen ttt, jasa yg berkapasitas tetap akan mengha- dapi salah satu dari kondisi berikut: excess demand, permintaan jauh melebihi kapasitas maksimum. Aki- batnya sebagian pelanggan tdk dpt dilayani, dan perusahaan kehilang- an pelanggan tersebut demand exceed optimum capacity, semua pelanggan dilayani mes- kipun melampaui kapasitas optimum. Akibatnya, pelanggan akan mem- persepsi adanya penurunan kualitas pelayanan. demand and supply are well balanced, konsumen dilayani sesuai dg kapasitas yg dimiliki, mereka menerima jasa sesuai yg diharapkan. excess capacity, permintaan berada dibawah tk kapasitas optimum. Akibatnya terdapat resources yg menganggur.

114 114 Volume demanded Maximum available capacity Optimum capacity Utilization (balan- Ced demand and Supply) Low utilization (many send bad Signals) Excess cap (wasted re- sources) Demand exceeds Optimum capacity (servqual decline) Demand exceeds capa- city (business is lost) Time Cycle 1Time Cycle 2 Figure: Implication of Variations in Demand Relative to Capacity

115 115 3 Mengukur dan Mengelola Kapasitas Kapasitas produktif ? Dalam konteks jasa, kapasitas produktif dapat terjadi ‘at least five potential forms: Physical facilities designed to contain customers and used for delivering people-processing service or mental-processing ser- vice, exp: medical clinics, hotels, passenger aircraft, buses, restaurants, swimming pools, theaters, concert hall, and college classrooms). Physical facilities designed for storing or processing goods that either belong to customers or are being offered to them for sale. Exp: supermarket shelves, pipelines, warehouses, parking lots, freight containers, or railroad cars Physical equipment used to process people, possessions, or information Exp: telephones, hair dryers, computers, diagnostic equipment, bank ATMs, etc. Labour, a key element of productive capacity in all high contact services and many low-contact ones, may be used for both physical and menta work. Infrastrucure, many organization are dependent on access to sufficient capacity in public or private infrastructure to be able to deliver service quality to their own customers, Exp: telephone circuit, electrical power, air traffic, major roads, etc.

116 116 Mencakup ‘the number of hours (atau persentase total waktu yg tersedia) dimana fasilitas, tenaga kerja, dan peralatan secara produktif digunakan didalam ‘revenue operation’, dan persenta- se ruang yg tersedia (spt: seats, cubic freight capacity, or tele- commucations bandwidth) yg secara aktual digunakan didalam ‘revenue operation’. Measuring Capacity Stretching and Shrinking the Level of Capacity Stretching capacity (memperlonggar kapasitas), biasanya dilakukan pada saat-saat permintaan tinggi (spt pada jam-jam/periode sibuk). Stretching capacity dapat diterapkan didalam bisnis jasa yang mempunyai kapasitas elastis (mampu menyerap extra demand seperti kereta api), maupun tetap (angkutan udara) Ch: angkutan bus pada jam normal, penumpang sesuai dg jum- lah tempat duduk, ttp pada jam sibuk ‘allow standing floor space’ untuk penumpang. Shrinking capacity, biasanya dilakukan untuk meminimalkan ‘slack time’ Ch: menawarkan menu yang lebih sederhana (jumlah menu yang ditawarkan dikurangi) pada periode sibuk.

117 117 Chasing Demand Melakukan penyesuaian kapasitas untuk menyeimbangkan variasi permintaan. Cara yg mungkin to adjust capacity: Shcedule downtime during periods of low demand. Untuk menjamin bahwa 100% kapasitas tersedia selama periode sibuk, perbaikan dan renovasi perlu dilakukan ketika permintaan diperikira- kan rendah, dan karyawan diberi kesempatan untuk cuti. Use part-time employees, mempekerjakan karyawan paruh waktu selama periode sibuk. Rent or share extra facilities and equipment untuk menghemat investasi didalam fixed assets, perusahaan dapat menyewa ‘extra space or machine’ pada waktu-waktu sibuk. Cross-train employees, perusahaan perlu memiliki karyawan yg terlatih dalam banyak hal, agar dapat menghandel pekerjaan diluar bidangnya sewaktu-waktu diperlu- kan, sehingga dapat meningkatkan ‘total system capacity’.

118 Memahami Pola dan Determinan Permintaan Untuk mengendalikan variasi permintaan thd jasa tertentu, mana- jer perlu menentukan berbagai faktor penentu permintaan terse- but, untuk itu perlu dijawab beberapa pertanyaan berikut: 1. Apakah tingkat permintaan mengikuti siklus yang dapat diper- kirakan: - one day (varies by hour) - one week (varies by day) - one month (varies by day or by week) - one year (varies by month or by season or reflects annually occuring public holidays) - some other period Sering siklus yang berkali-kali berjalan secara simultan. Ch: demand for passenger transport may vary by time of day, day of week, and season. 2. Apa penyebab yang mendasari variasi siklus tersebut? - employment timetables - billing and tax payment/refund cycles - wage and salary payment dates - school hours and holidays - seasonal changes in climate - occurance of public or religious holidays - natural cycles, such as coastal tides

119 Apakah tingkat permintaan terlihat berubah secara random? jika ya, apa penyebabnya? - day-to-day changes in the weather (consider how rain dan cold affect the use of indoor and outdoor recreational or en- tertainment services) - health events whose occurrrence cannot be pinpointed exact- ly (heart attacks and births affect the demand for hospital ser- vices) - accidents, natural disasters (such as earthquakes), and cer- tain criminal activities. 4. Dapatkah permintaan terhadap jasa tertentu di-disagregasi oleh segmen pasar untuk merefleksikan komponen seperti: - use patterns by a particular type of customer or for a particu- lar purpose? - variations in the net profitability of each completed transac- tion?

120 Strategi Mengelola Permintaan Disaggregating demand by market segment, - total demand can be broken down into smaller components depend on the nature of the records kept by management - consider promoting use of firm’s facilities for other purpose (such as, hotel manager promotes conferences or pleasure travel at weekend) - marketing effort should be directed to employers to persuade them to adopt flextime Managing demand under different conditions, Pendekatan yang digunakan: - taking no action and leaving demand to find its own levels - reduce demand in peak periods - increase demand when there is excess capacity - storing demand until capacity becomes available, or - creating formalized queuing system (or by combination of the two) Using marketing strategies to shape demand pattern - price and other user costs ( increase price in peak periods) - changing product elements - modifying the place and time of delivery (no change, varying the times when the service is available to reflect changes incustomer preference, offering the service to customers at a new location) - promotion and education - storing demand through queuing (by asking customers to wait in line) and reservations (by offering them the opportunity of reserving space in advance)

121 121 Approach to Managed Demand Insufficient Capacity (Excess Demand) Sufficient Capacity (Satisfactory Demand) Excess Capacity (Insufficient Capacity) Take No Action Unoranized queuing results. (May irritate customers and discou- rage future use) Capacity is fully utilized. (But is this the most profitable mix of business Capacity is wasted (Customers may ha-ve a dissappointing experience for servi- ces like theatre) Reduce Demand Pricing higher will increase profits. Communication can be employed to encourage usage in other time slots. (Can this effort be focused on less pro- fitable/desirable segments?) Take no action (but see above) Take no action (but see above) Increase demand Take no action unless opportunities exist to stimulate (and give priority to) more profi- table segments. Take no action unless opportuni-ties exist to stimula-te (and give priority to) more profitable segments. Price lower selecti- vely (try to avoid cannibalizing exis-ting business, ensu-re all relevant costs are covered), use communications and variation in products /distribution (but re- cognize extra costs, if any, and make …. Tabel: Alternative Demand Management Strategies for Different Capacity Situation

122 122 Sure appropriate trade-offs are made between profitabi-lity and usage levels) Inventory demand by reservation system Consider priority system for most desi-rable segments. Make other customers shift (a). to outside peak period or (b). To future peak Try to ensure most profitable mix of business Clarify that space is available and that no reservation are needed Inventory demand by formalized queuing Consider override for most desirable segments. Seek to keep waiting customers occupied and comfortable. Try to predict wait period accurately Try to avoid bottleneck delays Not applicable

123 123 TQMvsTQS Prinsip-prinsip manaj kua- litas yg bersifat universal, dpt diadopsi oleh bisnis apapun (manufaktur or jasa) Prinsip-prinsip manajemen kualitas yg diterapkan pada bisnis jasa, merupakan derivasi dari TQM 1. Pengantar Total quality service ? Suatu sistem manajemen strategis dan integratif, Yg melibatkan semua manajer dan karyawan serta menggunakan metode-metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif untuk memperbaiki secara kontinyu berbagai proses, agar dpt memenuhi kebutuhan, keinginan dan harapan pelanggan.

124 124 Fokus pada kebutuhan pelanggan - identifikasi pelanggan (internal, eksternal) - identifikasi kebutuhan, keinginan dan harapan pelanggan - rancang sistem yg dpt memberikan jasa ttt yg memenuhi tuntutan tsb. - jalin relationship dg key suppliers atas dasar win-win solution Keterlibatan total (komitmen total) - manajemen: tunjukkan kepemimpinan yg berkualitas (inspiratif, partisipasi aktif) - berikan peluang perbaikan kpd karyawan, berdayakan karyawan - ciptakan iklim kerja yg kondusif (bentuk tim kerja multidisipliner, lintas fungsional) agar dapat berperan aktif dalam merancang dan memperbaiki jasa, proses sistem dan lingkungan perusahaan. Standar pengukuran kinerja susun standar ukuran kinerja dasar, baik internal maupun eksternal organisasi bagi pelanggan. (see : siklus pengukuran Jasa berkualitas) 2. Fokus TQS

125 125 Menyusun ukuran proses hasil Mengidentifikasi output dari proses-proses kerja kritis dan mengukur kesesuaiannya dg tuntutan pelanggan Mengoreksi penyimpangan dan meningkatkan kinerja Merencanakan apa yg harus dilakukan Mengukur apa yg sedang dilaksanakan Menganalisis bgmana Menyempurnakan rencana Figure: Siklus Pengukuran Jasa Berkualitas

126 126 Dukungan sistematis manajemen bertanggung jawab dalam mengelola proses pelayanan yg berkualitas melelui: - membangun infrastruktur kualitas yg dikaitkan dg struktur manajemen internal - menghubungkan kualitas dg sistem manajemen yg ada, spt: manajemen strategis, pengakuan, penghargaan dan promosi karyawan, serta komunikasi. Perbaikan berkesinambungan - memandang semua pekerjaan sbg suatu proses - mengantisipasi perubahan kebutuhan,keinginan dan harapan pelanggan, - melakukan perbaikan incremental - mengurangi waktu siklus - mendorong dan dg senang hati menerima umpan balik tanpa rasa takut atau khawatir

127 127 Identify customer expectation Design the service to meet customer expectations of quality Develop and implement a quality appraisal program Design and implement a quality training program Design and implement a quality control program 3. Ensuring Quality CEOs, managers, and all levels of employees must concentrate on maintaining and monitoring qualitu every day in every transaction, proposal, or plan This total concept of quality involvement is called “quality assurance” Steps in the systematic development of QA: Murdick

128 128 Meningkatkan indeksn kepuasan kualitas pelayanan Meningkatkan produktivitas dan efisiensi perusahaan Meningkatkan laba Meningkatkan pangsa pasar Meningkatkan moral dan semangat keryawan Meningkatkan loyalitas pelanggan 4. Manfaat TQS

129 Model Penyempurnaan Berkesinambungan Dikenal sebagai pendekatan enam langkah Mengidentifikasi pelayanan bernilai tambah yg diberikan kepada pelanggan Menidentifikasi dan menentukan harapan pelanggan dg cermat Mengidentifikasi kebutuhan kritis organisasi yg memung-kinkan dapat memuaskan pelanggan Menentukan proses pekerjaan Mencermati kekeliruan proses dan mengeliminasi kegiatan yg tak perlu Menjamin perbaikan berkesinambungan dg jalan mendukung umpan balik secara terus menerus

130 130 memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan cocok untuk digunakan Memproses integritas variants minimum peniadaan pemborosan penyempurnaan yg kontinu desain dan rekayasa konversi jaminan distribusi administrasi persediaan material waktu unt. Memasarkan reaksi thd kekuatan pasar waktu tenggang material persediaan dukungan pelanggan Layanan produk dukungan produk flesibilitas unt.memenuhi per- mintaan pelanggan fleksibilitas untuk menggapi perubahan pasar Kriteria Nilai Pelanggan Kualitas Layanan Biaya Waktu Kualitas =

131 FAKULTAS EKONOMI UNIVERSITAS JAMBI 2008

132 132 MANAJEMEN USAHA JASA DAN PARIWISATA Dra. Erida, M.Si Ekstensi Kelas Jauh FE – UNJA 2007

133 133 Ekstensi Kelas Jauh FAKULTAS EKONOMI UNIVERSITAS JAMBI 2007


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