Presentasi berjudul: "Pendahuluan Aplikasi Teknologi untuk Pembelajaran Jurusan Teknik Elektro Universitas Udayana September 2011."— Transcript presentasi:
Pendahuluan Aplikasi Teknologi untuk Pembelajaran Jurusan Teknik Elektro Universitas Udayana September 2011
Agenda Digital Native & Digital Immigrants Pendekatan Tren pembelajaran masa depan Teknologi untuk Pembelajaran Model pembelajaran berbasis teknologi
Digital Natives vs Digital Immigrants “Students are not just using technology differently today, but are approaching their life and their daily activities differently because of the technology.” – NetDay survey 2004, Conclusions
Teenage girl in a Yahoo video, “On the Internet you can play games, you can check your mail, you can talk to your friends, you can buy things, and you can look up things that you really like.” Immigrants use the exact same technology as Natives such as eBay, or blogs Natives and Immigrants typically do things differently
Digital Natives are Communicating Differently (email, IM, chat, sms) “Correct” spelling is replaced by whatever is readable. Such as “k” for OK, “c” for see, “u” for you (as in cu later). Abbreviations are well-known – LOL=laugh out loud – GTGPOS” (got to go, parent over shoulder.) observation and body language are often approximated by “emoticons”
Digital Natives are Sharing Differently (Blogs, webcams, camera phones, digital camera, handycam, etc.) – Digital Immigrant : an intellectual sharing tool – Digital Native : emotion sharing – Webcams --- Digital Natives use for sharing >< Digital Immigrants use for monitoring Digital Natives are Buying and Selling Differently (eBay, schoolwork, amazon.com, tokobagus.com) – Immigrants - convenience, comparison and collectables – Natives -- access to new wealth and access
– Natives: Web is a great place to buy and sell school-related information – in particular papers and exams The online game EverQuest has a larger economy than Russia! Digital Natives are Exchanging Differently (music, movies, humor ) – Digital Natives love to trade, to give and get, especially items that express their personality, such as songs, movies and web sites Young people increasingly see things available to them online as “free” of ownership and cost --- as new business models evolve
Digital Natives are Creating Differently (sites, avatars, mods) – Natives building Web sites, Flash movies, and other online creations – In their games they create not only avatars (characters to represent them), but entire worlds, including the houses, furniture, clothes, weapons and implements of whatever world they are inhabiting. – More and more games now come with tools, such as “level editors” included in the box, which allow interested players to create entirely new worlds and games of their own invention. This process, known as “modding,” has a huge number of participants, who create everything from levels to complete games (total modifications) some of which get sold separately
– The important point here is about tools – Digital Natives expect to have powerful tools available to them, and they know, by teaching themselves and teaching each other, how to use them. Digital Natives are Meeting Differently (3D chat rooms, dating) Digital Natives are Collecting Differently (mp3, video, sensor data )
– Digital Natives still collect stamps? – Natives collect a lot of songs and videos – the statistics are that 2 billion songs are downloaded per month. Digital Natives are Coordinating Differently (Projects, workgroups, MMORPGs) – Digital Natives are able to coordinate their activities online, and to run projects that may involve hundreds people
– Game online: In Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games, or MMORPGs : Star Wars Galaxies and City of Heroes --- players form groups, either ad hoc or standing, to work together on tasks such as freeing a building or storming a castle – Imagine 50-100 players, all with different powers, all going at a certain hour into the online world together (from wherever in the physical world each of them happens to be) to storm a castle
– Demo di mesir, kerusuhan di Inggris, sejuta gerakan untuk KPK, dll Digital Natives are Evaluating Differently (Reputation systems–Epinions, Amazon, Slashdot ) When one is working with other people online – people one may never meet face-to-face – it is useful and important to have ways to evaluate whether to trust and believe them allow people to establish, and rely on, online reputations
– Rating system, comments, clicking, etc. Digital Natives are Gaming Differently (“versus,” small & large groups ) Digital Natives are Learning Differently (About stuff that interests them )
– Natives want to learn about (hobbies, vacations, games, for example.) – but the natives are very much aware that if they actually want to learn something (usually for their own purposes) the tools online are available for them to do it on their own – Today, when a student is motivated to learn something, they have the tools to go further in their learning than ever before – far beyond their teachers’ ability and knowledge, and far beyond what even adults could have done in the past
Digital Natives are Searching Differently (Info, connections, people ) – Did you know you can use Google to search for phone numbers, dictionary definitions, and online images? The Natives do. – This is why Microsoft has spent $100 million to move into the search business. – Is Native searching different from Immigrant searching? Certainly, in terms of the topics searched
Digital Natives are Analyzing Differently (SETI, drug molecules ) Digital Natives are Reporting Differently (Moblogs, digital photos ) – In contrast with their parents, who used to love to keep any information they had secret (“Knowledge is Power,” was their motto) – Digital Natives love to share and report information as soon as they receive it (perhaps “Sharing Knowledge is Power” is their new, unvoiced, motto.)
– As soon as the Web appeared, Digital Natives began using it as a reporting tool about their lives and their interests. With a free web site or a blog, any kid can be an online reporter on any topic: photo, movie, song, food, etc Digital Natives are Programming Differently (Open systems, mods, search) Digital Natives are Socializing Differently (Learning social behavior, influence )
Digital Natives are Evolving Differently (Peripheral, emergent behaviors) – the kids are continually creating new behaviors that facilitate their lives. – Japanese Digital Natives, such as leaving home with no fixed meeting place, and arranging their meeting on-the-fly on their cell phones. Digital Natives are Growing Up Differently (Exploring, transgressing)
– We adults ought to be understanding and thinking about these coming-of-age behaviors on the web so we can help our kids navigate their new world – behavior can change that fast around technology – when telephone answering machines first appeared, the norm went from “It’s rude to have an answering machine” to “It’s rude NOT to have an answering machine
Today norms and behaviors are changing much faster than in the past, because the technology changes rapidly and the Digital Natives are programmed to – and want to – keep up with it
Pendekatan Focus on the learning needs of large audiences the availability of free or low cost learning technologies mean you can build flexibility into learning programmes and do much more for low investment Develop a technology enabled learning strategy identified your learning needs decide which ones are suitable for which technologies. Audio learning might be particularly suitable for dispersed Audiences Wikis are great for letting groups of professionals share and learn Blogs are great for capturing expert’s tips and insights develop e and blended learning
Use the power of the network and enable Don’t try to develop everything yourself Put in the framework for them to create, catagorise and share content and you will be able to deliver more learning, quicker and to more people. Set up the framework, encourage and facilitate, then get out of the way and let the learners drive.
Low cost learning portals OOS: moodle taking out the travel and trainer costs while re- channelling the investment costs into e-learning. The result is a reduced level of face to face interventions or the use of more cost effective alternative learner support mechanisms.
Tren Pembelajaran Multi-threaded Linear Dynamic Static Experience Content Inference Demonstration Goals Objectives Diversity Uniformity
Linear to multi threaded learning with Internet and knowledge management, the expectation is to navigate through a web of meaning, not just causal chains of information. Static to dynamic information learning is a continuous resource, on demand, when and where you need it. Content to experience learning is achieved through interaction and application, not just delivery of information. Demonstration to inference People learn more effectively by doing, not just by being told. Objectives to goals Motivation is driven by the desire to learn to achieve something. Uniformity to diversity increasingly we expect learning configured to our personal preferences not a universal solution for all.
Receipt to responsibility with the rise in opportunities to configure and create our own combinations of learning components, there comes a transfer of responsibility for quality of the individual’s total learning experience from trainer to learner. Consumption to contribution more two-way communication in learning components provides more opportunity for learners to talk back and increase the total body of knowledge through email, discussion forums, chat, and more recently Blogs, Wikis, and Podcasts.
Technology & Core use for new pedagogies Learning management systems (LMS) A repository for short sharp multi-channel learning content, on demand. – The key is search-ability and relevance. – LMSs can be valuable repositories of multi-channel information (audio, video, print, e-learning.) – However, they need to link into the extended knowledge bases to be genuinely dynamic – Many LMSs are poorly designed and implemented for simple on demand learning
Authoring tools – Authoring tools are effective for rapid e-learning development – Think in terms of short sharp learning objects; performance support learning; case studies and information maps that can help navigate hierarchies of organizational information. – These approaches support learning by doing rather than demonstration. – Open source authoring tool : Atutor Limitations They may not be suitable for more sophisticated e-learning such as simulations. They tend to produce linear learning experiences
Presentation software – PowerPoint Great for quick sharing of information – Use presentation software for quick reinforcement or learning at the point of need – Support multichannel learning with audio, animation and video as well as text. – Tends to be linear, though with careful design need not be
Blogs – Online journals giving instant access to expert knowledge and updates. – Excellent for capturing individuals’ knowledge and sharing updates. – Blogs depend wholly on individual authors sharing their knowledge and some might find that onerous. – Others may share more than any learner really wants or needs to know. – They are highly personalised and often carry opinion more than information. – By definition, an unstructured resource, Blogs can become an overwhelming source of unstructured information. – Blog software is open source. – The question is whether your people have the time and appetite to use it.
Wiki A community website which can be edited and added to by any member – ideal for problem solving, collaboration and knowledge management. Wikis are a good method for constructing and maintaining knowledge bases. They are a dynamic resource which different groups can maintain and add to. Wikis are unstructured If there are version control issues or an organisation is geared up to maintain strict controls on practice, a Wiki may be too freeform and the overhead of maintenance may be too much. It’s just a question of right subject, time and will.
Email E-mail is an ideal performance support tool. It allows content to be shared just in time As direct channel to learners in the organisation, e- mail is fantastic tool for coaching and supporting learning. E-mail can become a personal knowledge base, full of key messages, attached documents and assets it is a major communication channel, key learning content may be overlooked in the inbox melee
Virtual classroom Can be effective for coaching, knowledge sharing and practice with distributed audiences The virtual classroom comes into its own if you need to bring people together to discuss ideas, share knowledge and participate in collaborative learning. It works on a ‘one to many’ principle like any classroom event, though group interactions can be created too. Virtual classrooms are also effective for application of knowledge as case studies and scenarios can be worked through. As a recordable asset, sessions can then be archived and maintained for future reference as a searchable part of the organisation’s knowledge base. There are technical constraints. The classrooms requires a sound card, headphone and mic to be fully effective or a phone line. Many require a special plug-in which may not be acceptable within the IT environment. free or think of using Internet Chat software as a substitute
RSS (really simple syndication) RSS is an excellent and simple way to distribute information updates to people’s desk tops. Another fantastic direct channel to learners which is completely under exploited in organisations. Ideal for information updates or reinforcement of learning to groups with common skill sets. RSS is effectively communications with one way traffic, but it does offer consistent messages which can be targeted to specific groups and distributed widely. You do have to get your learners to subscribe, and if they’re unfamiliar with RSS this may not be straightforward. If you have restrictions on downloading software to your network, RSS may not be a viable option.
SMS SMS offers a broadcast approach to communications. For limited communications (reinforcement, encouragement, reminders) SMS can be a powerful communications and learning tool. For an added dimension, MMS could be used to send a rich media learning object. There are costs attached to sending SMSs and the length of text messages places a limitation on the amount of useful information which can be communicated effectively If your company is on a group mobile plan, you may be entitled to free or discounted sms messaging via their website
Web phone If you want a cheap and effective way of bring people together to collaborate with voice and real time text chat, web phones are perfect. They are an excellent alternative channel for learning, when combined with other forms of delivery. For tutorials, collaborative learning or brainstorming webphones offer a cheap and easy solution. You need an audio enabled PC and head set with microphone. Conversations aren’t captured and other collaborative tools (whiteboards, application sharing) are not always included in free software but can be added with extra plug-ins. Webphone software is free to download. Web based conversations are free too
Instant messaging tools Offer an alternative means of creating collaboration for learning. Integrated with content from other sources (e.g. PowerPoints, web pages or documents) or as a coaching tool through collaboration, instant messaging is under-used in the training world. Excellent for simple collaboration, whiteboards, application and file sharing, instant messaging can be effectively used for one to one or one to many coaching and learning support.
Screen capture tools If you need to put together a demonstration of how a screen works for systems training, screen capture tools offer a quick solution without the need for complex bespoke systems simulations. The tools provide a short cut to create just in time exploratory learning for system skills. a simple way of informing users of the key updates without having to go through a full and lengthy training package. Combined with an audio commentary or crib sheet, they can be effective.
Search engine Search engines perhaps represent most strongly the shift to new pedagogies. The internet offers a wealth of resources for just in time learning. With increasing integration with local and network search tools, you have the opportunity to push learning to the point of need. Search engines are only as good as the data they search, and the capability of the searcher to use good search terms.
Moodle – Learning Management System – As a repository for content in all sorts of media, organizing courses online and offline and for capability to track it. – http://moodle.org/ http://moodle.org/
Atutor (Authoring Tutor) – ATutor is learning content management system. – It allows you to author and structure simple content and to build a programme of learning around it. – http://www.atutor.ca/ http://www.atutor.ca/ – http://www.dokeos.com/index.php http://www.dokeos.com/index.php
Powerpoint It has powerful functionality which is often under utilized Free and no free Blogger http://www.motime.com/ http://www.blogger.com Seedwiki --- wiki Seedwiki is a free Wiki creation site. You can build as many Wikis as you want, and make them password protected. http://www.seedwiki.com/
Virtual class room Powownow is a simple conferencing system that allows voice conference and shared presentation and PDF documentation during a conference, all for free. You only pay for the phone charges (national rate.) While it doesn’t have the full functionality of the virtual classroom, it does a lot of what you need. http://share.powwownow.com/index.php
Omea Creating an RSS newsfeed needs some specialist knowledge and is done via xml. To receive it you need a RSS newsreader such as Omea which allows you to view messages as and when they are updated. http://www.jetbrains.com/omea/download/reade r.html http://www.jetbrains.com/omea/download/reade r.html
Skype We love Skype. Free phone conferencing software. Free calls peer to peer. It’s the daddy of the webphones. www.skype.com also consider : www.googletalk.comwww.googletalk.com
Instant messaging tools – Wink - Screen capture tools Wink is a great piece of free software that allows you to capture and comment on systems applications http://www.debugmode.com/wink/
Quiz Tool – Hot Pottatoes Hot potatoes isn’t strictly free – unless you are working in a publicly funded education institution. But the costs are relatively low and for your money you get a well specified quiz engine that will serve many of your needs for assessment and evaluation. http://www.halfbakedsoftware.com/hot_pot_lice nce.php http://www.halfbakedsoftware.com/hot_pot_lice nce.php
Survey tool Survey monkey Basic surveys (10 questions / 100 responses) are free with survey monkey. For a more powerful way of measuring opinion on key issues relating to learning, survey monkey is a good solution. http://www.surveymonkey.com
E-learning Mobile learning Distance Learning Blended Learning Online Learning Open Educational Resources (OER) Distributed Learning Virtual classroom, vitual Lab., etc.
Kapasitas TIK Unud Moodle Video conference Open Courseware Blog Wiki Facebook, twitter Youtube