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HUKUM LAUT INTERNASIONAL THE PREVENTION OF MARINE POLLUTION AND PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT HUKUM LAUT INTERNASIONAL THE PREVENTION OF MARINE.

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Presentasi berjudul: "HUKUM LAUT INTERNASIONAL THE PREVENTION OF MARINE POLLUTION AND PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT HUKUM LAUT INTERNASIONAL THE PREVENTION OF MARINE."— Transcript presentasi:

1 HUKUM LAUT INTERNASIONAL THE PREVENTION OF MARINE POLLUTION AND PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT HUKUM LAUT INTERNASIONAL THE PREVENTION OF MARINE POLLUTION AND PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT Dhiana Puspitawati, SH, LLM, PhD

2 SUMBER POLUSI LAUT: 1. Shipping 2. Dumping 3. Sea-bed Activities 4. Land-based and atmospheric pollution

3 MARINE POLLUTANTS Minyak – bukan yg paling bahaya, karena minyak dapat diuraikan oleh marine bacteria Minyak – bukan yg paling bahaya, karena minyak dapat diuraikan oleh marine bacteria Radio Active Waste – not biogradable Radio Active Waste – not biogradable Nutrients, nitrat dan phospat – dari sampah agriculture, dlm jml sedikit dapat diurai tetapi dalam jumlah besar menyebabkan infertilisation Nutrients, nitrat dan phospat – dari sampah agriculture, dlm jml sedikit dapat diurai tetapi dalam jumlah besar menyebabkan infertilisation Plastic from land and ships Plastic from land and ships In all, yang kotor biasanya coastal waters sedangkan open seas masih relatif bersih

4 Framework Hukum Internasional ttg marine pollution Customary International Law Customary International Law Treaties Treaties

5 Customary International Law Corfu Channel Case (1949): suatu negara berkewajiban untuk “not to knowingly its territory to be used for acts contrary to the rights of other States” Corfu Channel Case (1949): suatu negara berkewajiban untuk “not to knowingly its territory to be used for acts contrary to the rights of other States” Trail Smelter Arbitration (1938): “no state has the right to use or permit the use of its territory of another states’” Trail Smelter Arbitration (1938): “no state has the right to use or permit the use of its territory of another states’” Pasal 2 HSC 1958: negara harus melakukan freedom of high seas “with reasonable regard to the interests of other states in their exercise of the freedom of the high seas” Pasal 2 HSC 1958: negara harus melakukan freedom of high seas “with reasonable regard to the interests of other states in their exercise of the freedom of the high seas”

6 Thus, general rules- nya would be “States must not permit their nationals to discharge into the sea matter that could cause harm to the nationals of other states”

7 TREATIES, ada 4 kategory: 1. General Multilateral – pollution of ships (IMO) dan Dumping 2. Regional – mencakup semua sumber2 polusi, tercakup dalam satu single treaty instrument 3. Bilateral – local questions of marine pollutions 4. LOSC

8 Treaty dalam kategory regional, diantaranya: Conventions on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1974 replaced in 1992 –under the auspice of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) Conventions on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1974 replaced in 1992 –under the auspice of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution 1976, amende in 1995 bersama dengan Protokolnya ttg dumping (1976), co-operation in emergencies (1976), land-based sources (1980), speciallt protected areas ( ), sea-bed activities (1994), dan transboundary movement of hazardous waste (1996) Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution 1976, amende in 1995 bersama dengan Protokolnya ttg dumping (1976), co-operation in emergencies (1976), land-based sources (1980), speciallt protected areas ( ), sea-bed activities (1994), dan transboundary movement of hazardous waste (1996) Etc. Etc.

9 Treaty dalam kategory bilateral, diantaranya: Canada dan USA: An Agreement relating to the Establishment of Joint Pollution Contingency Plans for Spills of Oil and other Noxious Substances (1974) Canada dan USA: An Agreement relating to the Establishment of Joint Pollution Contingency Plans for Spills of Oil and other Noxious Substances (1974) Canada dan Denmark: An Agreement for Co-operation relating to the Marine Environment (1983) Canada dan Denmark: An Agreement for Co-operation relating to the Marine Environment (1983) Netherlands dan Venezuela: An Agreement establishing a Bilateral Oil Spill Contingency Plan to Protect the Coastal and Marine Environment Netherlands dan Venezuela: An Agreement establishing a Bilateral Oil Spill Contingency Plan to Protect the Coastal and Marine Environment Etc. Etc.

10 1. POLLUTION FROM SHIPS Pokok Bahasannya: Standard u/ mengurangi polusi akibat operasional kapal Standard u/ mengurangi polusi akibat operasional kapal Penegakan standard yg disebutkan pada point 1 Penegakan standard yg disebutkan pada point 1 Tolok ukur u/ menghindari accidental pollution Tolok ukur u/ menghindari accidental pollution Tindakan yang dilakukan negara pantai terhadap kerugian yang disebabkan oleh polusi di laut Tindakan yang dilakukan negara pantai terhadap kerugian yang disebabkan oleh polusi di laut Kerjasama berhubungan dengan emergency Kerjasama berhubungan dengan emergency Liability for pollution damage Liability for pollution damage

11 Standard u/ mengurangi polusi akibat operasional kapal 1954 Oil Pollution Convention— adanya tanker ships menggunakan air laut u/ballast waternya, 1954 Oil Pollution Convention— adanya tanker ships menggunakan air laut u/ballast waternya, MARPOL Convention (Internatioanl Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) MARPOL Convention (Internatioanl Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) Other Treaties—SOLAS 1974 dengan protokol2nya, IMDG Code (IMO’s International Dangerous Goods Code) Other Treaties—SOLAS 1974 dengan protokol2nya, IMDG Code (IMO’s International Dangerous Goods Code)

12 The 1954 Oil Pollution Convention Karena kondisi penggunaan air laut sbg ballast water tanker ships menyebabkan air laut tercemar, pada tahun 1960 dikembangkan alternatif u/ mencuci tank-nya yaitu dengan cara air yg berminyak dipompa ke sebuah slop tank, dimana minyak yg lebih ringan dr air akan mengapung dan pisah dr air – the almost oil free di kembalikan ke laut Karena kondisi penggunaan air laut sbg ballast water tanker ships menyebabkan air laut tercemar, pada tahun 1960 dikembangkan alternatif u/ mencuci tank-nya yaitu dengan cara air yg berminyak dipompa ke sebuah slop tank, dimana minyak yg lebih ringan dr air akan mengapung dan pisah dr air – the almost oil free di kembalikan ke laut Dgn adanya MARPOL, konvensi ini menjadi tdk berlaku bagi anggota MARPOL. Hanya 20 negara peserta konvensi 1954 yg belum mnjdi peserta MARPOL—shg mrk tetap bound by the convention Dgn adanya MARPOL, konvensi ini menjadi tdk berlaku bagi anggota MARPOL. Hanya 20 negara peserta konvensi 1954 yg belum mnjdi peserta MARPOL—shg mrk tetap bound by the convention

13 MARPOL Under the auspice of the IMO pada tahun 1973 Under the auspice of the IMO pada tahun 1973 Mengatur semua bentuk pencemaran internasional di laut yang timbul akibat aktivitas kapal selain dumping Mengatur semua bentuk pencemaran internasional di laut yang timbul akibat aktivitas kapal selain dumping Effektifitas MARPOL dibuktikan dengan adanya penurunan angka pencemaran pada tahun 1989—hampi 75% Effektifitas MARPOL dibuktikan dengan adanya penurunan angka pencemaran pada tahun 1989—hampi 75% Negara2 peserta tdk pernah membuat annual reports ke IMO seperti yg diwajibkan o/ MARPOL Negara2 peserta tdk pernah membuat annual reports ke IMO seperti yg diwajibkan o/ MARPOL

14 Other Treaties SOLAS SOLAS IMDG Code IMDG Code The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal 1989 The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal 1989 The Bamako convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa 1991 The Bamako convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa 1991

15 Penegakan standard yg disebutkan pada point 1 Yang harus diingat: 1. Harus dibedakan antara legislative jurisdiction (u/ presribe legislation) dan enforcement jurisdiction (u/ enforce legislation). u/ enforcement jurisdiction dibedakan lagi menjadi arrest jurisdiction dan judicial jurisdiction) 2. Legislative dan enforcement jurisdiction tergantung pada apakah dia negara bendera, ngr pentai atau ngr pelabuhan 3. Harus dibedakan sebelum LOSC dan customary & convention ) dan sesudah LOSC

16 Sebelum LOSC Customary: Legal jurisdiction: flag: dpt prescribe legislation di kapalnya dimanapun kapal itu berada; coastal: di TS; port: di pelabuhan dgn port’s condition of entry Legal jurisdiction: flag: dpt prescribe legislation di kapalnya dimanapun kapal itu berada; coastal: di TS; port: di pelabuhan dgn port’s condition of entry Enforcement jurisdiction: flag: u/ kekerasan diatas kapal dimnpun kpl berada— arrest di HS, TS,ports; coastal: di TS dgn penangkapan dan pemrosesan scr hukum; port: di port atau TS Enforcement jurisdiction: flag: u/ kekerasan diatas kapal dimnpun kpl berada— arrest di HS, TS,ports; coastal: di TS dgn penangkapan dan pemrosesan scr hukum; port: di port atau TS

17 Sesudah LOSC Legal jurisdiction:flag: customary+kwjban u/ adopt int.poll.regulations u/ kpl2nya; coastal: dikurangi dalam hal mcm2 regulasi polusi yg bisa diadopt tp ditambah geographical area (innocent passage, EEZ); port: tdk berubah+publicity u/ inform IMO Legal jurisdiction:flag: customary+kwjban u/ adopt int.poll.regulations u/ kpl2nya; coastal: dikurangi dalam hal mcm2 regulasi polusi yg bisa diadopt tp ditambah geographical area (innocent passage, EEZ); port: tdk berubah+publicity u/ inform IMO Enforcment jurisdiction: flag: adanya keharusan u/ enforce regulasi dimanapun kapal berada; coastal: di TS; port: dapat melakukan inspeksi fisik pada kapal, menangkap dan memroses hukum. Enforcment jurisdiction: flag: adanya keharusan u/ enforce regulasi dimanapun kapal berada; coastal: di TS; port: dapat melakukan inspeksi fisik pada kapal, menangkap dan memroses hukum.

18 Tolok ukur u/ menghindari accidental pollution Polusi paling banyak krn ketidaksengajaan – hull failure, collisions, standings Polusi paling banyak krn ketidaksengajaan – hull failure, collisions, standings MARPOL: Limtation on the size of tanks in an oil tanker and requirement for double hulls or equivalent protection MARPOL: Limtation on the size of tanks in an oil tanker and requirement for double hulls or equivalent protection Memperbaiki seaworthiness of ships, qualification of crew and regulating marine traffic in crowded waters Memperbaiki seaworthiness of ships, qualification of crew and regulating marine traffic in crowded waters

19 Tindakan yang dilakukan negara pantai terhadap kerugian yang disebabkan oleh polusi di laut Intervention convention Intervention convention LOSC LOSC Custom Custom

20 Tindakan yang dilakukan negara pantai terhadap kerugian yang disebabkan oleh polusi di laut Jk terjadi kecelakaan mk ukuran apa yg dpt diambil o/ suatu negara u/ mencegah atau mengurangi polusi? Jk terjadi kecelakaan mk ukuran apa yg dpt diambil o/ suatu negara u/ mencegah atau mengurangi polusi? Jk terjadi di TS, Coastal State dapat mengambil tindakan yg dianggap appropriate Jk terjadi di TS, Coastal State dapat mengambil tindakan yg dianggap appropriate Beyond TS – berbeda, kttn apa yg dimiliki coastal state dlm situasi spt ini? – Liberian registered Torrey Canyon, di High Seas, dibom o/ UK u/ reduce polusi, UK bring its action to IMO – Result: Adoption in 1969 of the International Ocnvention relating to intervention on the High Seas in cases of Oil Pollution Casualties. Beyond TS – berbeda, kttn apa yg dimiliki coastal state dlm situasi spt ini? – Liberian registered Torrey Canyon, di High Seas, dibom o/ UK u/ reduce polusi, UK bring its action to IMO – Result: Adoption in 1969 of the International Ocnvention relating to intervention on the High Seas in cases of Oil Pollution Casualties.

21 Intervention Convention 1969, art.1 States Parties may take such measures on the high seas as may be necessary to prevent, mitigate or eliminate grave and imminent danger to their coastline or related interests from pollution or threat of pollution of the sea by oil, following upon a maritime casualty or acts related to such a casualty, which may reasonably be expected to result in major harmful consequences. – maritime casualties: collisions, stranding and other incident.

22 Kerjasama berhubungan dengan emergency Global Convention Global Convention - General: MARPOL, LOSC -International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operate, Internatioanl Convention on Salvage, 1989 Regional Convention Regional Convention -Agreement for Cooperation in dealing with Pollution of the North Sea by Oil and other harmful substance, 1983 –North Sea dan English channel, melaporkan ke flag state adanya ancaman polusi

23 Bilateral treaties USA x Canada: Agreement relating to the establishment of Joint Pollution Contingency Plans for Spiils os Oil and other Noxious Substances, 1974 USA x Canada: Agreement relating to the establishment of Joint Pollution Contingency Plans for Spiils os Oil and other Noxious Substances, 1974 USA x Mexico: Agreement of Cooperation regarding Pollution of the Marine Environment by Discharges of Hydrocarbons and other Hazardous substances, 1980 USA x Mexico: Agreement of Cooperation regarding Pollution of the Marine Environment by Discharges of Hydrocarbons and other Hazardous substances, 1980 Canada x Denmark: Agreement for cooperation relating to the Marine Environment, Canada x Denmark: Agreement for cooperation relating to the Marine Environment, 1983.

24 Liability for pollution damage Negara ynag dirugikan sbg akibat marine pollution biasanya sulit u/ mengupayakan kompensasi, includes: (i) sulit u/ membuktikan kesalahan shipowner – require liability based on fault (ii)sulit u/ memproses scr hukum krn perbedaan sistem hukum antara shipowner dan negara yg dirugikan (iii) kompensasi yang diberikan pada negara yg dirugikan mungkin melebihi financial resources of shipowner

25 Liability for pollution damage The Civil Liability and Fund Conventions The Civil Liability and Fund Conventions Industry Liability Schemes Industry Liability Schemes Liability for radioactive matter Liability for radioactive matter

26 The International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damaga 1969 dan the International Convention on the Establishment of an international fund for compensation for oil pollution damaga 1971 Jika ada tumpahan minyak dr kapal dan menyebabkan kerugian pada wilayah/ TS negara pantai, shipowner is strictly liable, dengan 3 perkecualian: (i) akibat perang/act of God; (ii) disebabkan o/ perbuatan pihak ketiga dengan tujuan u/ merugikan; (iii) disebabkan krn kesalahan pemerintah yg bertanggungjawab u/ maintenance navigational aids.

27 Industry Liability Scheme The tanker Owners’ Voluntary Agreement concerning Liability for Oil Pollution (TOVALOP – in force since October 1969) The tanker Owners’ Voluntary Agreement concerning Liability for Oil Pollution (TOVALOP – in force since October 1969) The Contract regarding an Interim Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution (CRISTAL – in force since April 1971) The Contract regarding an Interim Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution (CRISTAL – in force since April 1971)

28 Liability for Hazardous and Noxious substances Ship owner is strictly liable

29 Liability for Radioactive matter Incident – yg bertanggung jawab a/ operator instalasi nuklir – shipownwer tdk liable u/ kapal yang memuat radioactive matter. Incident – yg bertanggung jawab a/ operator instalasi nuklir – shipownwer tdk liable u/ kapal yang memuat radioactive matter.

30 2. POLUTTION FROM DUMPING The London Convention The London Convention Regional Treaties- the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by dumping from Ships and Aircraft, 1972 (Oslo Convention) Regional Treaties- the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by dumping from Ships and Aircraft, 1972 (Oslo Convention) LOSC LOSC

31 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other matter, 1972 Defines dumping as the deliberate disposal from ships and aircraft, but excluding the disposal of wastes incidental to the normal operation fo ships and aircraft Defines dumping as the deliberate disposal from ships and aircraft, but excluding the disposal of wastes incidental to the normal operation fo ships and aircraft Membedakan wastes menjadi 3 kategory: (i) black list, (ii) grey list dan (iii) not on the black or grey list. u/ kategory (ii) dan (iii) memerlukan prior permitt. Membedakan wastes menjadi 3 kategory: (i) black list, (ii) grey list dan (iii) not on the black or grey list. u/ kategory (ii) dan (iii) memerlukan prior permitt. Peserta convensi hrs memberlakukan peraturan konvensi pada: (i) kapal dan aircarft yg didaftarkan dingrnya dan yg mengibarkan benderanya; (ii) kapal yg loading di TSnya material yg akan dibuang dan (iii) kapal dan aircarft under its jurisdiction Peserta convensi hrs memberlakukan peraturan konvensi pada: (i) kapal dan aircarft yg didaftarkan dingrnya dan yg mengibarkan benderanya; (ii) kapal yg loading di TSnya material yg akan dibuang dan (iii) kapal dan aircarft under its jurisdiction

32 LOSC -- dumping LOSC does not elaborate standards to governs dumping but it lays down a jurisdictional framework within which such standards developed in other fora LOSC does not elaborate standards to governs dumping but it lays down a jurisdictional framework within which such standards developed in other fora States must have rules to prevent, reduce or control dumping States must have rules to prevent, reduce or control dumping Dumping di TS dan ZEE dan CS tidak boleh dilakukan tanpa adanya express prior approval of coastal state. Dumping di TS dan ZEE dan CS tidak boleh dilakukan tanpa adanya express prior approval of coastal state.

33 3. POLUTTION FROM SEA-BED ACTIVITIES A. Within National Jurisdiction B. From Mining in the international sea-bed area

34 4. POLLUTION FROM LAND-BASED AND ATMOSPHER A. Land Based Source of Pollution— Paris Convention 1998, Baltic Convention, UNEP Regional Seas Agreements B. Atmospheric Source of Pollution, essentially a form of a land-based pollution – art. 212, 222 LOSC: all states prescribe and enforce legislation to prevent marine pollution from the athmosphere, applicable to the air space under their sovereignty and to their vessels and aircraft; art. 212 (3) calls for global and regional ruleas


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