Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

HUKUM LAUT INTERNASIONAL “SHIPPING” Dhiana Puspitawati.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "HUKUM LAUT INTERNASIONAL “SHIPPING” Dhiana Puspitawati."— Transcript presentasi:

1 HUKUM LAUT INTERNASIONAL “SHIPPING” Dhiana Puspitawati

2 Safety of Shipping  Kepentingan shipowners dan seafearer – safe, minimum foundering, stranding or collision  Art. 10 HSC --- Art. 94 LOSC, duties of flag state, includes regular check upon seaworthiness, qualified crews  Problem – different state different standards? –develop uniform international standards to perform safety of shipping --- mainly the work of IMO –www.imo.org

3 The IMO is the United Nation’s specialized agency, which was established on 17 March 1958 based on the Convention on the Inter- governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO). The title of this Convention was amended on 14 November 1974 to be the Convention of International Maritime Organization.

4 Safety of Shipping 1.Seaworthiness of ships 2.Collision avoidance and ships routing 3.Crewing standards 4.Establishment of navigational aids 5.Other safety measures

5 1. Seaworthiness of ships  SOLAS 1974 beserta protokol2nya  International Convention on Load Lines of 1966  1971 Agreement on Special Trade Passenger ship and its 1973 Protocol  1977 International Convention for the Safety of Fishing Vessels (belum berlaku) – outdated – Protocol 1993

6 SOLAS 1974  1974 International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea  Diamandemen oleh protokol 1978, 1988 dan more frequently – check the latest  Negara peserta SOLAS mempunyai kewajiban untuk memberlakukan ketentuan2 konvensi melalui undang2 nasionalnya terhadap kapal2 yang erlayar dibawah bendera negara ybs.

7 Continued  Law Enforcement SOLAS -- Port state control – pengawasan negara dimana kapal itu bersandar, jika diketahui kapal tsb. tdk mematuhi aturan2 konvensi ttg maintenance of safety standards, port state bisa melarang kapal tsb u/ berlayar sampai kapal tsb diperbaiki dan laik jalan – check Chapter 1, regulation 9 dan 11 SOLAS, as amended  Chapter XI, regulation 4 SOLAS

8 International Convention on Load Lines of 1966  Mengatur tentang overloading – menentukan minimum freeboard, which the ship is permited to be loaded  Law enforcementnya sama dengan SOLAS, yi dengan bantuan Port state control  Direvisi selesai pada tahun 2000

9 1971 Agreement on Special Trade Passenger ship and its 1973 Protocol Deals with the safety of ships carrying large number of unberthed passengers in special traders, such as the pilgrim trade

10 2. Collision avoidance and ships routing  Convention of the International Regulation for Preventing Collisions at Sea of Regulasi2nya di update terus dan ditambahkan sebagai annex konvensi  Konvensi ini mengatur ttg movement of ships dan hubunganya dengan kapal yang lain – includes ditujukan u/ sebisa mungkinmenghidari collisions at sea – common standards in sound and light signals  Pembuatan traffic separation scheme – walaupun tugas IMO tp negara pantai juga bisa menetapkan hal ini dengan tetap memperhatikan rekomendasi IMO (Art. 21 LOSC)—bahasan IMO competence dlm pengadopsian ALKI  IMO juga merekomendasikan deep waters route dan area mana yg hrs dihindari krn berbahaya u/ pelayaran

11 3. Crewing Standard – General Rules  Chapter V, regulation 13 SOLAS 1974 – all ships shall be ‘sufficiently and efficiently- manned’  Art. 2 (e) ILO Convention No. 147, 1976 tentang Minimum Standards in Merchant Ships – menyatakan bahwa negara peserta harus ‘ensure that seafarers employed on ships registered in its territory are properly qualified or trained for the duties for which they are engaged’  Art. 94 LOSC menyatakan bahwa flag state harus memastikan bahwa setiap kapalnya ‘is in the charge of a masster and officers who possess appropriate qualifications…and that the crew is appropriate in qualification, numbers for the type, size, machinery and equipment of the ship.’

12 Crewing Standard – Specific Rules  International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (the STCW Convention)—adopted under the IMO’s auspices (support, approval) in 1978, diamandemen thn 1995  Mengatur tentang requirement minimum yang wajib dipenuhi u/ sertifikasi master dan tingkatan pelaut lainnya guna pengawasan teknis dan navigasi

13 Enforcement of the STCW  Flag State—kerjasama dengan shipowners u/ mengadakan education and traning pelaut2  Port State Control  State party hrs memberikan detail report ttg implementasi STCW kpd IMO

14 4. Establishment of navigational aids  Includes lighthouses, lightships, buoys, radar  Negara pantai wajib memberitahukan keadaan bahaya u/ navigasi di perairannya (Art. 24 (2) LOSC)  Biaya navigational aids – tgjwb coastal state sepenuhnya (Art. 26LOSC), kecuali negara tsb ikut perkankian u/ pembagian biaya navigational aids dengan negara pengguna, ex. The 1962 International Agreement regarding the Maintenance of Certain Lights in the Red Sea  Art. 43 LOSC – ‘co-operate’ – local agreement

15 5. Other safety measures 1.The Convention on the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) 1976 – world-wide maritime communication satellite system yang sejak 1982 menghubungkan semua kapal dalma satu system 2.Plan for the establishment of a World-Wide Navigational Warning Service, IMO Assembly Resolution A.381 (X) (1977), replaced by IMO Assembly Resolution A. 419 (XI) (1979) dan Resolution A. 706 (17) (1991)

16 Other safety measures – continued. 3.The 1979 International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue Facilities – revised in International safety Management Code 1993 – incorporated in SOLAS Convention by amendments adopted in 1994 – semua perusahaan pemilik kapal hrs mempunyai safety management system – pengawasan perusahaan tsb dilakukan oleh flag state

17 Other IMO Conventions Hampir seluruh konvensi ttg maritime safety dan marine pollution (akan dijelaskan lebih lanjut) di lahirkan dubawah auspices of the IMO. IMO Convention lainnya yang relevant yaitu a.l : 1.The Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic of 1965 – menyederhanakan proses administrasi dan prosedur kapal yg berhubungan dengan kedatangan, keberangkatan, tinggalnya kapal yang sedang melakukan international voyage

18 Other IMO Conventions -- continued 2.The 1969 International Convention on Tonnage Measurement – establishes unified system of tonnage measurement 3.The International Convention for Safe Containers of 1972 – facilitates the international inter-modal transport of containers, while seeking to maintain a high level of safety in their handling 4.The 1976 Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 5.The 1957 International Convention relating to the Limitation of the Liability of Owners of Sea-going Ships 6.The 1974 Convention relating to the Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea

19


Download ppt "HUKUM LAUT INTERNASIONAL “SHIPPING” Dhiana Puspitawati."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google